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^ 



N * 

INIVERSITY Of I 
CAUiOfiNIA ) 



Or: Fraq. Iron: 







ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS 



BY 



THE AUTHOR OF 



THE HINDU PANTHEON. 

. h^^-<'< VAff 



Spoils of" the gorgeous East, whence, hidden long 
Beneath the shroud of ages, they are brought, 
With all their dazzling mystery about them, 
To raise new wonders here !" 



LONDON : 
SMITH, ELDER, AND CO., CORNHILL, 

BOOKSELLERS, BY APPOINTMENT, TO THEIR MAJESTIES.' 
1834. 



PRINTED BY A. J. VALPV, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET, 



EST/9- 



TO 

MAJOR DAVID PRICE 

OF BRECON, 
ON THE RETIRED LIST OF THE BOMBAY ARMY. 

MY DEAR PRICE, 

Accept the Dedication of this little Volume a 
very trifling testimony of that Esteem and Friendship which 
have been growing uninterruptedly, not far short of half a 
century. 

Our destinies have run nearly parallel over a conside- 
rable portion of the course of our lives. In early day we 
started as " Soldiers of Fortune" for the same country. So 
long ago as 1783 we were, though then unknown to each 
other, within gun-shot perhaps, in military operations 
against TIPPOO on the coast of Malabar. We have since 
served together in the same armies, the same detachments, 
the same garrisons, and the same regiments. We have toge- 
ther stormed the same forts have been grievously t maimed 
and mutilated in the service of our dearly beloved Country, 
and our blood has moistened the same dust. 

After an active intertropical servitude of nearly a quarter 
of a century having filled almost every staff situation of 
the same army ; having gained the same military rank ; we 
returned with an honorable competency resulting from per- 
severing industry and economy, to our native Country, on 
the same ship ; and have set up our several resting-places 
within sight of our native hills. Unwilling to be altogether 
idle or useless, we alike share in the administration of the 



157 



IV DEDICATION. 

Justice, and in the preservation of the Peace, of our respec- 
tive Counties, by acting in various Commissions under the 
Crown. 

Not unobservant while in India of the people among whom 
our early fortunes cast us, or of their languages or litera- 
ture, we have, since our return, during the lapse of another 
quarter of a century, resorted to the Press ; and have pub- 
lished to our Countrymen the results of such observances 
with this difference, that yours have been chiefly directed 
to Mahommedan, mine to Hindu literature : and with this 
farther difference ; that you have made the most of the ad- 
vantages of a good and classical education, while I have had 
to contend with the disadvantages of a bad one. You have 
drank deep, while I have only sipped at those Oriental 
Literary springs. 

They who live long must pay the sad penalties of exist- 
ence : must see their old comrades, and associates, and 
friends, fall around them. If we look back for our early 
brethren in arms where are they ? And more and more 
recently we are called to mourn over the ripened Affec- 
tions of our later years. It behoves us therefore to rivet the 
more closely the remaining links of Friendship's early chain 
and to await, in contentedness and hiimble hope, its final 
severance. 

With these sentiments and feelings towards you, My 
dear PRICE, my oldest FELLOW SOLDIER and FRIEND, I 
most cordially and affectionately say FAREWELL. 

EDWARD MOOR. 

Bealings, Suffolk, 
March 1, 1834. 



PREFACE. 



PHILOSOPHERS and Scholars produce, no doubt, 
the most useful and instructive works. But a great 
portion of Readers, however willing to be instructed, 
seek what is also amusing as well as useful. If 
only the first classes of authors were to produce 
books, the wants of a great mass of Readers would 
remain only half-satisfied. Hence other grades of 
authors are called into productive activity. Or does 
their existence create the mass of Readers ? Or do 
they act on each other? No matter: hence pro- 
ceed works of a lower but let us hope not of an 
altogether useless class : still striving to hit the 
happy old medium of " mixing the useful with the 
agreeable." 

I have, I think, observed of late an increasing 
disposition on the part of the Public to receive with 
complacency the relations of travellers and others, of 



VI PREFACE. 

personal adventures, and feelings. 1 am not aware 
that I although sufficient of a traveller to have in 
part qualified myself to ask such courtesy have 
met with many adventures or that I have been 
very observant or that I am gifted as to the means 
of communication. Still I presume to hope that I 
may be borne with when I play the egotist. I rest 
this hope, chiefly on the conscious absence of ill 
intention. 

Touching the longest article or series of Frag- 
ments of this volume on the spread of " Sanskrit 
names of Places" I have I think elsewhere noted, 
that, extensive as it is, I have not read a single 
volume or page expressly in search of them. All 
have occurred in the currency of desultory and con- 
fined reading. If the extension of that article were 
deemed desirable, synonymic instances to almost any 
length might be multiplied, both in Greece and 
Africa, and in many other I had nearly said in all 
other countries. My casually-collected examples 
are by no means exhausted. 

It may be reasonably thought that the Index to 
this little book though severely abridged is dis- 
proportionate. I took the pains to compose it, and 



PREFACE. Vll 

at much greater length, from the consideration of 
the curiosity, not to say importance, of such wide 
spread of Sanskritisms. A reader, even an Orien- 
talist, finding such words or sounds in the Index, 
might not know their " whereabout," till he seek 
in the page referred to whether they appertain to 
the geographical nomenclature of Greece, Africa, 
America, the East Indies, or other regions. Can 
the like be said of any other language ? I know 
not if the hypothesis of such spread be mine : this 
is, I believe, the first attempt to show it. And I 
farther think that the time is approaching when the 
hypothesis of such extended spread of the language 
and religion of Brahmans for their language is 
almost a necessary portion of their religion will be 
more and more developed. Such evidence will lead 
to farther matter of curiosity, interest, and im- 
portance. 



LIST OF THE EMBELLISHMENTS, 



FRONTISPIECE ....... Described in pages 

439 to 45. 50. 69. 70, 1. 
Plate Page 

f. r Fac- Simile of a Letter from! ^ , * AA ~ 
6 { Dowlut Rao Sindeah . j 6 to 11. 44o. 



1S to 22 - ^ 6 " 
III. 22 { Si fipp ^ in & g c S . & c Hyder A1 ! Y ' } 22 to 34. 445, 6, 7. 9?. 



iv. rs { **$$5>*$^' H } ^ to 79. 447. 



V. 488 f Illustrations of Indian, Egyp- ~] 

< tian, Grecian, and Chris- [> 280 to 304. 447 to 88. 
{. tian Gnostics, &c. &c. &c. j 

VI. 489 Specimen of the Koran . . 489,90. 
VII. 493 An Indian Shield . . . 491, 2, 3. 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 



FRAGMENTS FIRST. 
9^ 

ON EASTERN CORRESPONDENCE SEALS 

STONES ORIENTAL MSS. &C. &C. 

SEVERAL writers have noticed the refinements 
observable in the correspondence of Asiatics. I have 
myself had occasion to mention it at some length ; 
and, finding among my memoranda a collection of 
materials on the subjects enumerated at the head of 
this chapter, I purpose to illustrate them rather fully. 
Without much affectation of arrangement, I hope I 
may produce an article not altogether incurious or 
unprofitable. 

I will premise that between "persons of condi- 
tion "in England or France, fine gilt paper, sealed 
with the arms of the writer, is appropriate. But 
nothing farther is expected when a private gentle- 
man may address a duke or the king. Not so in 
India, as we shall presently show. Between ladies 
of rank, indeed, in these western regions of refine- 

A 



2 ORIEiNTAL FRAGMENTS. 

ment, especially between young ones, we do observe 
something farther finer note paper, tinted with 
beautifully embossed emblematic margin, sealed 
with variegated and perfumed wax, with a classical 
or antique impress, and fancifully pretty poesy. 
These, and other niceties that may not have reached 
my eye or ear, would mark an elegant attention to 
the external delicacies of style, that may remind us 
of Oriental refinement. But they still fall far short. 
Gentry of most grades among us affect, more or 
less, to imitate the higher ranks in many or most of 
the points that are above noted. Between trades- 
men, inferior paper with uncut edges, closed with a 
wafer, would, perhaps, on common occasions be 
deemed sufficient. Sometimes, however, the youth 
of this class raise themselves a step or two in the 
external forms of correspondence, and imitate the 
fashion of others we may not, in these days, nor 
peradventure in truth, say as in days of yore, " of 
their betters." They imitate the others also in learn- 
ing to dance, sing, play, draw, and certain things 
ending in -ology. In this, I am not disposed to 
blame them it arises chiefly from the commenda- 
ble desire of rendering themselves agreeable and 
attractive ; nor can I discommend a pleasing extent 
of smartness in dress and decoration. Excess, or 
the extreme in everything, is to be reprehended. We 
can, alas ! have no unmixed good. He is, perhaps, 
too fastidious, who sees first and chiefly the possible, 
lurking, remote evil in these efforts to please him. 
For myself, I cannot resist the intended effect. 
Coming once after a short sojourn and travel in 



CORRESPONDENCE. 3 

Flanders and Holland, again into France, the plea- 
sing effect of the becoming smartness of the French 
toiirmtre, &c. was such a relief after the skull-caps 
and ugly habits of the Vrows, so well depicted by 
TENIERS and his compatriots, as is not to be easily 
imagined. What, indeed, are niceties in dress, but 
amatory correspondence telegraphed ? The Hol- 
landers are strikingly contrasted to the French in 
their externals, and perhaps in their internals too. 
They are an ugly, honest, tasteless race. 

Among ourselves we thus see that different de- 
grees of refinement distinguish our external forms of 
correspondence. I may also note another or two : 
among persons of ton in London, letters or notes 
must not be sent by post. So in India, letters of 
exalted persons are sent by special messenger (I 
may, perhaps, see it fit to notice how I have had the 
honor of being the bearer of a letter from the King 
of England to the Ruler of the Mahrattas) : nor in 
London must the address of the recipient party be 
superscribed. The name is all-sufficient. It is not 
predicable that any one can be ignorant of the abode 

of " The Right Honorable The Lady Honoria ." 

" 'Twould argue one's self unknown." In the like 
feeling, the houses in Grosvenor (or, as some well- 
disposed persons of both sexes have of late years 
sought to deserve favorably of their country by 
calling it, Gravenor)' Square are not numbered. 
Little folks affect to smile at all this : and let them. 
It is an allowable revenge at their exclusion from a 
participation in these and other fashionable frivoli- 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

ties ; which few, who have a choice, abstain from on 
principle. 

Between gre^t men in the East, special messen- 
gers must convey their letters. Between kings they 
pass sometimes in great pomp, attended by magni- 
ficent presents. The letters are written on beauti- 
fully manufactured paper, besprinkled with inter- 
woven flowers, and ornaments of gold or silver. I 
do not know that I have ever seen paper more ex- 
quisitely manufactured than that on which the letters 
of exalted persons, as well as the fine specimens of 
Oriental penmanship, are written. 

The letter is rarely an autograph. Sometimes a 
particular mark or flourish is made at the top or 
bottom. This is I think called byse ; but I am not 
sure if that be an Indian or a Turkish designation : 
perhaps both. Sometimes, more especially I think 
between Mahommedans, the impression of a signet 
ring is made at the top or bottom, or side of the 
letter. This is said to be regulated by form and eti- 
quette. If to a superior, or to one to be conciliated, 
or flattered, it would be placed at the bottom ; as it 
would be from any affectation of humility. An as- 
sumption, or a decidedly real superiority, would 
induce a superior signature : lateral, equality. 

The paper marks also, in very nice distinctions, the 
grades of the parties, especially of the receiver. To 
the very exalted, that already described must be used. 
To others you may use paper of a quality superior 
to the precise rank of the party addressed ; but by 
no means of a quality inferior to his pretensions. A 



, CORRESPONDENCE. ij 

nice knowledge in these matters is of importance, and 
is an accomplishment duly studied and appreciated. 
The letter being written on paper usually about 
twelve inches long and six broad, varying to perhaps 
one-third greater extent, is re-doubled in small folds 
of about an inch : its length being the breadth of 
the paper. It is then put in an envelope of fine 
gold or silver powdered paper, about two inches 
wider than the letter : this is folded up in a peculiar 
way, not easily described, in folds of the size of the 
letter ; but the ends of the envelope are not all folded 
or doubled in, but project, as it were, beyond the folds 
or doublings-in : the enclosure is thus secured in a 
manner not admitting of easy abstraction. The last 
edge of the envelope is managed so as to end at the 
middle of the letter, and is closed with paste or size 
in its whole length. The signet-ring usually is im- 
pressed over the middle of the pasting, and generally 
contains the name and principal title of the writer 
sometimes his name only. The signet is of stone, 
cornelian, emerald, turquoise, &c. : if of metal, the 
seal is mostly in the form of a stamp ; it is dipped 
on a hard, inked cushion, leaving an impression of a 
black ground the uninked inscription white. The 
direction, or address, is then added at considerable 
length ; not, however, the name merely of the ad- 
dressed, with a handle or tail, equivalent to our Sir 
Charles, or Right Honorable, or Bart, or Esq., but 
the style and titles in full, interlarded with amplifi- 
cations and complimentary adulations. It runs 
sometimes half, sometimes the whole length of the 
letter, from right to left, in a single line. 



6 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 



Several of such letters are in my possession, from 
and to great men from the King (Great Moghul) ; 
the Governor Generals, Lords WELLES LEY and 
TEIGNMOUTH; DOWLUTRAO SINDEAH, Rajah of 
Koorg, &c. 8tc. to exalted persons. Of some of 
these we will speak more particularly presently, and 
give impressions of their seals ; but we have not yet 
done with our first subject, the letter. It is written, 
folded, closed, stamped, and directed. 

Plate I. is a well-engraved fac-simile of such a 
letter, not selected for the importance or curiosity of 
its contents, but because it is the shortest in my 
possession, and the only one that could be most con- 
veniently copied into the required size. It is from 
DOWLUT RAO STNDEAH to the Governor of Bom- 
bay, on some occasion, as will be seen, of a family 
quarrel on the sea-coast. 

It is read from right to left, beginning at the right 
of the top line. The Alif 1 at top is the initial of 
Allah, the reverenced name in, and with, which all 
Mahommedans with any pretensions to piety (and 
they are among the most religious of mankind) com- 
mence every undertaking, important or otherwise. 
The anomaly of such an invocation in a letter from a 
Mahratta to a Christian will be noticed hereafter. 

It is written in Persian, in the hand called 
Shekesteh, or broken, or, as we should call it, run- 
ning ; carelessly pointed, on very fine smooth paper, 
covered with an interwoven besprinklement of silver 
dust. The paper is just twelve inches long, and six 
and a half wide. The writing occupies something 
more than a quarter of the paper, the left hand 



Or. -Frag 
M.I. 






CORRESPONDENCE. 7 

bottom quarter. The I is at the very top in the ori- 
ginal, in the engraving brought down to the wri- 
ting. 

In the Plate it has been necessary to place the 
address on its end in the margin. It is written in 
the same broken, running hand ; in which the letters 
are strangely transformed, almost ad libitum, the 
short vowels or diacritical points omitted, or mis- 
placed, or mis-written, with other puzzlings to a 
tyro. A practised friend thus translates it for me. 

Address on the envelope placed upright in 
Plate I. 

" Let this come under the consideration of the be- 
nefactor of his friends, the distinguished in the state, 
the Amein (conservative governor) of the country en- 
trusted to his care, Ounahty (a word obscurely writ- 
ten it may be Onatun, and an initial J has perhaps 
been omitted these supplied, we may read JON A- 
THAIS)DUNCA N the renowned, the lion in battle 
on whom be peace from the Most High. 

" Sir, the benefactor of your friend peace be with 
you from the Most High the noble and exalted in 
dignity BABU RAOANGRIAH, invested with confi- 
dence on my part, recently dispatched a certain Cheilah 
(a slave or a freedman) of his own of the name of JEY 
SING RAO, for the purpose of regulating and ad- 
justing some affairs of the fortress of Callian (this 
word is as much like Colabah) and the districts de- 
pendent on it. The said personage, accordingly, on 
his arrival, took possession of the country, moreover 
advancing batteries against the fort. But according 
to the sordid and contracted character, which is pe- 



8 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

euliar to himself, the said RAO, revolting from his 
allegiance to the noble and exalted in dignity, above 
named, and with views of worldly interest, and worse 
than this might have been expected from his habits, 
has proceeded to sow dissension ; apparently relying 
upon the assistance of the English Company, ever 
renowned, to aid him in the reduction of the said 
fortress. Now the relations between the two Sirkars 
(governments that is, Sindeah's and the English) 
being in unison, and having due regard to the har- 
mony thus subsisting, means have been forwarded to 
chastise the said revolter, and to remedy the dis- 
orders of which he has been the occasion. Therefore 
it is that I have employed the pen to express a de- 
sire that in no shape shall such aid or assistance be 
ever extended to him, and that in no case shall any 
reliance be ever placed in his insidious represen- 
tations. What more should I write ? " 

The last sentence is in the margin of the MS. as 
in the plate in the latter divided by a faint line 
from the external address. The broad dark charac- 
ter at the extreme end may be a mark merely of 
termination ; but it is rather supposed to be DOWLUT 
RAO'S autograph. 

The exterior signet-seal of the letter is placed at top 
of the plate, and may be thus read and translated : 



" 36. Chief Governor of Kingdoms the beloved son 
of eminent station Maharajah DOWLUT RAO 
SINDHEAH, Bahadur, 1208." A. H. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 9 

Maharajah is equivalent to great prince. DOWLUT 
RAO and his predecessor were usually so called, 
and addressed ; abbreviated to Meraj. The 36 is 
the date of the reign of the King, by whom these 
titles were granted the late SHAH A ALUM. Of 
this more presently, 

In reading the impression of this seal, you begin 

at the bottom on the right. Reaching the ivJl 

you stop, and go to the second line, where the < $ 
is elongated its whole length, the line having but 
two letters. You must then return to the lower line, 
and read to the end ; skip the second line, read the 
whole of the third, skip the fourth, read the fifth or 
top line till you come to the last syllable of SIN- 
DEAH, then read the fourth, which comprises but 

three letters C^J Baha, and finish with the ^ dur, at 
top. 

All this may seem complicated and difficult; and 
doubtless is so, to novices ; but by those ac- 
customed to it, it is as currently read as a news- 
paper; by Sir GORE OUSELEY, for instance, and 
Major PRICE. 

The observable anomaly of Indian Courts and 
diplomatists, be they Christian, Mahommedan, or 
Hindu, communicating with each other in the Per- 
sian language, even where both parties may be 
wholly ignorant of it, has been adverted to. In the 
south of India, except about the Mahommedan 
Courts of Hydrabad and (late) Seringapatam, Per- 
sian scholars are rarely met with. Here and there 
a Mahommedan munshi, or writer, or teacher, may 



10 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

be found in the service of a native prince or others ; 
also a Mahommedan gentleman who understands 
Persian, and perhaps more or less of Arabic ; but 
such persons are not common. A good reader of the 
Koran does not necessarily imply that its language 
is understood, even by him ; ninety-nine times in 
a hundred, its hearers are altogether ignorant in 
that particular. Hindu rulers, commanders, and 
other great men who may have occasion to correspond 
with their equals, mostly employ a Mahommedan 
penman. I do not recollect that I ever met with 
more than one Hindu skilled in Persian : he was a 
Brahman, in the service of my old Brahman mili- 
tary commander, PURSERAM BHOW, (PARASU 
RAM A-BHAO). He was also my munshi, or teacher, in 
Persian, and my guru in Hinduism. His name was 
Mo HUN LAL. I name him with pleasure; for I 
felt and feel myself under deep obligation to him ; 
for when I was lying grievously wounded, he rode 
fifty miles at considerable personal risk, through an 
enemy's country, solely to visit me ; and on taking 
leave, thinking or fearing that in such a strange 
country, in such strange times, and under such 
strange circumstances, in a remote Mahratta town, I 
might be in want of means, pressed on me with the 
most delicate apologies a purse of gold. I dis- 
tressed him by persisting in not taking it : the odds 
were greatly against our again meeting on this side 
the moon ; for my wound was a bad one, and the 
coming events were strangely fore-shadowed. We 
did, however, meet; and I keep with affectionate 
remembrance, a copy of HAFEZ, one of the most 



CORRESPONDENCE. 11 

beautiful manuscripts I ever saw, a present from that 
kind friend. If alive, may prosperity be with him 
if dead, peace ! 

Although natives see fit to employ writers in a 
foreign unknown language, the English do not labor 
under that disadvantage. So many of the East- 
India Company's civil and military servants are 
completely skilled in Persian, and other languages, 
that it is not difficult to find gentlemen, so quali- 
fied, for the various diplomacies and missions at and 
to all the Courts of India. Thus, my kind friend 
Mr,. DUNCAN, to whom the noticed letter was 
addressed, was an elegant Persian scholar ; but his 
exalted correspondent, DOWLUT RAO SINDEAH, 
knew not a letter of it. 

This comprises, I think, all that I have to say on 
the subject of Plate I. 

Our letter being written, folded, closed, stamped, 
and directed, is put into a loose bag of fine muslin, 
which is placed in another bag, of ample size, in 
reference to its contents, say a foot long and three 
inches in width. This bag is made of a very rich 
stuff called kamkhab, by us usually kincob. It is of 
silk, red generally, sometimes blue, embroidered in 
gold or silver, mostly of gold, with flowers, some- 
times so fall as to show but little silk. This bag is 
called kharita. Men and women's dresses are some- 
times made of this rich stuff, especially trousers, 
pajama, sometimes coats : it is very gorgeous 
cushions, pillows, palky-bedding, &c. are also 
covered with it. In the khelaat, or honorary dress, 
so often given by great men to visitors of note, a 



12 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

piece of kamkhab for the trousers is usually one of 
the five, seven, nine, or more pieces of which the 
khelant, according to the rank of the parties, is com- 
posed. 

The compound name e.->UrP kamkhab, which has 
rather forcibly been translated restless, sleepless, 
dreamless, is said to have been given to this rich 
stuff, from its uncomfortable roughness to the 
touch ; but it is perhaps a fanciful derivation. 
Sheets made of it would certainly induce deficiency 
of rest, the literal meaning of its name. But, in 
truth, the derivation may be rejected. Sleepless or 

dreamless is spelt L-jl^sv* not L >Ls-P as above. 

The top of the kharita being securely tied about 
two or three inches down, with a slight long string 
of silk and gold twist, tasselled at the ends, the 
string is passed through a flat mass of red wax, im- 
pressed with the great or state seal of the writer. 
The tassels showing themselves beyond the seal 
sometimes contain in a knot a slip of paper tied 
round its middle. On this slip is written the name 
and short principal title of the writer. Of these 
some specimens will be given. 

The spread of wax is regulated by the size of the 
seal from one inch to four or more inches in dia- 
meter, and from the thickness of a dollar to a quar- 
ter of an inch. It is skilfully managed, exhibiting 
a pretty exact circle, with smooth even edges, or 
oval, or polygonal, as the seal may be shaped ; but 
most commonly round. 

The kharita thus prepared is put all together, seal 



Or:Fraq. 



















SEALS. 13 

and all, into another bag of fine white muslin, and is 
ready for the hand of the special messenger. 

It remains to describe more particularly these 
great seals of great men. The central subject of 
Plate II. is an exact representation of the seal of 
DOWLUT RAO SINDEAH, of whom the world has 
heard so much, and will hereafter hear so little, ap- 
pended to the Letter of Plate I. It is four and a half 
inches in diameter the wax a quarter of an inch 
thick. Nothing can exceed the accuracy of the 
engraver, l nor, I think, the beauty of his execution 
of this as well as the other subjects of this book, 
which bear his name. 

The impression of this seal is easily read. Be- 
ginning at the bottom on the right, it runs to the left, 
upwards, thus : 



ri (j 



Uw Jib 



^5-jli xU, jb Jlc ^li, /r*A 

It is well cut not, I should think, in the Dekkan. 
At Hydrabad, and Surat, and perhaps at Aurun- 
gabad, artists may, however, be met with capable of 
such work. 

1 Mr. Swaine of Queen Street, Golden Square. 
B 



14 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Such Sanskrit words as Sri Nath and Pundit 
Purdhan, look awkwardly in Persian, and might 
puzzle a mere Isfahani, or a Shirazi ; but an Indo- 
Persian recognizes them immediately. And, it may 

be asked, how came the Persian word c^-ojJ dowlut, 
wealth, to appear as the proper name of a Mahratta? 
I am not aware that it has any relationship with 
the Sanskrit. In an earlier work, published nearly 
forty years ago, I have shown the proneness of 
the Mahrattas to borrow vocables from any other 
language. From Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, 
English, and probably others, numerous words are 
legitimatized into theirs. I do not immediately 
recollect any Mahommedan proper name at all con- 
nected with Sanskrit, or any language strictly Hindu 
nor, indeed, any other Hindu having a Persian 
proper name (independently of titular acquirement) 
except DOWLUT RAHU SINDEAH. 

A learned friend has favored me with the follow- 
ing excellent translation of this great seal of this 
(once but like NAPOLEON, he came once into hostile 
contact with WELLINGTON, and therefore this once) 
great man : 

" Pillar of Nobles among sons most distinguished 
Exalted in Dignity Maharajah DOWLUT RAO 
SINDEAH, Bahadur (renowned warrior) to the 
Divine Nat ha Conqueror of the age Lieutenant, 
with powers unlimited Minister absolute Lord of 
Lords Son, among the excellent, most excellent, of 
the sublime in dignity, Pundit Purdhan (pre-eminent 
divine) Maharajah Dehraj Sevai MADHU RAQ 



SEALS. 15 

NARRAYEN Bahadur Servant, devoted to SHAH 
AALUM, Emperor Victorious" (over infidels). 

In the right-hand upper corner is the date of the 
Hejra 1208, corresponding to 1793 A. I). To the 
left of the second line from the bottom is 36 the 
year of the long reign of poor SHAH AALUM 
(" Emperor Victorious !") 

DOWLUT RAO must at the above period, 1793, 
have been a mere lad. I first saw him in 1796, and he 
was then a very young man under twenty perhaps. 

In cutting these seals, the artists seem to put the 
dates where most convenient the 36 is in the mid- 
dle of the word Natha. They like to make, by a 
sort of arbitrary nourish, letters to run backwards or 
forwards, wholly across. In this seal four run back- 
wards, and one forward for which, save for appear- 
ance, there was no occasion. 

Showing, since this was written, my pretty plate 
to another friendly and accomplished Orientalist, he 
favored me with another translation of SINDEAH'S 
great seal, as follows : 

" The Pillar of Nobles the beloved Son, of emi- 
nent station Maharajah DOWLUT RAU SINDEAH 
Bahadur Sri Nath, the victorious of the age, the 
Minister with absolute power, supreme Deputy of 
the Lord of Lords, the most particularly beloved 
Son, of the highest rank, Pandit Pardhan Mahara- 
jahdiraj Sevai MADHU RAU NARAIN BAHADUR, 
vassal of SHAH AALUM, King, Hero of the Faith." 
A. Hejiri 120836 of his reign. 

The MADHU RAO of this seal was Peshrca when 



16 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

I first visited Poona. His brief history is somewhat 
singular. I may devote a future page to it. 

I have now pretty well done with the first general 
subject of Indian Correspondence, and with SIN- 
DEAH'S seal, in particular. The other figures of 
Plate II. remain to be described. But before I de- 
scribe them I have a few remarks to offer on the 
acquisition of titles from the King (Great Moghul) 
by the other sovereigns or rulers of India, Ma- 
hommedan and Hindu, as well as by individuals of 
almost every nation and religion, and of almost every 
rank. 

These titles are high-sounding, as may be seen 
above, and according, more or less, with the rank of 
the honored not, however, very exactly. It has, 
indeed, been said, that of the later years of poor 
SHAH AALUM, the fees on these titles were actually 
of importance to him as revenue ; and that a douceur, 
well applied, would obtain a title beyond the real 
rank of the aspirant. This, to a certain degree, 
may be true ; but it would be manifestly absurd to 
grant such titles as those of SINDEAH to any but a 
puissant personage. To him even the total absence 
of absurdity may not be at once conceded. It should 
be recollected, however, that SINDEAH was at that 
time, as was his predecessor, indeed a mighty Sove- 
reign, wielding despotically the potencies of immense 
armies overawing all the powers of India, save the 
English, including his own immediate superior, the 
Peshwa, the "MADHU RAO NARRAIN, Pundit 
Purdhan " of the seal ; and the Badshah himself, the 



TITLES. 17 

aged, blinded, reduced, SHAH A ALUM ; whom he 
held in a direct state of thraldom, comfortless to the 
unhappy King, and not honorable to himself. 

His predecessor, MADAJEE SINDEAH, was the 
master-mind that did all this for DOWLUT RAO, his 
adopted ; he rescued the King from a tenfold depth 
of misery and degradation in the hands of the 
infamous, beyond all names for infamy, G HO LAM 
KHADIR, and left a mighty sway to DOWLUT 
RAO. It is said that he, as HYDER did to his son 
TIPPOO, cautioned the ministers and guardians of his 
adopted I believe nephew, and the lad himself, 
to avoid, to the last effort, hostility with the English. 
MADAJEE SINDEAH and HYDER were master- 
minds, fitted to raise themselves to empire Do w LUT 
RAO and TIPPOO, from different reasons, were like- 
lier to lose it. 

It was to MADAJEE SINDEAH, probably, that the 
titles of Ameer al Omra, and Wakeel Motluck, were 
granted. The first, " Lord of Lords," may have 
been merely complimentary ; but Wakeel Motluck, 
u Lieutenant, with powers unlimited," is, as I have 
known in another, a substantive patent, giving ex- 
traordinary power to a minister. 

Many Englishmen, residents in India, have re- 
ceived these patent titles of honor from the reigning 
King. Persons of high rank, Governor-Generals, 
Governors, Commanders-in-Chief, Ambassadors at 
different courts; and others of inferior dignity, 
aggregately a great many, have received them. At 
native durbars, or courts, you take precedence in 



18 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

conformity with the grade of your a1khaab t or hono- 
rary title. But I believe this is confined to Mahom- 
medan durbars. At the native courts I have heard 
the entree of these title-bearing nobles announced in 
a very flourishing style by the full-mouthed proper 
officers ; who so well know how to make the most of 
the most pompous titular phraseology. After such 
fine high-sounding grandiloquence, I have seen 
enter, literally, a " gentleman without a shirt," 
as CRISPIN HEELTAP puts back in the "Mayor 
of Garrat." But he was, notwithstanding, a man 
pf note; wearing, albeit shirtless, a sword and 
shield, on which alone the haughty warrior plumed 
himself. 

I once, when residing at a native court, had the 
ambition I will not give it POPE'S prefixture in his 
invocation to St. JOHN to become an Omrah of the 
Moghul empire. Mentioning it one day to my kind 
and much-lamented friend General PALMER, one of 
the most noted and skilled of Eastern diplomatists, 
he offered to procure me a title from Dehli, where he 
was very influential. But if it was ever conferred, 
I never received it. I was removed from the pre- 
sence of my friend he was immersed in the turmoil 
of important state affairs, and I in matters of less 
moment, but not less incessant times and circum- 
stances changed my alkhab was perhaps forgotten 
my friend died and I am still a commoner, 
whether at the court of Dehli, or elsewhere. 

My highly-gifted friend also undertook to pro- 
cure for me from the archives of Dehli, a list of all 



TITLES. 19 

the Europeans on whom titles and honors had been 
bestowed by the kings of India, with those titles at 
length. In my thirst for collecting, I thought such 
a list, with a translation, like the foregoing, of the 
high-sounding honors so conferred on my country- 
men, and a brief memoir of such as I could learn 
any thing of, might be entertaining ; but, like my 
own alkhab, if ever made, such document did not 
reach me. 

These honors have not been confined to the 
English Frenchmen, Portuguese, Italians, Ameri- 
cans one instance only is known to me of the last 
have received them. To some I have known them 
give pleasant and profitable precedence at court. 
Mahommedans, speaking of such individuals, give 
them their native titles ; dropping their European 
names. I have heard such a person have the insolence 
to call Lord CORNWALLIS by his Dehli title of 

and DOWLUT RAO SINDEAH by his, of 

3 

\j^\ CL?^ Omdut al Omra pillar of nobles. 

I may dilate farther hereon in another page ; but 
I rather wish to return hence to Plate II., and to 
make an end of what I have to say specifically on 
that plate. 

No. 2. is the seal of my much-respected and ac- 
complished friend, the Right Honorable Sir GORE 
OUSELEY, Bart., containing the titles conferred on 
him by the king SHAH AALUM. It is, like the 
others, an exact fac-simile of his seal, which is cut 
in a white agate. 



20 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Reading, as before, from the right at bottom, it 
runs thus : 



; lv< ^Al! 

Imtiaz ud Dowlah mumtaz ul mulk GORE 
OUSELEY, 1212, Bahadur Zuflfer Jung. 

" The Distinguished of the State the Exalted of 
the Kingdom GORE OUSELEY Bahadur (Hero) 
Victorious in War." 1212 A. H. 1797 A. D. 

Or, as translated by another skilled hand, thus : 
" Pre-eminent in the State Distinguished in the 
Realm GORE OUSELEY Behadur Victorious in 
Battle." 

This seal is well and beautifully cut by a Lucknow 
artist of celebrity. 

No. 3. of the same Plate II. is a curious specimen 
of a whimsical style of writing and graving, in which 
Arabians I think more particularly delight and ex- 
cel. Persians and Indians imitate them success- 
fully. It is called toghra, or flourished. The writing 
reads the same, backwards or forwards and the 
art seems to rest on making the letters, of which the 
words or names are compounded, as difficult to read 
as possible, by unexpected and whimsical, and some- 
times scarcely authorized, combinations. I shall 
leave it to the ingenuity of my readers to find this 
out. It is not difficult ; as the letters of the names 
are not very tractable as to combinable facilities 
the four medials, out of the eight letters, resist union 
with their neighbours. The first and last two are 
more tractable. The date is 1211 A. H. of A. D. 
1796. It is a cornelian seal. 



SEALS. 21 

By way of filling up the Plate, three more im- 
pressions of seals are given below. 

The central, No. 5, is cut on a topaz, set in a ring, 
with this inscription, in Sanskrit : 

" Sri KRISHNA sahai GORE OUSELEY." That 
is, " GORE OUSELEY the favored of the Holy 
KRISHNA." 

The other two at the bottom of this Plate, Nos. 4 
and 6, I shall leave unexplained, to be made out, 
which is easy enough, by the reader. No. 4. is on 
a cornelian called yemeni, the finest kind : it is a 
ring. No. 5. is a stamp seal the dates 1212 and 
1210 A. H., corresponding with 1797 and 1795 
A. D. A critical reader will perceive that in SIN- 
DIAH'S great seal the initial of MADHU in the second 

line is not strictly correct, being l> instead of U . 
But the original seal, of which I have two impres- 
sions, is exactly copied. 

I will here interpolate the remark that Indian wax 
is so hard as not to yield to the climate. Impres- 
sions can be preserved through the hot seasons, and 
for many years. I have many that I have had thirty 
or forty years, as sharp as ever. English wax yields 
to a very little heat 100 degrees, perhaps, or less. 
I remember when I was a postmaster in India, the 
use of wax on letters crossing the peninsula, or for 
despatch by the overland packets to England, was 
interdicted. English wax is sent out in great quan- 
tities, and is chiefly used, officially and privately, in 
India while the country wax is so much better and 
cheaper. 



22 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

This is all that I have to say on the immediate 
subject of Plate II. 

We turn now to Plate III. This I reckon a very 
beautifully executed work of art, as relates to the 
engraving, and filled with curious and valuable sub- 
jects. No. 1. is Sifac-simile impression of the signet- 
ring usually worn by the lately renowned, now half- 
forgotten, HYDER ALLY, first Sultan of Mysore. It 
is characteristic of HYDER plain, useful, and 
unostentatious. It is a common red cornelian, set in 
silver, with black enamel. It has this inscription 
read from the top : " HYDER ALI KHAN Bahadur. 
1173." This corresponds with A. D. 1759. A 
figure 6 is observable about the middle. This may 
be the year of his assumption of the style of sove- 
reignty. 

This ring, together with the subjects 2. 3. 4. 5. and 
6. which will be noticed presently, were found among 
the booty captured with Seringapatam, and were 
purchased at the prize sales by Major PRICE, prize 
agent for the Bombay army. They are still in his 
possession. He has favored me with impressions. 
The subjects themselves have been, indeed, years in 
my possession. 

No. 2. is the seal-ring of TIP POO. It is cut on 
deep red, liver-coloured, cornelian, set in gold. It 

bears simply ^UaLw j TIPPOO SULTAN, with 
the date 1215, and prettily beflowered. But in this 
instance the date is not of the Hejra, or Flight ; and 
is perhaps the only instance of a Mahommedan pre- 
suming to alter that universally received and re- 




! b* o^ I AjeJuJ *) t 





SEALS. 23 

vered era. TIPPOO invented and used an era of his 
own. Ignorance on this point led me, on a former 
occasion when I published and descanted on TIP- 
POO'S coins and coinage, into various surmises on so, 
then, unaccountable an anomaly ; but the subsequent 
publication of WILKS' South of India, and MARS- 
DEN'S Numismata Orientalia, has fully cleared the 
subject of all embarrassment and difficulty. I pur- 
pose, in another place, to devote a page or two to 
this matter of chronology, and some others con- 
nected with it. 

No. 3. of Plate III. has no immediate legendary 
connexion with TIPPOO or his family. Having 
been found, and being kept, among such subjects, 
and having probably been engraved by the command 
of TIPPOO, and used by him, or one of his family, it 
has found a place in my pretty plate. 

It is a seal of yellow cornelian, set in gold, bearing 
the date of 1199 A. H. (here) corresponding with 
1784. It has this inscriptionread from the top : 

^&- < *}f^, Ya maroof Kirkhee. " O, thou ! 
who wast manifested at Kirkh." 

This is reasonably supposed to refer to the 7th 
Imaum, MOUSSA al KAUZEM, who is buried at 
Kirkh, a suburb of Baghdad. He was poisoned by 
KHALED, one of the Barmecides, in the reign and 
through the jealousy of HARUN RASHID. 

It is probable that TIPPOO, in a pious or fearful 
feeling, may have thus and otherwise invoked the 
blessing or protection of the holy martyr on himself, 
or one of his family, on the occasion of a birth, per- 



24 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

haps, or some impending danger. But this is mere 
conjecture, 

No. 6. contains the same invocation, on a smaller 
scale, differently written. This is to be read from 
the bottom. The date is the same as on TIPPOO'S 
ring, 1215. This may have appertained to another 
of the family. 

No 4. is a gold ring, with a yellow cornelian, en- 
graved with the name of &*$ ^j^ Mo HI ud 

DEEN, one of TIPPOO'S sons which, in the order 
of succession, does not immediately occur to me ; but 
he was, I think, one of the two hostages surrendered 
by TIPPOO to Lord CORNWALLIS, for the due per- 
formance of the first Seringapatam treaty of peace of 
1792. The date of the ring is 1218 read the wrong 
way, it is true but if read the other, it would carry 
us out of all chronological bounds. It is of his 
father's era ; for if taken as of the Hejra, it would 
correspond with A. D. 1803, four years after the 
subversion of his father's power and the duration of 
his life. 

Of this prince Mom ud DIN, this anecdote may 
be worth relating. 

To arrange and catalogue the vast amount of pro- 
perty captured at Seringapatam, to make it avail- 
able for sale, or division among the captors, skilled 
individuals were selected. Major, since Major- 
General, OGG of the Madras establishment, and 
Major PRICE of Bombay, were selected to inspect 
and arrange TIPPOO'S splendid and invaluable 
library. While engaged in this interesting employ- 



SEALS. 25 

ment, the prince Mo HI ud DIN (who, with the rest 
of the royal family, were under liberal surveillance) 
came into the library ; and, after observing some 
time in silence, was overheard muttering at his de- 
parture, " Look at those hogs ! polluting my father's 
books." Poor youth ! it may easily be forgiven 
him. His name means " Restorer of Religion." 

No. 5. of Plate III. has no other relationship to 
TIPPOO than as having, like Sand 6, been found as- 
sorted, purchased, and kept with the same lot. It 
is a small gold ring of yellow cornelian. The fol- 
lowing names are almost illegibly engraved or 
scratched on it, 



ALLAH MA HO MM ED ALI FATIMA HUSSEN 
HUSSEYN : being the Deity, and the holy family. 
It may have been worn as an amulet not used as a 
seal for the engraving on the stone reads unre- 
versed, as in the Plate. 

It is a curious subject. Women are very rarely 
brought to notice or recollection by Mahomedans. 
FATIMA, it may be scarcely necessary to note, 
was the daughter of the prophet, the wife of the 
great ALI, and the mother of HUSSEN and 
HUSSEYN, who were most atrociously murdered 
by the infamous YEZZID. No human being, 
probably, that ever existed, has had so much 
execration heaped upon him, or more deservedly, 
than the said murderer. The copious subject of 
the fate of these martyrs on which more pathetic 
poems and essays have been composed, and more 

c 



26 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

feelingly recited, and more tears shed, than on any 
other, perhaps, since the fall of man may probably 
invite re-attention in a future page. At present I 
shall only stop to add that the memory of F ATI MA, 
the prophet's beloved daughter, the " Mother of 
the Faithful," is held in deep respect. This may 
be supposed, when the character given of her by the 
prophet is to this effect that " he had known many 
really good or perfect men but only four faultless 
women:' 7 these were ASIA the wife of PHARAOH, 
the Virgin MARY, KADIJAH the daughter of KHO- 
w AILED (the prophet's first wife), and his own 
daughter FATIMA. 

We will now turn to No. 7. of Plate III. This is 
a representation of a very curious and valuable sub- 
ject. It is an agate, or cornelian, most elaborately 
and beautifully cut to a degree, I think, exceeding 
any 1 have ever seen of a like nature. It was pur- 
chased by a deceased friend in Persia. It was 
shown by a common friend, in whose hand I placed 
it for that purpose, to Professor LEE, who returned 
it with this memorandum : 

" The inscription round the border contains the 
opening chapter of the Koran, very beautifully an4 
correctly written. The inscription in the middle 



compartment is <xU! ^- cK^M i. e. ' The (person) 

confiding in God.' The stone itself is probably an 
amulet, and perhaps has been worn for preservation 
against evil spirits, 8cc. Cambridge, 4th December, 
1830." 

Another orientalist calls it "a very rare and 



STONES. 27 

curious relique, if it be, as I conceive it, an amulet 
once worn on the arm of MUTUWUKKEL,* the tenth 
Khalifofihe house of ABBAS." He adds, " I can- 
not conceive that any thing could have been better 
executed than this engraving." 

The part left white in the Plate is finely polished 
on the stone, and raised, by the cutting away and 
sinking of the dark ground. The central words are 
AL MUTUWUKKEL ALI ALLAH. This was the 
name and title assumed by ABUL FAZEL JAFFEK 
with the Khalifat in the year 232 A. H. 847 A. D. 
In PRICE'S Retrospect II. 151. his name or title is 
translated *' Confident in GOD;" or perhaps more 
properly, Deo delegatus, " delegated from GOD." 
He was very intolerant, especially of Jews and Chris- 
tians, on whom he heaped many indignities. He did 
not stop there. In his imbecility and ferocity, he 
forbade the pilgrimage to Kerbela, and caused the 
sacred repository of the ashes of HUSSEYN and the 
other martyrs interred there to be razed. 

After numberless follies and enormities he was put 
to death, at the age of forty, in the fifteenth year of 
his reign. 

The chapter of the Koran encircling the words of 
the name of this ill-fated Kha/if, the ignominy of the 
house of the Abhasides, is finely graved ; but as the 
liberties taken by fine Arabic penmen with the com- 
binations of their letters are somewhat arbitrary, 
and not, in such cases as this, easily made out, I 

1 If this be admissible, this will, indeed, be a rare relique. 
And why not ? Who would thus embalm the hated memory 
of such a monster ? 



28 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 



have put the flourished Arabic into a more readable 
form in the three lines lower in the Plate. Thirty 
or forty years' want of practice has, however, ren- 
dered my penmanship in such matters not very 
praiseworthy, whatever it may once have been. 

A critical reader may, perhaps, suspect inaccuracy, 
in my having placed the ill! ^ last, instead of first. 

The first critic that I showed. it to, did indeed remark 
it : and he may be right. Every chapter of the 
Koran, save one, is prefaced with it- I examined 
two Korans which had not the bismillah at their 
beginning ; but on looking at three others, they have 
it. The 9th chapter is the only one without it. 

The following is the account which I find among 
my memoranda, touching the inscription before us. 

It comprehends the introductory or opening chap- 
ter of the Koran. This chapter is called al Fatihat, 
meaning the Preface, or Introduction. It was re- 
vealed to MAHOMMEU at Mecca. The chapter 
being so short, is in use as a prayer, and held in 
great veneration. It has several other titles, mean- 
ing the chapters of prayer, of praise, of thanks, of 
treasure, &c. all denoting veneration. It is es- 
teemed as the quintessence of the whole Koran, and 
is repeated both in public and private, as the Chris- 
tians do the Lord's Prayer. 

The impression has not as an invocation the usual 

formula of +**$ cr* 5 ^ *^ f***^ common to every 
chapter of the Koran, save one. Here it is a termi- 
nus. This sentence is pronounced by Mahommedans 
all the world over, on every important occasion, and 



STONES. 29 

on many, especially the first words ill) **> bismiUah, 
altogether unimportant. It is with them as the sign 
of the cross with papists. It means, " In the name 
of GOD the Merciful the Compassionate." 

GIAAB, a celebrated Arabic writer, relates that 
" when these words were sent from heaven, the 
clouds fled on the side of the East, the winds were 
lulled, the animals erected their ears to listen, and 
the devils were precipitated from the celestial 
spheres." 

,^^1x1! L-J^ rabbi 'lalamin, with which the chapter 

opens for <idJ] J^l is merely invocatory similarly 
meaning "Praise be to God," and is similarly 
often in the mouth of " the faithful " signifies " Lord 
of the worlds ;" but dlamina, in this and other 
parts of the Koran, probably means the three species 
of rational creatures men, genii, and angels. 

On this text some European writers have en- 
deavoured to prove that MAHOMMED believed in a 
plurality of worlds. In S A VARY'S translation it is 
" Sovereign of the worlds." 

This is SALE'S translation of the 1st chapter of 
the Koran, entitled the Preface or Introduction. 

"In the name of the most merciful God. Praise 
be to GOD, the Lord of all creatures ; the most mer^ 
ciful, the king of the day of judgment. THEE do 
we worship, and of thee do we beg assistance. Di~ 
rect us in the right way, in the way of those to 
whom thou hast been gracious ; not of those against 
whom thou art incensed, nor of those who go 
astray." 



30 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

The last sentence, SALE informs us, contains a 
petition that the suppliants may be led into the true 
religion ; by which is meant the Mahommedan, in 
the Koran often called " the right way." In this 
place it is more particularly denned to be " the way 
of those to whom the Most Merciful hath been gra- 
cious " that is, of the prophets and faithful who 
preceded MAHOMMED : under which appellation 
are also comprehended the Jews and Christians, 
such as they were in their primitive purity ; before 
they had deviated from their respective institutions : 
not the way of the modern Jews, whose signal ca- 
lamities are marks of the just anger of GOD against 
them for their obstinacy and disobedience nor of 
the Christians of this age, who have departed from 
the true doctrine of JESUS, and are bewildered in a 
labyrinth of error. 

This is the most common exposition of the pas- 
sage ; others, by a different application of the ne- 
gatives, refer the whole to the true believers, and 
read it thus : " The way of those to whom thou hast 
been gracious, against whom thou art not incensed, 
and who have not erred. 11 Which translation the 
original will very well bear. * 

Thus far SALE ; who refers to his authorities. In 
poor return I will express my sense of little worth 
in itself, but it is grounded on the opinion of the 
competent of the masterly manner in which he has 
translated the Koran. His Preliminary Discourse 
is excellent ; and his notes and annotations are 
equally instructive. His work is too little read. It 
has been found all-sufficient ; for, although the only 



STONES. 31 

translation in our language, no other has been 
thought wanted in the lapse of more than half a 
century. 

In my more modern, and easily read lines of 
Plate III. I have put the bismillah at the end. In 
reading the inscription on the stone, they may, no 
doubt, be taken as the first or last words ; as, being 
circular, they meet near the top. 

I will here note that I know nothing of Arabic 
and as little of Persian as my reader may please to 
suppose. Thirty or forty years ago I might have 
known a little and but little. But as very few of 
the Company's servants then knew any thing of it, 
my little passed for more than it was worth with 
myself, perhaps, inclusive. But in such great lapse 
of time, hundreds, thousands, of the Company's ser- 
vants civil and military have passed me, onwards 
towards eminence ; which many have attained. I 
have stood still or rather obliviously retrograded. 
What, therefore, was once something, though but 
little, positively, is now next to nothing, compa- 
ratively. 

Before I take leave of the beautiful Stone, the 
subject of No. 7. of Plate III., I will observe, that 
the history of the KHALIF whose name occupies 
the centre, MUTUWUKKEL, the Confiding, may 
be found in that grand magazine of Mahommedan 
historic lore, " PRICE'S Retrospect." This compre- 
hensive work is much less known than it ought to 
be. It came out under manifold disadvantages, 
which it will take some time to overcome. But it 
must, eventually, find its way into all public libra- 



32 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

ries, and into such private ones as have any pre- 
tensions to an historical or to an oriental class of 
works. It came out under the disadvantage of a 
distant rural press, in single volumes, with intervals 
of years between. It has been insufficiently ad- 
vertised ; and, not having been printed for any book- 
seller, has not been at all puffed. The Reviews 
those useful vehicles to public notice for works of 
merit, unconnected with party in respect to religion 
or politics have scarcely heard of it ; and its price 
is too high, perhaps, to admit of its purchase for 
their purpose, if they had. The times of the pub- 
lication of all the volumes were, moreover, times of 
great national excitement when the public mind 
was intent on mighty events passing under our own 
eye, involving the destinies of thrones and empires 
possibly of our own ; and regarded but little the 
sayings and doings of semi-barbarians at our anti- 
podes a thousand years ago. Under all these dis- 
advantages, it may be questioned if the sale of this 
great and laborious work hath yet repaid the au- 
thor's positive publication outlay ; that is, the mere 
paper and printing. The great expense incurred in 
India, in the purchase of various works of the 
Mahommedan historians he can scarcely expect to 
be reimbursed. An Arabic or Persian historian, 
whose work is looked at in England and declared 
to be very pretty, may perhaps have cost a hun- 
dred pounds to him who knew how to appreciate it. 
And for a return for the learned labours of half an 
industrious life, the author of the " Chronological 
Retrospect of Mahommedan History " must look to 



MANUSCRIPTS. 33 

posterity and he will not look in vain ; for the 
merits of the work, comprising an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the language of his authorities, 
sound judgment in selecting and great industry in 
examining and collating them, and the happy talent 
of communicating the result, will eventually in- 
sure the just reputation of both the work and its 
author. 

I must return for a moment to Plate III., and then 
resume the topic of the great cost of Oriental MSS. 

No. 8. of that Plate is a fine deep red cornelian, 
which I purchased in the bazaar at Bombay, for 
two rupees, between thirty and forty years ago. 
The inscription is not cut, but painted white ; and 
is, although I have taken no particular care of the 
stone, as plain and perfect, apparently, as ever. 
With what pigment it is so painted I know not, 
nor where it may have been done. Like its neigh- 
bour No. 7, it is unset ; and as they read on the 
stones as in the plate (not reversed) they have both 
been, probably, intended as amulets or phylacteries. 
This applies also to the ring No. 5. The other sub- 
jects of the Plate, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, have been 
used as signets, being reversed. 

No. 8. may have been done by or for some zea- 
lous Mahommedan : they are addicted to amulets, 
charms, &c. of this sort. It seems to invoke a 

blessing ^0 upon all and each ; on ALI, on MA- 

HOMMED, on the family of MAHOMMED, on MA- 
HOMMED again, on FAT EM A, the immaculate, and 
upon (her children, the martyrs) HUSSUN and 



34 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

HUSSAYNE, ending, at the bottom, with Help is 
from God. 

This is, I think, all that I have to say at present, 
on the subjects of Plate III. : unless it be to repeat 
that what the reader there sees are, as to size as 
well as inscriptions, the exact representations of the 
originals. Nos. 9 and 1 will be noticed hereafter. 

Now a word on the subject of the cost, in India 
and Persia, of Arabic and Persian MSS. 

The few, in England, of the class of Orientals 
who will read the curious catalogue of his collec- 
tion of MSS. printed by that eminent Orientalist 
Sir WILLIAM OUSELEY, may learn much of their 
estimated value, and of the cost of some of them in 
the East. A hundred pounds and more have been 
given for several in that extensive and valuable 
collection. Those only who have made such things 
the recreation and pleasure of their lives, can duly 
appreciate the pang of the collector when parting 
with the objects of his solicitude and solace, almost 
of his affection and seeing the probability of their 
not only passing from him but of their dispersion, 
or loss to his country. I fear no individual or body 
in England will purchase Sir WILLIAM'S collec- 
tion. Individuals are not inclined; or if half so, want 
a good bargain; and the nation, and its learned 
bodies, corporate and incorporate, are too poor ! ! 
Foreigners feel differently but let that pass. 

I have, in a recent page, made slight mention of 
TIP POO'S magnificent library. If the reader will 
kindly call to mind that this is avowedly a volume 
of " Fragments," " a thing of shreds and patches" 



SERINGAPATAM. 35 

he will, perhaps, overlook its want of connexion, 
link in link ; and pardon the intermingling of sub- 
jects under any of my fragmental heads, which, 
as SHERIDAN says of Mrs. M ALAPROP'S vocables, 
" might get their habeas corpus from any (critical) 
Court in Christendom." 

With this feeling I will ask leave to introduce an 
extract from my " Common-place Book," of some 
length, from one of its subjects, entitled "Remi- 
niscences connected with the conquest of Seringapa- 
tam." I am the more emboldened to ask this, from 
witnessing the favorable reception by the public of 
sundry works published of late years, in the form of 
Reminiscences Recollections and Personal Me- 
moirs. Without presuming that mine may deserve the 
like extent of favorable reception, I shall here, and 
may hereafter, introduce, without farther preface or 
apology, a few pages of such matter as I have ad- 
verted to. 

I was, at the period of the siege and conquest of 
Seringapatam, in Bomb u ; and from the situation I 
then held, at the head of the Quarter-Master-Gene- 
ral's department, and the nature of the duties of that 
office, and of others that I was then executing, was 
very much with the Governor, Mr. DUNCAN. I was, 
indeed, acting confidentially under, and with him, in 
several important matters, as I was afterwards in 
others more important. I was daily witness of his 
extreme anxiety touching the progress of the siege. 
He had, as well as I, several constant correspon- 
dents in the besieging armies ; but the post-office 



36 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

department of western India, though in a much im- 
proved state, was still in a very backward one, as 
compared with its subsequent perfection ; and our 
intelligence did not keep pace with our anxiety and 
eagerness. 

Mr. DUNCAN'S anxieties were at some moments 
so intense as to border on agony to a degree that, I 
dare say, he manifested to no one but me. I was, I 
trust, reasonably zealous in respect to the public 
interests and laboured as hard, I believe, as any 
one to promote them. Still, with less of responsi- 
bility, though I had no small share, mine fell far 
short of the extreme anxieties of my almost over- 
zealous patron and friend. 

Our exertions at Bombay had been immense ; the 
honor of the army, and no small portion of national 
welfare, hinged on the pending event. Mr. DUN- 
CAN identified himself so intimately and entirely 
with the success of public measures, that no one who 
was not with him confidentially, could estimate the 
intensity of his eagerness for success in public ope- 
rations. 

The month of May arrived that critical time as 
to the extreme of heat, and drought, and distress in 
Mysore especially about Seringapatam. On a 
former occasion, of Lord CORNWALLIS'S distressful 
retreat from that neighbourhood, I had witnessed 
and felt them ; and the letters of our correspondents 
contained deprecating forebodings of their re-arrival. 
The setting in of the S.W. monsoon might be hourly 
expected in the first week of May, withvery un- 
certain severity. If in great severity or if at all 



SERINGAPATAM. 37 

with the fort uncaptured, we knew, in good part, the 
disastrous effects which must ensue. And if, in- 
stead of being conquerors, we should be repulsed, 
we too well knew that " the attempt, and not the 
deed, would confound us/' These points, I say, 
became the topics of our daily, nightly, almost hour- 
ly, discussion and anxiety. 

Under these circumstances it was odd, but true, 
that I was in possession of the intelligence of this 
most important conquest, some .hours before it was 
known to the Governor, or any one in Bombay, or 
even to myself! It seems worth while to explain 
how this was. 

I lived in the country, two miles from the fort. 
In busy times it was my habit to breakfast early, by 
seven, sometimes by six o'clock, and to be at my 
office in the fort an hour after. I had there to un- 
dergo the process of being shaved (no natives of 
India 9 and formerly but few English, shaved them- 
selves) and while thereunder, usually gave audi- 
ence and orders to my official people. Then came 
the reading of letters, returns, &c. papers, and an 
arrangement for the business of the day. 

The dauk, or post, did not then come in from the 
eastern parts of India, through Poona, more than 
twice a week. The day to which I am adverting 
was not dank day. I saw on my table a number of 
letters 8cc., and went through the usual processes, 
and had more than the usual personal audiences and 
orders to give, It was ten o'clock before I noticed 
and opened a letter, received by an express, from 
my constant correspondent and kind friend, General 



38 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 



PALMER, our Ambassador at Poona, announcing, 
in three lines, the all-important, the astounding 
event ! 

Had I been half shaved, or all belathered, I should 
assuredly have run if possible, flown to the Go- 
vernment Hou$e. Thither I hastened. Mr. DUN- 
CAN had gone late over-night to Parel, his country- 
house, five or six miles off, and his letters including 
one of similar import with mine from General PAL- 
MER had been forwarded to him. Scrawling one 
hasty line of congratulation, I despatched a horseman 
to him with my Poona letter, and hastened to the 
Commander-in-Chief, to the members of Govern- 
ment, to the Adjutant-General, and officers and 
gentlemen of rank, with my joyful news, half crazy 
with delight. I can never forget the emotions of 
that day more especially those of the meeting of 
the Governor and myself about noon. He had has- 
tened to town, and found his house crowded with 
public officers, gentlemen, and others, in waiting to 
congratulate him. Joy, as well as misery, almost 
levels, for the moment, all distinctions. Our shake 
of the hand, when we encountered, was hearty and 
long, but we scarcely exchanged a word and al- 
though together several times during the day, we 
conversed very little indeed* We seemed, now, either 
to have little or nothing to say to each other 
(though, on preceding days, they seemed scarcely 
long enough, and we often trenched deeply on the 
night) or knew not how to say it. As our fears 
had, day by day, augmented as the time for action 
became abridged, we had been almost afraid to 



SKRINGAPATAM. 39 

think and feel that the middle of May had arrived 
and passed so was our relief from all such fears 
thus not only suddenly removed, but by such a mea- 
sure of success, so critical, so complete, so important, 
that it seemed almost to bewilder us. I could not 
think of business the whole day and scarcely, I 
believe, returned to my office. 

General PALMER was perhaps among the best 
letter- writers in our language. I do not find his 
brief annunciation of the fall of Seringapatam to me. 
But, without meaning to adduce it as a specimen of 
his epistolary talent, it ran, in substance, thus : 
" Puttun fell by storm on the 4th The Sultan was 
killed his family and capital are in our possession 
his armies were submitting the slaughter, and 
our loss, were great." 

Having touched on this once most important con- 
quest and subject, prolific in events and speculation 
though it is already half forgotten let me call up 
another recollection and reflection or two thereon. 

TIPPOO'S government could not have been very 
oppressive ; and his country must have been one of 
great resources. Notwithstanding the frequency of 
his wars, his accumulation of personal property in 
Seringapatam was immense. The cities, and towns, 
and villages of his dominions, were generally in a 
flourishing state. He had, for many years, kept up 
very large armies. His last war I mean that with 
the English and their allies, before his fatal war, 
when his country was over-run and devastated in 
every direction, more than once to the very walls of 
his capital must have cost him immense wealth and 



40 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

sacrifices. On the score of devastation I can speak 
extensively ; for I served two years of that war with 
the worst of all devastators, the Mahrattas and 
may, in a future page, say something thereon. The 
English and their allies extorted from him, not only 
one half, geographically, of his entire territory, of 
their own selection, but, as it was supposed, all his 
resources in cash and credit. Still, within a few 
years, we found him again reigning over a flourish- 
ing empire his fortresses restored and well supplied, 
his coffers full, his subjects wealthy, and his armies 
faithful. One sentence will confirm the last asser- 
tion : the day after the storm of his capital, we 
buried upwards of 10,000 bodies of his soldiers so 
manfully had they defended their master. I may 
add, that none were unnecessarily, unresistingly, 
slain. What a scene, at mid-day ! but on that 
subject I will not dilate. Who would not be a 
soldier of such a victorious army ? 

In such a conquest, over which night's curtain 
soon fell, it is impossible, as soldiers well know, to 
prevent plunder. Property to a great amount, no 
doubt, changed hands violently on that night ; but I 
heard of no cruelties. It was said that you might, 
for some days after, see soldiers betting handfuls of 
pagodas in the streets on the issue of a cock-fight. 
TIP POO had collected a most splendid assemblage 
of jewellery. Every ' officer of the conquering army 
had a portion, according to his rank, assigned to 

1 I am not sure if every officer. It may have been only 
generals, field-officers, and captains. 



SERINGAPATAM. 41 

him, in part of his share of the booty. My old 
friend, Major PRICE, Persian Secretaiy to the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay army, was 
appointed one of the committee of prize agents. To 
him was allotted the arrangement, and apportion- 
ment, and valuation of course, duly assisted of 
the jewellery ; and, in conjunction with Major OGG, 
of the Madras army as has been already noticed 
the arrangement and disposal of TIPPOO'S library, 
which was found, in articles of rarity, beauty, and 
value, on a scale corresponding with his extensive 
assemblage of jewellery. 

One anecdote current, and well known to be sub- 
stantially true, in India, was the fact, that soon after 
the capture, a drummer of one of his Majesty's regi- 
ments brought a pair of bangles (wrist ornaments) to 
the assistant-surgeon, to purchase. The medical 
gentleman, however skilled professionally, knew 
little of gems. He thought the bangles handsome, 
and gave the gladjinder a hundred rupees for them. 
Not thinking much of his bargain, it was laid by. 

After the pressure of his duties, during weeks and 
months, had passed off, he bethought him of his 
bungles. Showing one to a friend, it was pronounced 
of great value and, to cut my story short, the pair 
proved worth thirty or forty thousand pounds ! 
What became of them I did not hear ; but all were 
pleased to hear that the fortunate purchaser obtained 
the discharge of the lucky drummer, and settled on 
him an annuity of 100. 

In a small way I was myself concerned in a matter 
somewhat similar, and connected in subject, more or 



42 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

less, with the subjects of this First Head of my 
" Fragments." My old friend and brother-adjutant, 
Captain HUGH MASSEY FITZ-GERALD an excel- 
lent soldier, and an accomplished gentleman bought 
a book, a few days after the conquest, from a sol- 
dier, for five rupees. Thinking I knew more of In- 
dian books than he did, and seeing it was a hand- 
some one, he sent it to me at Bombay to sell for 
him, if any one would buy it or as a present to me, 
if I would accept it. 

It was a very splendid, large-paper copy of the 
Koran. I had rarely seen, and never possessed, any 
thing equal. I apprised my friend of my gratifica- 
tion at possessing such a book, deeming it of great 
value ; and told him, that if I could get any thing 
like its worth, I would sell it for him : if not, that I 
would accept it ; and, in return, would make him a 
present of the best pipe of Madeira that he could 
procure on his return to Bombay. With this my 
old friend was well pleased. 

Some time after, I showed the book to Colonel 
BARRY CLOSE, knowing him to be a good judge of 
its beauty ; and he valued it at 2000 rupees. My 
keeping it was now out of the question ; and I soon 
after to the great surprise of FITZ-GERALD sold 
it for that sum say 250 to N. H. SMITH, Esq. 
of the Bombay Civil Service, then at the head of the 
Foreign Secretaryship, and a good judge of such 
things. He is now, as I am, a resident in Suffolk. 

This is a specimen of how beautiful Manuscripts 
are appreciated in the East a topic that I may 
recur to, in a future page. 



SERINGAPATAM. 43 

Other friends of mine among the sharers in the 
Seringapatam booty, sent to me at Bombay their 
allotments of jewels, to keep or sell for them so 
that I became somewhat skilled in gems and or- 
ftvrerie. There was one necklace that I have often 
regretted I did not purchase. It was composed of 
fifteen or twenty chains of gold ; each link being a 
very small bunch of grapes, of most exquisite work- 
manship. I know not that I ever saw any thing 
more beautifully wrought. The number of links, or 
bunches of grapes, must have amounted to many 
thousands, they were so minute. The chains may 
have been between four and five feet long, connected 
by a pair of splendid clasps composed of diamonds 
and rubies. It had been valued at Seringapatam at 
only 600 rupees ; at which price I sold it to Captain 
WILLIAM PALMER, son of the General. It was 
certainly worth a great deal more : intrinsically, I 
should think, as much. Although such a Koran as 
I have just spoken of, might not be highly coveted 
in England, such a necklace as this would. It was, 
as a whole, of an exceedingly graceful and elegant 
aspect. 1 

1 Connected with the subject of my new calling of jeweller, 
I may here notice that many years after perhaps fifteen or 
twenty a courteous reference was made to me from Ireland, 
touching the lot of jewels of one of my aforesaid friends, 
who had sent his share to me, as just mentioned. He had 
died ; and among his papers his heirs found a memorandum 
of the fact of his having sent his jewels to me, but none of 
their ultimate destiny. The fact itself of my reception of 
them, I could recall dimly to my recollection ; but both me- 



44 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

A word more may perhaps be permitted on the 
subject of TIP POO'S library. It must have cost him 
much time, research, and money. His father, HY- 
DER, was altogether illiterate ; and it is not likely 
that he had laid any foundation for such a fine col- 
lection. It could not be kept together ; and it was 
deemed not desirable to disperse the books by sale. 
I have said that my talented friends, Majors PRICE 
and OGG, had the pleasing task of inspecting, cata- 
loguing, and arranging them. A select portion was 
set apart for, and presented to, the East-India Com- 
pany's Library in London. Another portion was, in 
like manner, presented to the Calcutta College. Of 
part of this, Major CHARLES STEWART, one of its 
learned Professors, has published a " Descriptive 
Catalogue." I It is a very curious and valuable 
work and would have been continued, if encou- 
raged : but let that pass. 

So different from most Eastern monarch s, TIP POO 

mory and recollection failed in the endeavour to trace any 
thing farther respecting them. As my friend returned to 
Bombay, and lived several years thereafter, there could exist 
no doubt but his jewels, or their amount sale, if I sold them, 
were accounted for to him. This explanation seemed to 
satisfy the inquiring heirs and I trust did fully convince 
them, that there was no cause to imagine me " a friend of 
an ill fashion." 

1 4to. Cambridge, 1809 ; Longman and Co. My memo- 
randa on this Library do not exactly accord, in all particu- 
lars, with those of the worthy Professor. Some Manuscripts 
were presented to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
and some, I think, to the Governor-General, Lord WEL- 

LESLEY. 



SERINGAPATAM. 45 

was among the most industrious of mortals. His 
pen must have been for ever in his hand. Copies 
of an immense number of his despatches and letters 
were found. Many of these were selected, arranged, 
translated, and published, with curious and valuable 
notes, by that accomplished Orientalist and diplo- 
matist, Colonel KIRK PATRICK. 1 This would also 
have been extended and continued but for the 
aforesaid bat . Who cares to be amused, or in- 
structed, or interested in East-India topics ? I can- 
not but be so Gothic as greatly to have wished its 
continuation. 

TIP POO'S " low ambition " seems to have been a 
desire to be considered the only mover in his domi- 
nions. From the management of a treaty, or of a 
war, with the English, to the formation of a pin, the 
instructions were all his own. Not only would he 
not brook a brother, he would, seemingly, have no 
helper " near the throne." All, all, was of his own 
doing and dictation. 

Who can look back on the capture of Seringapa- 
tam without admiration of the share borne therein 
by that distinguished officer, BARRY CLOSE ? With 
a dozen such men as he, and THOMAS MUNRO, and 
JOHN MALCOLM all Madrassees and ALEXAN- 
DER WALKER, of the Bombay army (but where 
are they to be found ?) such a general as WEL- 
LINGTON may repose securely in the result of any 
achievable operation : while five hundred such men 
as my kind old friend, Lord HARRIS a brave and 

1 " Select Letters of TIPPOO SULTAN." 4to. London, 1811. 



46 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

good soldier, deserving of all his honors, and all the 
warm recollections that cling around his memory 
at the head of all the armies of India, and of all 
their departments, would never have taken Seringa- 
patam. 

That conquest was, no doubt, owing to the com- 
bined efforts of many able heads, seconded by stout 
hearts and vigorous hands but it was owing, infi- 
nitely more than to any other individual, to BARRY 
CLOSE. It may be too much to say that had he not 
been there, the place would not have fallen (the 
preparatory measures and arrangements, as well as 
the approaches to, and operations at, the scene of 
action, are here adverted to, inclusively) but many, 
I believe, think so. He was a Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and Adjutant-General of the united armies. His 
grateful King made him a Baronet, and he rose to 
the rank of Major- General. 

Of all Englishmen, or indeed any other country- 
men, I ever knew, I never heard one so fluent in 
Persian as Sir BARRY CLOSE. I have seen well- 
educated Persian gentlemen listen with astonishment 
at his impassioned flow of the finest and best- 
selected words and arguments that their language 
could afford . Not one of them could equal him in 
the eloquence they so much admired and envied. 
His style was highly animated and declamatory : 
you were almost in pain lest he should flounder and 
break down; but he never paused for a word, nor 
ever failed in his ready selection of the best. He 
was sometimes so warm on such occasions, that one 
would think he could never be cool : but as a soldier 



SERINGAPATAM. 47 

he, no doubt, was. I did not know him in that 
capacity ; nor, indeed, at all but in social life : we 
never corresponded. 

May I be forgiven if I relate, connected with our 
very slight acquaintance, an anecdote of a ludicrous 
sort. Although of a grave, dignified port, he had a 
lively sense of the ridiculous. On one of his politi- 
cal visits to Bombay, he returned my call of cour- 
tesy and as his stay was short, he did it more con- 
veniently at my office in the fort, than at my house 
in the country. Being early men in India, he came 
I think about nine. I was " i' the suds " of course 
the old remark was made, that "a man never looks 
more like a fool than when belathered " a hope ex- 
pressed that no future aspect would be so infeli- 
citousand with a little laughter and a pleasant 
chat, half an hour passed. On that visit we met no 
more. 

After the lapse of years, Colonel CLOSE again 
visited Bombay, and again returned my call, at the 
same place, about the same time of day ; and found 
me exactly as before, with the shaver, razor in hand. 
The first soapy event had, of course, been forgotten ; 
but this exact repetition brought with it, in our re- 
vived recollection, such a ridiculous association, 
that, without succeeding in speaking a word, we 
both broke into an immoderate fit of laughter, 
which continued to a length painful probably to us 
both. The poor barber, at first surprised, became 
amused and, by the time we had well nigh re- 
sumed a little composure and gravity, the former 
scene for it was the same shaver coupled itself in 



48 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

his recollection. He could not resist but, being 
also a fellow of some humour, he tittered, and, un- 
able to repress his risibility, was seized with the 
infectious fit. This caused a return of our paroxysm, 
and all three were simultaneously convulsed I, all 
the while, "lathered up to the eyes." This strange, 
unaccountable, and almost indecorous scene was 
witnessed, with just amazement, by all the writers 
and others in the office who stuck their pens be- 
hind their ears in wonderment ; for all this time 
scarcely a word had passed. 

This is all that I dare venture to give here, of my 
recollections connected with the conquest of Serin- 
gap at am. 

Without any affectation of writing an essay on 
Stones generally, or of much, as to methodical 
arrangement, of what I may have to say on some 
particular points connected therewith, I shall pro- 
ceed, as desultorily as may be, and as it may suit 
my convenience, in continuation of my 6 extracts from 
my collection of " Fragments " on that head di- 
gressing as may be expedient. 

APOLLONIUS RHODIUS says that " there was a 
sacred black stone in a temple of MARS, to which 
all the Amazons, in times of old, addressed their 
prayers." All ancient people seem to have vene- 
rated stones, in some form or shape. In Scripture, 
several instances of it occur. The sacred, black, 
conical stone, at Mecca the Cromlechs of the an- 
cient Britons our Coronation Stone brought from 
.Scotland, are others. Among the Irish, Welsh, 



STONES. 49 

and Scotch, similar examples may be adduced ; and 
among the Hindus, the reverence shown to stones 
the worship, as some have called it is very strong, 
in many mystical forms conical, circular, &c. 

A good deal of mystery has attached itself to our 
well-known Coronation Stone. The Scotch feel sore 
at the English having purloined that palladium of 
their independence ; and the Irish, putting in a prior 
claim, deem the royal Scot the original thief. It is 
asserted by " the Emeralders," that this is the very 
stone of very stone Liqfail, or Stone of Destiny 
that gave an early name to Ireland. But it is not a 
native of that " gem of the ocean" that " emerald 
isle, set in a sea of silver," and so forth. It was 
brought " from the East." KEATING maybe re- 
ferred to for a relation of the wonderful virtues of 
Liafail, which for many ages was as much venerated 
in Ireland and Scotland, as was JACOB'S Stone in 
the Temple at Jerusalem, both by Christian and 
Mahommedan (are not these all one and the 
same ?) or the famous black conical stone at Mecca, 
centuries before the time of the Prophet. Some 
antiquarians among them the " old virgins," I be- 
lieve, who take pence for their descant on the vesti- 
gia of the Abbey affirm that the Westminster Stone 
is the very pillow on which JACOB'S head reposed 
when he saw his celebrated vision ; but deny all 
right in it on the part of the Irish claimants. The 
latter adroitly admit this believing that their origi- 
nal pebble has worked its way, somehow or other, 
back again to Ireland ; where, in due time, its de- 
velopment will mark the typical nature of the pro- 



50 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

phetic exchange of position. Not, indeed, of posi- 
tion only, but of substance ; for the abstraction and 
substitution of another (pretended) stone were effected 
at Westminster in a way not to be discovered ; and, 
if discovered, not to be understood. It is not suit- 
able that this mysterious and portentous transaction 
should be told in mere matter-of-fact language : I 
have therefore endeavoured to wrap it in fitting 
words and trust that I have succeeded in not hav- 
ing made myself easily comprehended. 

In CROKER'S " Legends of Killarney" are found, 
as might be expected in so poetical a region, many 
Hinduisms. Some notice of them will be taken in 
another place. This introduction of such similarities 
in Ireland and India, may be too abrupt : some 
prefatory explanation was intended ; but I shall 
here say no more, in that strain, than that Ire/and 
is full of Hinduisms and that, without having 
formed, or caring to uphold, any determined hypo- 
thesis, I can scarcely travel a stage in Ireland, 
or read a page, at all of a miscellaneous nature, con- 
nected with that interesting island, without meeting 
with something Hinduish. Of this, probably, as I 
have hinted, more hereafter. Meanwhile the reader 
may, haply, think of the old adage " To the jaun- 
diced eye all things seem yellow." 

We return to CROKER'S " Legends of Killarney," 
and extract one of a " knee- worn stone," to which 
we may find an Eastern parallel. 

It is near the Cathedral of Aghadoe that this inci- 
dent occurred. " A circular stone, with two hol- 
lows in it," is described and delineated " the holes 



STONES. 51 

caused by the kneeling of the holy friar at his devo- 
tions." A native approached " And here she be- 
gan to scatter some crumbs upon the ground, to 
which the little birds from the neighbouring bushes 
immediately flew, with all the fearlessness of con- 
scious security." " Ah ! then," said their feeder, 
" ye 're a blessed race, and 'tis good right ye have 
to know this place and it would be a mortal sin to 
hurt or harm ye ; but what are ye to the little bird 
that sung to the holy friar for as good as two hun- 
dred years ? " On the bush, by this knee-worn 
stone, rags were hung ; " as is usual," continues 
Mr. C. "in Ireland, near places that are considered 
holy." Vol. i. 20. 

This is truly a Hindu legend. Passing by, for 
the present, the suspended rags, of which extended 
practice we shall speak under another head of our 
" Fragments" passing by, also, the benevolent 
feeding of the sacred birds the unperceived " si- 
lent celerity of time " on the part of the " holy friar," 
when interestingly engaged, is matched by the sto- 
ries of the Hindu " holy friars," VISWAMITRA, 
KANDU, and others : with, however, this important 
difference that the priest was engaged, during his 
unperceived flight of time thinking two hundred 
years but a day in penitence and prayer ; the 
Brahmans in profligacy, with the soul-seducing ME- 
NAKA and PR AM NO K A, under the like illusion. 

The knee-worn stone has parallels in Hindu story, 
though I have no immediate note of them. Callo- 
sity from long kneeling, is related of the Mahratta 
Brahman general, SADASHY RAO Bow, (SiDA 



52 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

SIVA RAHU BAKU ?) killed, with the flower of the 
empire, at the fatal battle of Paniput, in 1765. He 
was so maimed and mutilated as to have been re- 
cognizable only by his knees, on which were well- 
known callosities caused by his unequalled piety in 
the article of genuflexion. 

The Hindu, like the Papal, religion is one of 
ceremonials. As JUNIUS says of some individuals of 
his time, both these great classes of men include too 
many with whom " prayers are reckoned religion, 
and kneeling morality." Another Papist is famed 
for kneeling (surely it is ST. JAMES of Compostella ? 
but I am oblivious and ill read in Hagiology) who, 
like the Mahratta, was famed for knee-callosity, and 
is known in history by the appellation of the " camel- 
knee'd prayer-monger." 

The rag-bush at Killarney is in keeping with the 
rag-trees and rag-wells of other parts India, Per- 
sia, England, &c. as noticed in another place. And, 
at Killarney, a farther coincidence of reverence to a 
cleft stone, is in keeping with such things cleft 
stones, cleft trees, &c. in India and England; of 
which, in connexion with this Killarnic legend, more 
hereafter. 

Having under this head mentioned the Hindu 
legends of VISWAMITRA and his brother sinning- 
saint, I may as well here conclude what I have to 
add thereon. It was intended for another head, 
to be entitled " Papacy and Paganism," for much 
of which I foresee there will not be room in this 
brief volume. Under the just-named head, a sub- 
division " On Flagellants " is included, from which 



HINDUISM AND PAPACY. 53 

this extract is made, and given here, confessedly out 
of place. 

Touching the temptation of ST. FRANCIS by 
Satan. A man, not a saint, may be easily per- 
suaded while unmercifully scourging himself, to lis- 
ten to the seducing sound of " hold, enough ! " or, 
in reference to preparation for the future, to the 
illusive whispering, " there's time enough for that 
by-and-by." Not so ST. FRANCIS, he saw the 
cloven foot ; and we may conclude, to spite and 
shame the devil, scourged the more : or, as Paddy 
said, " the more the devil seduced, the more he 
would not leave off." 

This is very Hinduish. Legends of similar per- 
severances in penance and austerity, on the part of 
Hindu saints, have alarmed not only the unholy 
ones, but their gods and demigods. Of these, se- 
veral are related in the Hindu Pantheon. INDRA, 
the firmamental regent, the JUPITER Tonans of 
the Hindu Olympus, fears danger to his throne by 
the almost omnipotent ' perseverance in prayer and 
severity of an ascetic. Various seductions, including 

1 Surely the doctrine recently put forth in that dangerous 
vehicle of fanaticism for such I cannot help considering it 
"The Morning Watch," is very reprehensible, on this 
point of " almost omnipotent perseverance." My phrase 
was written many years before the "Morning Watch," in 
which this passage occurs: "Every miracle is an answer 
given to prayer, and the prayer of faith is omnipotent." This 
is the theory and doctrine of the Hindu Aswamed/ia, and their 
other means of extorting, by sacrifice and prayer, boons from 
on high. 



54 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

as great a variety as those of ST. ANTHONY and 
ST. FRANCIS, as far as they have reached me, and 
some original or unique in addition, are recorded of 
the Hindu worthies. In general the flagellations, 
or other self-inflictions, are too much, even for the 
devil, as we have seen ST. FRANCIS was, or for 
INDRA. Sometimes, however, the devil, or INDRA, 
gains the day. Too truly has it been said, that 
when the devil angles for man, he baits his hook 
with a lovely woman. 

Alas! poor MENAKA ! interesting offspring of 
poetical imagination ! why should you suffer for the 
ordainments of destiny, or the decrees of the gods ? 
It is related in the Ramayana, sect. 50, that when 
the sanctified ascetic VISWAMITRA,' who had, for 
thousands of years, been engaged in the most rigid 
mortifications, beheld MENAKA the Apsara^ sent 
by INDRA* to debauch him "bathing; of sur- 
passing form ; unparalleled in beauty ; in form re- 
sembling SRI ; * her clothes 5 wetted in the stream 
he, seduced by the arrows of KANDARPA, 6 ap- 

1 The Guru, or spiritual preceptor of RAMA. 

2 The Apsarasa of the Hindu Pantheon are water-nymphs, 
Nereids, demi-Venuses. 

3 As profligate as his counterpart, JUPITER of Rome. On 
one memorable failure in a base attempt on the virtuous 
wife of a pious Brahman, the Rishi cursed him INDRA be- 

ame instantly covered with marks of shame which, on his 
repentance and contrition, were changed by the relenting 
Rishi, to eyes. Thus marked, INDRA is usually pourtrayed. 

4 A goddess of good fortune and beauteous aspect. 

5 Hindus female or male never bathe nude. 

6 The Hindu, many-named CUPID. 



HINDUISM AND PAPACY. 55 

preached her. Five times five years, spent in dal- 
liance with this seducing creature, passed away like 
a moment." " What ! " exclaimed, at length, the 
reflecting sage, " my wisdom, my austerities, 
my firm resolution all destroyed at once by a 
woman ! Seduced to the crime in which INDRA 
delights, am I thus, in a moment, stripped of the 
advantages arising from all my austerities ! " 

In relations such as this, the Hindus, it is sup- 
posed, intended to inculcate good, by showing how 
sages, even of great virtue and renown, have not 
been proof against female blandishments : hence 
warning all less safe individuals from trusting too 
much to their own firmness ; and that, after all, the 
greatest security for frail mortals is in the absence 
of temptation. But admitting that the object was 
the inculcation of morality, the vehicle is of doubtful 
tendency. How vastly inferior to " when ye stand, 
take heed lest ye fall." 

There are many stories similar to this falling-off 
of the pious VISWAMITRA, detailed with great 
poetical beauty in the Puranas the grand maga- 
zine of Hindu mythological legends. Any pious 
Brahman, sinking into such a predicament, (in an 
early work I had occasion to note how a great many 
militant Brahmans, including my old friend and 
commander the Mahratta general PURSARAM 
BHOW, so sunk) may be too prone to seek consola- 
tion in the " flattering unction" that it arose rather 
from the potent envy or fear of INDRA, than from 
his own sinful weakness. To avert the consequences 
of such persevering austerities as VISWAMITRA'S 



56 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

(or ST. FRANCIS'S) to the u most potent king of 
the gods," as INDRA is called, he not unfrequently 
despatches an Apsara on a seductive mission. IN- 
DRA'S dethronement, is an occasional object of these 
austerities. His failings render him ever watchful 
and suspicious. 

In the Brahma Purana it is related how the rigor- 
ous ascetic KANDU, on the sacred banks of the 
Gomati, commonly called the Goomtee, a river of 
Bengal, was thus seduced by PRAMNOKA. Her 
history does not occur to me ; she is probably an 
Apsara, or one of the celestial choristers of INDRA'S 
splendid Court. She is described as " excelling all 
her sisters, by her youth, her beauty, her ivory teeth, 
her figure, and the lovely swelling of her bosom." 
In her sin-exciting embassy, she was accompanied 
by the god of Love (KAMA or KANDARPA), the 
Spring (VASANTA), and Zephyrm I forget the 
Meru-ic * name to assist, as might be necessary, if 
her charms should prove resistible. But she " pos- 
sessing all the weapons of beauty, and all the arts 
of delusion/' required but little auxiliary aid. 
" KANDU'S firmness vanished he, by the miracu- 
lous power which his austerities had conferred on 
him, transformed himself into a youth of corre- 
sponding celestial beauty, seized the hand of the 
treacherous PRAMNOKA, and led her, nothing loth, 
into his hut." 

One evening he was proceeding to his devotions. 
" Why this evening," said his fascinatrix, " more 

1 Meru the Olympia of INDRA. 



HINDUISM AND PAPACY. 57 

than a hundred others which have been passed in 
different sacrifices ?" "How?" said the anchoret, 
" was it not this morning, O amiable creature ! that 
I perceived you for the first time on the bank of the 
river, and received you into my hermitage ? Has not 
An UN A l for the first time witnessed your presence 
in this calm abode ? Why that speech ? Why this 
smile ! " " How can I restrain a smile," said she, 
" at your error ? The seasons have nearly finished 
their circular course since the morning of that day 
of which you speak." " How? can this be true? 
O too seductive nymph ! Surely I have reposed but 
one day by your side O woe ! woe is me ! " exclaimed 
the unhappy Brahman, from whose eyes the dimness 
of delusion was now wiped. " Ah, for ever lost fruit 
of my long penitence ! all those meritorious works ! 
all those virtuous actions 2 prescribed in the sacred 
books, are annulled through the seductions of a 
woman ! Flee, flee far from me, O perfidious nymph ! 
thy mission is accomplished." 

This adventure is beautifully translated by that 
eminent Orientalist, and my much-respected cor- 
respondent, W, Sc RLE GEL, and will appear in his 
Indishe Bibliotek, with an instructive introduction. 

Among the " Apsara sisters, proud of their 
charms," sometimes selected for these poetical em- 
bassies, are URVASI, MENAKA, RHEMBA, MISRA- 
KESI, &c., including, I think, but am not sure, 

1 The driver of the car of SURYA, the Hindu Phcelus the 
dawn. 

2 These are the usual designations of the enjoined pe- 
nances, of the self-inflictions, of the Puranas. 



58 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

TILOTAMMA. Their histories would prove enter- 
taining to a certain class of readers, but not perhaps 
to all : and I must not, in this place, indulge any 
further therein. A better opportunity may, perhaps, 
offer. 

I am not aware that in the Puranas of Rome as 
the legendary books of papal saints, including much 
that passes under the names of the " Fathers," may 
be not inaptly designated there are many relations 
of the fall of the anchorets of papacy. ST. AN- 
THONY, ST. DUNSTAN, ST. FRANCIS, &c., gene- 
rally, perhaps always, triumph over the INDRAS and 
the MENAKAS, and the Devil, of " the Church." 

That Church, by the way, has a ST. MONICA. 
Is she any way related to my poor MENAKA, ex- 
cept being almost her namesake ? Of this I know 
nothing ; and have not the immediate means of 
learning. I have an interesting friend named after 
this Lady Saint : and I know little farther of her 
history than that she was the mother of ST. AUGUS- 
TINE. As far as regards similarity of sound, the 
names of the papal saint and pagan sinner are suffi- 
ciently cognate. But it would be unreasonable to 
imagine, on that ground alone, that there is any real 
relationship. I should be able, and perhaps may 
try, to adduce some strange transmutations of pa- 
gans into papists. MONICA may be easily derived 
from the Sanskrit Muni, pronounced exactly alike 
an important word in Hindu Hagiography ; and 
they have, I rather think, female as well as male 
Munis, or holy persons. And the papas have also 
a holy MONI : ca, or ka, is a Hindu, as well as a 



STONES. 59 

Romish or Greek termination. There is a convent 
of ST. MONI in the Isle of Poros; erected into a 
theological seminary in 1830. There is a small 
island in the Gulf of Engia, called Moni ; and there 
is a river Munich, running into the Zuyder Zee. 
These, and Munich, and other proper names, may 
have reference to the honored lady. 

But, as I have said, the name interests me ; and 
I was pleased, while it floated in my mind, to hit on 
a poetical and affecting passage connected with it. 
In " CHARLES LAMB'S Works," I find ST. MO- 
NICA thus touchingly spoken of in a quotation from 
FULLER, the Church historian: "Drawing near 
her death, she sent most pious thoughts as harbin- 
gers to Heaven ; and her soul saw a glimpse of 
happiness through the chinks of her sickness- 
broken body ?" Vol. ii. 75. 

The idea is thus versified by WALLER : 

" The soul's dark cottage, batter'd and decay'd, 

Let in new lights through chinks which time has made." 

But, seduced by the subject, I wander from the 
topics intended more immediately for this First Head 
of my Fragments. The last half dozen pages belong 
rather to the other Head, alluded to in page 52. 

Pope INNOCENT III. sent to our King JOHN a 
present of four rings. In their round form they sym- 
bolized eternity ; in their square number, constancy. 
The stones, as to their colour, were of course also 
significant. They were the emerald, denoting fait h ; 
the sapphire, hope; the garnet, charity; and the 
topaz, good works. 



60 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

These whims, in themselves rather poetical, and 
in their extended application they have been ren- 
dered highly so, were perhaps borrowed from 
heathens. Omitting the mention of the Urim and 
Thummim, those precious stones placed on the 
breast-plate of Heaven's high-priest, and other mys- 
tical stones of our scriptures, the Mahommedans 
have many fanciful notions of the virtues, connected 
with colour, of stones. They prefer stones to 
metals for rings, signets, &c. ; and, as the Jews did, 
and most likely do, they attributed talismanic vir- 
tues, as we have seen, to stones. 

The ruby is in India in the first degree of esti- 
mation. Of equal merit on the points of size, shape, 
and freedom from flaw, a ruby is generally of 
more value than a diamond. One might have ex- 
pected that the emerald, from being the Prophet's 
colour, would be the most prized by Mahommedans 
but it is not understood to be so, though much 
esteemed by them, as well as by Hindus. We have 
seen above, that among Christians it denoted faith. 
In India it is deemed a preservative against some 
varieties of ill-fortune, and an antidote to the venom 
of serpents. The ruby averts some diseases, and 
the effects of lightning. The cat's-eye is also of 
phylacteric virtue. 

As Mahommedans adhere strictly to the Mosaic 
precept of not making to themselves the likeness of 
any thing in Heaven or earth, &c. they do not there- 
fore engrave figures of such things on their seals ; as 
we, under a more liberal interpretation of the text, 
do, so beautifully, on ours. As remarked by M. DE 



MAHOMMEDANS. 61 

B LAC AS, in his Monumens Arabes, it is usual for 
Mahommedans to apply their signet rings, instead of 
their sign-manual, to instruments or letters : these 
signets, he adds, bear sometimes the name, some- 
times a text from the Koran. As we have shown 
in a former page, the Mahommedans are prone to 
seek, and may easily find, " sermons in stones." 

In such strict and erroneous adherence to the 
Mosaic text, the Mahommedan coins rarely never, 
perhaps, of the orthodox bear the effigies of royalty. 
It was, and is, deemed an abomination in JEHANGIR 
having put his own bust, and the signs of the zodiac, 
on his medals. In a former work I published, for 
the first time with any accuracy of representation, JE- 
HANGIR'S Zodiac rupees. They have more recently 
been given to the public in a style of great accuracy 
and beauty, with a corresponding description and 
commentary, by my learned and kind friend DR. 
MARS DEN, in his first-rate work Numismata Orien- 
talia, Plate XL. p. 603. 

The impression of seals or rings, which I suppose 
may be called signets, were in days of yore exten- 
sively applied in lieu of manual signature. In 
such days it was not usual for any but the clergy 
to learn to write or read. Not many years, say 400, 
have elapsed since reading and writing were in 
England deemed ungentlemanly acts. Those must 
have been glorious days for priests. 

Forbidden, as they suppose, to imitate any exist- 
ing thing, the Fine Arts have made no progress in 
Mussulman countries architecture excepted. Hence 
the strange unimproved patterns on Turkey carpets, 



62 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Kashmir shawls, &c. From the substance and 
beauty of the textures and colours, we have taught 
ourselves to see something not unpleasing in these 
uncouth patterns. 

The decorative parts of their architecture consist 
chiefly in sculptured texts ; and these we see in 
mosques and rnausolea, finely executed. The win- 
dows of such buildings are sometimes formed of such 
texts in perforations through solid stones : the mul- 
lions and tracery form letters and sentences. I have 
several specimens of this sort of writing. One is in 
a beautiful Koran, on a long single roll of very thin 
fine paper. It has now and then a chapter written 
very small within other large letters. These rolls 
are in India called puti or pootee. I have several of 
them. I intend, if done in time, to give a plate of a 
compartment of my Koran. A fac-simile of an ini- 
tial invocation of ***^ c/* 5 ^ *^ f**? w ^ tn l ^ s en ~ 
closed chapter, will arrange with the size of my 
page. 

I have also a curious shield of rhinoceros' hide, on 
which are a central Gorgotiic toghra (see p. 20. and 
No. 3. of Plate II.) or flourish of the names of the 
holy family, and four tigers, in as many compart- 
ments : their outlines are formed partly of letters, 
enclosing a text. I purpose giving also a plate of 
this shield, the history of which is somewhat curious. 
As well as stones, mosques, shields arms, great 
guns, muskets, swords, pistols, and pieces of furni- 
ture, are seen engraved and inlaid and ornamented 

with Koranic texts the Tekbir jf\ *JJ1 Allah Akbar 



MAHOMMEDANS. 63 

GOD is Great, or other phrases so often in the 
mouths of " the faithful." 

The Mosaic text, to which they so mistakenly 
adhere, referred not to the mere manufacture of such 
forbidden things, but to the falling down and wor- 
shipping before them not to the manipulation, but 
to that mental working that proneness to idolatry, 
which the human mind, unaided, has so extensively 
and wonderfully manifested. The literal interpreta- 
tion of the first part of that important commandment 
of the first of legislators, and its too rigid and mis- 
taken observance, have led to results among Ma- 
hommedans, more momentous, perhaps, than from 
any other source. This literal interpretation and 
observance has barred their progress in the Fine 
Arts " whence proceed all the decencies of life." 
This has kept them stationary as to civilization and 
refinement progressing only in the ordinary, and 
comparatively vulgar, courses of society; and cau- 
sing them to retain, generally speaking, the ferocity 
and sensualities of early social life and manners, 
unmitigated by the softening, polishing, impressions 
of the Fine Arts. And thus they have become an 
object of dislike, repulsion, and resentment on the 
part of their more refined neighbours; and it will 
end in their expulsion from Europe, with whose 
inhabitants they cannot assimilate. 

Such comparative standing still on an important 
point, has retarded or prevented a corresponding 
movement on others. Other nations obtaining more 
and more knowledge, and therefore more and more 
power than the Mussulman people of Europe I 



64 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

now more particularly speak that people will ere 
long yield to such power and influence, and will 
cease to be. In other regions this has been the his- 
torical result. 

There was a well-known time when the sum of 
civilization, and refinement, and chivalric feeling, 
was on the side of the Mahommedans. Looking 
back, through say six centuries, at those times, and 
making comparisons on those points, generally 
against ourselves, we are, perhaps, apt to give our 
then enemies credit for more of the above generous 
feelings and sentiments, than they positively and 
historically deserve. Their ascendancy was, how- 
ever, commensurate. Their declension has kept pace 
with the progress, on those points, of other nations, 
and the non-progress of their own. 

Having mentioned the ruby as a very highly 
prized gem among Mahommedans and other eastern 
people, I will here note that it is rather a favorite 
proper name among them. It has several names, 
some of which I have forgot. Lai and Yakut are 

those only which I now recollect. The first J*J I 
should imagine to be also a Sanskrit word. Many 
Hindus bear names resembling it, as well as Ma- 
hommedans males I think only, as noticed in 
another page. Mo HUN LAL, as the name of a 
Brahman, occurs in page 10. 

The name ciy b Yakoot is not so common as Lai, 

or Lalla, but it is heard occasionally. I have before 
me an impression of the ceremonial signet of a 
pirate chief on the Malabar coast, of that name. He 



MAHOMMEDANS. 65 

was, I believe, a Hubshi, that is, of Habesh or Abys- 
sinia, and may possibly have been a freed man of 
some more potent pirate, or chief, or a descendant 
of one. He was usually called, when I lived in his 
neighbourhood, SIDI YAKUT. The impression of 
his state seal, which is only an inch and a half in 
diameter, may be read thus 

^jlc sli^b ^f Jli us^ ^Ur-y b 

and thus done into English 

" YAKUT KHAN," (or the Lord YAKUT, or the 
Lord RUBY,) "the vassal of the victorious Sove- 
reign, ALUM GIK. 1127." A. D. 1712. 

Perhaps the ancestors of YAKUT KHAN may 
have had his patent of nobility, which is a very 
modest one, from ALUMGEER, better known to us 
by his princely name of AURUNGZEB. The first 
name means " Conqueror (or seizer) of the World ;" 
the last, " Ornament of a Throne." He was cotem- 
porary with our rulers from CROMWELL to QUEEN 
ANNE; having lived to the age of ninety, and 
reigned nearly fifty years. He died in 1707. 

It is said that he also assumed the name of Mo HI 
ud DIN, on his obtainment of sovereignty; which 
is not unlikely, although he is little known by it. 
It means " Restorer (or reviver) of the Faith," or 
of religion. He affected great sanctity and piety, 
throughout his wicked life. " Preserve me from 
that teller of beads," said his noble-minded brother 
DARA with prophetic fears, for he was murdered by 
the order of his saintly sovereign. 

Of the history of this YAKUT KHAN I know 



66 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

nothing that is, I do not immediately recollect any 
thing about him. It is probable I have some ac- 
count of his family, &c., but it may not be worth 
searching for ; nor, perhaps, is his seal worth being 
engraved. But, as pirates and piracy on the western 
coasts of India, from the Indus to Goa, have 
flourished long before the time of ALEXANDER to 
our own, a history of such doings would be curious. 
I may, perhaps, say and show something farther 
thereon, in a future page. In another work * I de- 
voted a few pages to the subject ; but it does not 
appear to have excited any attention. 

A vast mass of materials is in the hands of my old 
and valued friend FRANCIS WARDEN, Esq., late 
member of Government at Bombay, for a history, 
military, political, and statistical, of that interesting 
and beautiful island, and its dependencies and con- 
nexions. This would, in fact, embrace a history of 
all Western India ; and partially of Arabia and 
Persia, as far as relates to the shores of their com- 
mercial gulfs. It is not easy, as I have endeavoured 
to impress on my kind old friend, to arrange such 
a mass of materials for the press, as he contemplated, 
amidst the disturbing forces of the comparative idle- 
ness of London, Bath, Cheltenham, &c. In the 
unceasing drudgery and labour, not easily appre- 
ciated, of thirty years, in the offices of Chief Se- 
cretary to Government, and Secretary to the Military 
Board of Bombay, Mr. WARDEN found time to 
collect, and, to a certain degree, condense and 

1 " On Hindu Infanticide." 



COLLECTIONS OF MSS. 67 

arrange this vast mass. But he will find the final 
extracting, polishing, and arranging for the press 
one quarto, or even one octavo an effort not easily 
made and continued to its issue, under the little 
leisure of comparative idleness. An idle man has 
no leisure. Mr. PITT, with all the business of our 
empire, and almost of Europe, on his hands, had 
leisure for every thing. An allotment, and, to a 
certain degree, an undeviating application of our 
time, are essential to every achievement, beyond the 
daily routine of getting up and lying down, and be- 
guilement of the intervening hours. Mr. COBBETT, 
who composes, and writes, and prints more (and, as 
to style, better) than any living man, has more spare 
time than most men. He has often told us how 
and why. He confirms Lord NELSON'S apophthegm, 
that " no man can achieve very much in any walk 
of life, who is not an early riser." 

If I were again to advise my laborious hard- 
worked friend, it would be to put forth, as I am HOW 
doing, a duodecimo or an octavo as a feeler of the 
public pulse. Let him, for example, select a sub- 
ject for one volume, and let it be the " History of 
the Pirates and Piracy of Western India, from the 
time of the Invasion of ALEXANDER to the pre- 
sent :" scarcely, indeed, to the present time ; for 
w,ithin the last quarter of a century, the English 
have, I believe, extirpated such piracy, root and 
branch, ashore and afloat. 

When my kind friend shall have thus put forth 
half a score of such monographs in as many years, he 
may then come, as I am, to a volume, or haply two, or 



68 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

more, of Fragments odds and ends sweepings of his 
common-place book gleanings out of his portfolio 
" things of shreds and patches" cheese-parings 
and candle-ends or whatever else may best de- 
signate such a miscellaneous volume as this is, or is 
expected to be. He may thus in time reduce, if not 
exhaust, his mass of Manuscripts without any la- 
borious effort of application ; not, indeed, beyond 
the recreative daily occupation of two or three hours, 
if uninterruptedly given rendering the burden of 
the other hours less unbearable than total idleness 
must ever find them. Nor would he then run the 
risk of the mortification of finding himself half 
ruined by the expense of at once putting forth three 
or four quartos, and half killed by the labour of pro- 
ducing them and possibly of the apathetic public 
indifference to their merits. For such has, more or 
less, been the fate, I suspect, of several writers on the 
non-exciting subject of our Eastern Colonial empire. 
Two other much-regretted friends of mine simi- 
larly made ample and valuable collections, while 
apparently fully occupied in the great labour of their 
public and important offices in India. And they 
were deterred from risking the press, in view to 
which their collections were made, by some such 
considerations, of certainty of much labour and ex- 
pense, and an almost equal certainty of a cool re- 
ception. When I name my two lamented friends, SIR 
CHARLES MALET, and BRIG. GEN. ALEXANDER 
WALKER, l all who knew them will know that the 

1 Of this my old and much-esteemed friend, I drew up a 
little memoir, for the "Annual Obituary," 1831. The com- 



COLLECTIONS OF MSS. 69 

collections of such men must be valuable. Both did 
me the unmerited honor of asking my assistance in 
selecting, arranging, 8cc., from their masses of Ma- 
nuscripts press-ward. But, also hard worked in 
India, I too had made a collection vastly less valua- 
ble than theirs ; and I had inflicted some volumes 
in substance I may say many volumes on the pub- 
lic ; and have always indulged in the contemplation 
of more ; and could not undertake the task to which 
I was flatteringly invited. 

The two collections last mentioned may, it is to 
be feared, be lost to the public. Of the first I still 
entertain hopes. My able friend, its possessor, was 
so flattering as to signify to me, some years before 
he left India, that in the event of his labours termi- 
nating there, he should bequeath his collection to 
me, to arrange and publish at my discretion. Thank 
Heaven, this proof of his kind intention has been 
spared me. And I hope that his prolonged life 
may afford him opportunity to work for himself; 
that the publication of his curious and valuable 
materials may long yield occupation and fame to 
him ; and in corresponding tendency with all the 
actions of his life benefit to his country and man- 
kind. 

munications to that respectable work are usually anony- 
mous and such I assuredly intended mine to have been. 
But to my surprise, and, at first, rather to my mortification, 
my name was, through I suppose some mistake or other, pre- 
fixed to the article. The thing is of very little moment. I 
care little indeed who know what I write never, I humbly 
trust, intending harm or pain to any one. 



70 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

I may still name a fourth friend, who made ample 
collections of the same description, but who did not, 
alas ! live to return to his native land. This was 
that most excellent public servant that unwearied 
labourer in the public vineyard that kind friend 
that good man, JONATHAN DUNCAN, the common 
superior of us all, Governor of Bombay of whom I 
have, in an earlier page, made respectful mention. 
He died in that high office. I had fondly hoped 
that my earlier return to England, whither he also 
was about to return, might have been useful to him, 
a stranger here from his boyhood : that I might, by 
little useful attentions to his early sojourn here, 
have shown him how to avoid many things which, 
though separately trifling, amount to importance in 
the aggregate, and are apt to operate with com- 
bined annoyance on one new to the ways of England. 
It would have been highly gratifying to me thus to 
have triflingly. evinced my sense of his great kind- 
nesses to me. But it was otherwise ordained. 

In this case, also, an invitation was given to me, 
to look over, with a view to some arrangement of, 
and selection for the press from his voluminous 
mass of Manuscripts, by our common highly re- 
spected friend, MR. DUNCAN'S executor. But I 
was reluctantly compelled to decline it. My rural 
occupations and propensities are among the causes 
which would prevent my giving up the necessary 
portion of time, in addition to what I am besides 
obliged to give to sedentary pursuits. 

To return for one moment to YAKUT KHAN. I 
conclude from his name of SID i or SEEDY, that he 



STONES. 71 

was black, or dark, thickish lipped, with crisped 
hair. Persons of that description are common in 
Western India ; and are usually termed Sidi as a 
prenomen. It is not a term at all carrying an air of 
reproach : unless, indeed, the individual were 
several removes from African blood ; for no pure 
native of India has such personal distinctions. He 
would then, perhaps, desire to lose the name with 
the features. 

Many Sidis are among our native soldiery; and 
although good soldiers, I do not recollect any rising 
to the rank of commissioned officers. They are all 
Mahommedans. In a future article I may resume 
this subject, under a more appropriate Head than 
this Fragments First On " Seals, Stones, &c." 
to which let us now return. 

M ATI co POLO speaks of fine rubies as being 
found in Persia; but it is Ceylon that he praises 
for being " for its size better circumstanced than 
any other island in the world. 7 ' Among other de- 
sirable things, " it produces more beautiful and 
valuable rubies than are found in any other part ; 
likewise sapphires, topazes, amethysts, garnets, and 
many other precious and costly stones. The king 
is reported to possess the grandest ruby that ever 
was seen " I omit the dimensions given by this 
very entertaining traveller, rendered also most in- 
structive by his very able and accomplished editor 
" brilliant beyond description, and without a flaw. 
It has the appearance of a glowing fire, and is on 
the whole so valuable that no estimation can be 
made of its worth in money." The grand Khan, 



72 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

KUBLAI, sent ambassadors, offering the value of a 
city for this ruby ; but the King of Ceylon " would 
not sell it for all the treasure of the universe nor 
would he on any terms suffer to go out of his do- 
minions such a jewel, handed down to him by his 
predecessors on the throne." MARSDEN'S MARCO 
POLO, p. 622. COR DINER enumerates as the pro- 
duction of Ceylon, the ruby, emerald, topaz, ame- 
thyst, sapphire, cat's-eye or opal, cinnamon stone 
or garnet, sardonyx, agate, and some others. Ibid. 

Before the acquisition of Ceylon by the English, 
the ancient opinion of its unequalled value was 
common in India. The extreme jealousy which the 
Dutch manifested in the exclusion of all foreigners 
or interlopers, equalled only by their perseverance 
in the conquest of this celebrated island the scene 
of half the fables of the East tended to corroborate 
the impression above quoted, of its being unequalled 
in its circumstances. Our long and entire posses- 
sion of Ceylon has dispelled this illusion. The 
Company's servants in India cannot, it is true, cast 
off the opinion that it is sadly misruled mortified, 
perhaps, by their disappointed expectations as to 
ruling over it. They cannot understand how an 
island, which used to be deemed by the best judges 
so extremely rich and productive, cannot, under our 
sway, either pay or feed itself but which, instead 
of enriching, is a drain on our treasury. 

All who visit this interesting land of fable, are 
tempted to purchase some of its valuable produc- 
tions in the gem line : but much care is necessary. 
All sorts of beautiful stones are imported thither from 



STONES. 73 

England. On a very short visit if being within 
sight and reach of it may be so called I purchased, 
as curiosities in their kind, specimens of all the 
lithic products of Ceylon, knowing at the time that 
they were so manufactured and imported. 

The turquoise does not seem a product of Ceylon. 
In Persia it is a much-prized stone as contributory, 
it is said, to the success of the wearer, by averting 
the effects of the evil eye and boding looks. It is 
found in several places in Persia. Those from the 
mines of Khorasan are said to be most esteemed. It 
is found also in Kerman, and in Tibet. It is called, 
in Persian, ferozeh. I do not think turquoise a Per- 
sian word. It is not, I believe, much esteemed in 
England; and would not, probably, sell here for its 
cost in Persia. Its opacity and lack-lustre render it 
inferior in beauty to the emerald. The colour of 
both has, no doubt, some share in raising their value 
in the estimation of Mahommedans : it is the colour 
of the Prophet and none but his descendants, and 
those of the faithful who have made the pilgrimage 
to Mecca, wear turbans or clothes of the sacred co- 
lour. I possess rather a fine turquoise ring, some- 
what curiously engraved. 

I am here reminded of an adventure touching an 
emerald ring which, as it develops some traits of 
character, I beg permission to relate. 1 

Just before I finally quitted India with my family, 
an emerald ring was sent up to my wife with a re- 
quest that it might be purchased. She wanted no 

1 It is copied substantially from a letter to a literary friend. 
G 



74 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

such thing, and sent it back. But the owner was 
very pressing ; desired admittance " to the pre- 
sence ;" and, before it could be granted or refused, 
made his appearance, and dwelt eloquently and per- 
severingly on the beauty and value of the stone, and 
on the very small sum with which he, under his 
peculiar circumstances, would be satisfied " even 
if it were only one hundred rupees" about twelve 
guineas. It happened that Major PRICE was at 
that time in the house, preparing also to quit India. 
Communication was held with him he having, as 
before mentioned, had much experience in such 
things as a prize-agent at Serin gapatam. He 
thought it a remarkably fine stone. Still, as it was 
not wanted, rather with the view of getting rid of 
the man's importunity than to purchase, an offer of 
two mohurs (thirty rupees) was made, with an apo- 
logy the fact, that it was not wanted. An affected 
reluctance at accepting such a very inadequate sum, 
but still a not very tardy acceptance, led to an un- 
comfortable suspicion that all was not right : but, 
as the vender was evidently a warrior, a slight half 
hint, or hope, was all that could be ventured on so 
delicate a point. His open, bold answer spoke 
volumes or as much as need be said on such a 
subject. " I am a Mahratta!" said the man of 
sword, and shield, and ring : pretty much as to say, 
" I am of the ROB ROY school," in practice up- 
holding 

that simple plan 

That he should take who has the power, 
And they should keep who can. 



STONES. 75 

In short, two mohurs having been offered, the offer 
had been accepted, and a bargain was a bargain. 
The Mahratta departed with his money; and my 
wife not altogether approving the mode of sale and 
purchase possessed the splendid ring. 

We brought it to England; and, having some 
business with Messrs. GREEN and WARD, the emi- 
nent silversmiths, then of Ludgate Hill, now of Pall 
Mall East, we showed the ring. It was pro- 
digiously admired ; their lapidary was summoned ; 
and, after due deliberation, it was determined to have 
it cut and set in a peculiar and suitable fashion. 
" Such an emerald ! " such a size, and so free from 
flaw, was rarely seen." 

A few months elapsed : we returned to London, 
and sought our splendid ring, in its new aspects. 
On taking the stone from its setting, it had turned 
out a piece of glass with green wax and foil under it, 
and not worth one farthing ! to the great surprise of 
the skilled lapidary and the worthy jewellers and 
to our, at least equal, mortification ; aggravated, 
perhaps, by looking back at the awkward feeling of 
having received the goods, not knowing, but half 
suspectable, that they might not have been altogether 
honestly acquired. 

A Mahratta soldier and a jewel are always a sus- 
picious union. In this case, peradventure, 

" As naked and asleep an Indian lay, 
A bold Mahratta stole the gem away/ 7 

But whether naked or draped, asleep or awake, 
wpuld, perhaps, be pretty much the same, with our 



76 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

intrusive friend of the caste, country, and school, 
above indicated. We may not strictly quote the re- 
mainder of the hemistich. This will do better, though 
with less point, but more truth, than POPE'S (on the 
famous PITT diamond) 

" He brought it to the dame not with much wit 
She bought the emerald and the dame was bit." 

Now, had we been content with the ring as pur- 
chased from the bold ignorant plunderer, 1 we might 
still be in the enjoyment of the luxury, such as it is, 
of possessing a splendid emerald. Thus you see 
" where ignorance was bliss, what folly to be wise ! " 

Being on the subject of stones, seals, &c., I will 
here introduce an account of a seal found a few years 
ago, digging near my residence in Suffolk. I con- 
ceive it to have some reference to Hinduism, though 
unconsciously on the part of the designer. It is the 
original seal of the great Lazar-house of Burton, in 
Leicestershire, and has not been before engraved. I 
had it lithographed for another volume, which may 

1 Moralists must not be too austere in their view of the 
purchase of this ring, under the acknowledged circumstances 
of suspectability. Living long among Mahrattas may not 
have tended to sublimate one's morale. I had, besides bro- 
ken periods, been three whole years among them two in 
camp, devastating and plundering, to an extent not easily 
appreciable, an enemy's country. One year at court a 
time of intrigue treachery revolutionary ups and downs 
beyond all precedent, even at that theatre of such political 
exacerbations Poona. Surrounded on both services by two 
or three hundred thousand armed, bold, bad men, I know not 
which was the worst school. 



SEALS. 77 

never see the light, and I therefore take advantage 
of this. I will describe it more particularly presently. 
Meanwhile Ihave a word to say on the Lazar-house 
itself. 

In the reign of King STEPHEN say about 1150 
two great establishments were founded on our island. 
One at Great Ilford in Essex, of which I know 
nothing ; the other at Burton, still called Burton 
Lazars, or Burton St. Lazars, near Melton Mow- 
bray, in Leicestershire. The latter was built by 
general contribution through all England. It was 
dedicated to the VIRGIN and ST. LAZARUS; and 
consisted at first of a master, and eight sound, and 
several poor leprous brethren. They professed the 
order of ST. AUGUSTINE. The establishment be- 
came so rich and extended, that all the Lazar-houses 
of England were in some measure subject to its mas- 
ter ; as he himself was to the master of the Lepers of 
ST. JOHN of Jerusalem. (Malta?) 

Possessing this seal, I felt some interest in its 
subject ; and made a pilgrimage to Burton to seek 
the site of its once splendid establishment and (to 
compare small things with great, as ST. HELENA 
did the true Cross in Palestine) soon found it. Traces 
of its foundations, ponds, &c. extend over many 
acres ; but not two stones remain superterraneously 
one over the other. The foundations may be traced 
as extended, I think, as those of ST. EDMUND'S at 
Bury. If examined, masonic and other curiosities 
might haply be still turned up. But the sojourners 
in the neighbourhood of Burton do not dig for and 
turn up antiquities ; but turn out and dig for foxes. 



78 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Here is still near the church a pretty welling fount 
the origin, probably, of all the magnificent erections 
and institutions of the Lazar-house ; as those wonder- 
ful springs at Bath, and Holy well in Flintshire, are 
and were of all that respectively surrounded and 
surround them. 

Such was the spread of the loathsome disease in 
England, for which I have supposed the pretty 
spring at Burton was considered a Bethesda, that 
similar receptacles for lepers multiplied in great 
numbers ; scarcely a town of any note being without 
one, or more. It was, of course, among the poor 
that this disease was most malignant and prevalent. 
Their improved condition, as to food, raiment, lodg- 
ing, and medical treatment, has happily rendered it 
no longer formidable, and indeed scarcely known 
in these realms. 

Away with the inconsiderate assertion that the 
condition of the English poor is not ameliorated. 
England was indeed in a wretched state in those 
times, if in fact they ever existed, of which the 
amiable GOLDSMITH idly sung 

" When every rood of ground maintained its man ;" 

and would be so again, were such subdivision 
effected if poor GOLDSMITH'S 

" time ere England's woes began " 

could be restored. He knew little of the causes or 
cures of pauperism. 

Of Burton Lazar house, much may, no doubt, be 
found in NICHOLS'S history of Leicestershire which 



H.IY 






SEALS. 79 

I have not had an opportunity of examining. I could 
not help, when wandering among the fosse-like 
traceries of its foundations and moats, wishing the 
meadow among mine ; and (that I might not unduly 
covet my neighbour's goods) that the careless owner, 
whoever he be, had a better. 

The central subject of Plate IV. represents the 
seal. The stone, though well drawn, has been 
badly worked ; and having been effaced for another 
subject, I can give no better impressions. It is of 
the exact size of the original, and indeed an exact 
representation. We see either ST. AUGUSTINE or 
ST. LAZARUS, in his mitre and crozier, standing in 
a handsome niche, surrounded by these words if 
written at length : r 

^igtilum fraternitatfe Sanctt Hajari .gferusalem in &nglta. 

This is all that I have to say here on the subject 
of this curious seal ; in which, as I have hinted, I 
discover something Hinduish. It is in the mystical 
IONIC oval, or doubled cone, and in the position of 
the saints 7 (or bishops' ?) fingers. These are, espe- 
cially the ION i, very mysterious. On the latter, 
volumes have been written ; almost a volume, I 
fear, by me. But I shall here dilate but little far- 
ther thereon. No. 3, the lower subject of Plate IV., 
was intended as another exemplification of these 
mysterious figures taken from a source as little 
suspected by the designer to be SIVA-ZC, as was 
ST. LAZARUS his seal. The IONI and the cone are 
among the most profound mythi in the whole circle 



80 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

of Hindu profundities. Of these, perhaps, more 
hereafter. 

It is well known to sojourners in India, that a 
certain class or caste 3 as we call it of Hindus are 
snake charmers, or catchers. They are called Sam- 
poori and perhaps by other names derived from 
their " dreadful trade," as it may seem to be. But 
they " bear a charmed life," as they tell you, by vir- 
tue of the " snake stone :" this being taken out of the 
head of the reptile, he is no longer venomous. It is 
the beautiful species that the Portuguese, and we 
after them, call cobra capel, which exclusively, I 
believe, " wears the precious jewel in its crown." 
It is usual for the samporee, when exhibiting his 
tamed snakes to griffins as newly-imported writers 
and c'adets are called, and who, by their air, gape, 
&c. are at once known to the shrewd impostor to 
suffer himself to be bitten by the seemingly enraged 
reptile, till he bleed. He then, in haste, terror, and 
contortion, seeks a " snake stone," which he is 
never without, and sticks it on the wound, to which 
it adheres. In a minute or two the venom is ex- 
tracted, the bitten recovers, and the stone falls off, 
or is removed. If put into a glass of water, it sinks, 
and emits small bubbles every half-score seconds. 
This is the usual test of its genuineness : and it is 
odd if no one will give a rupee, or half a rupee, for 
such a curiosity. I have bought several when I 
could ill afford it. They are usually of a dark hue ; 
but not always of one colour flat, like a tamarind 
stone, and about the size and nearly round. These 



SNAKE STONES. 81 

are the genuine ones : and I declare that I am by no 
means certain at this day although I have called 
the sampuri an impostor that they are not genuine ; 
that is, not actually taken out of the reptile's head. 
Be that as it may I have been sufficiently often 
imposed on by my friends the sampuri, to warrant 
my application of the term. I will add a word or 
two of particulars. 

After having purchased, perhaps, half a dozen 
genuine snake-stones of the above description, duly 
tested, one of those gentry brought me one nearly 
transparent. This I bought ; and another, and ano- 
ther, till I acquired a score or two, of different sorts 
and sizes and I began to suspect that I was not one 
of the wisest men in the world. I still retain the 
box of stones and have not altogether relinquished 
the suspicion. 

Those beautiful creatures, the cobra capella, some- 
times lodge in or about your house, or out-houses. 
On being seen, or suspected your shrewd servant 
may suspect, on being fee'd by the sampori you 
send for the artist, who, on promise that you will 
not kill the snake, proceeds to catch him. This he 
effects by piping on a calabash all about your pre- 
mises especially about your diminished poultry- 
yard, diminished possibly by the curryings of your 
said servant. When you may not be very intently 
observing, a sudden shout, spring, and fall by the 
sampori, announce the caption of your intrusive 
neighbour. He is produced the exulting captor 
holding him at arm's length by the nape of the neck, 



82 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

the eyes of both sparkling and startling ; the reptile 
writhing and wriggling itself round the man's arm, 
neck, Sec., till the collected family are frightened 
half out of their wits. 

The victor now squats down, and, with an iron 
stile, forces open the jaws of the snake ; and, before 
your face, compels him to disgorge the bloody 
" precious jewel." If bitten, he applies it, as before 
described ; and reluctantly accepts half a rupee for 
it, if more cannot be obtained. 

The reader may, or may not, guess that this is all 
a farce. There was no snake. The servant ate the 
fowls ; got a quarter of a rupee from a friendly sam- 
poree, who brought a snake in his sash ; and at a 
favorable unobserved moment loosed it, and, at ano- 
ther favorable observed moment, caught it. Amid 
the writhings of the snake, and its suitable accom- 
paniments, a little manual dexterity is sufficient to 
elude your vision ; and the stone is, or seems to be, 
cleverly extracted. 

But sometimes there is a snake really domiciled 
with you. I lived at Byculldj two miles from the 
fort of Bombay. The foundation of my nice little 
house ("say a small house, Ma'am, if you please") 
was raised a foot or two with masonry ; and, from 
between two large stones in the front, we often saw 
and watched the protrusion of a snake's head and 
shoulders. We could never find him wholly out, so 
as to give any chance of chase and capture; nor 
could I catch him with a noosed string. I did not 
choose, from certain feelings or prejudices, to have 



SNAKE STONES. 83 

him shot, and resolved to send for a sampuri to 
catch him. 1 

My old and esteemed friend, General BENJAMIN 
FORBES, then a captain in the 75th Highlanders, 
was my very near neighbour : and I invited him to 
come and see the tamcaka, or amusement, of catching 
my snake ; at whose head and shoulders he had 
more than once wished to direct his gun. 

1 I may, perhaps, be permitted to recollect, and relate an 
anecdote connected with a snake, of a day long past. When 
I was an idle boy I caught a very young one not longer 
than my pen, and kept it some time in a bottle feeding it 
on flies and crumbs of bread. It thrived ; and I removed 
him into a larger bottle, as more suited to his size. I was 
accustomed to take him out occasionally and seeing what 
the samporis did, I amused my snake and myself, and some- 
times a neighbour, by whistling or fluting to the dancing of 
rny pet ; as the erect, graceful, stately attitude and motion 
of this species of snake is usually called. I am, all along, 
speaking of the cobra capella, or hooded snake. I know of 
no other species apparently moved by music. I had deemed 
it expedient, pretty early, to extract or break his fangs with 
forceps and my companion waxed till he could of himself 
get out of a gallon bottle. He was then placed in a suitable 
jar ; but as he grew, he would occasionally get out and a 
calling neighbour might perhaps find him on the sofa, with, 
or without, me. I fancied the creature knew me of a cold 
morning, I have found him in my bed and I became at- 
tached to him. My servant I then had but one a Mussul- 
man also liked him. He was, however, unpopular with my 
neighbours ; and I found that I got laughed at, or worse, 
for such apparent affectation of singularity ; and I resolved 
to part with my messmate, who had grown to an incon- 
venient size perhaps a yard long, or nearly. At length I 
carried him to a rocky, sunny place, two or three miles off ; 
and for ever quitted my singular companion. 



84 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

The sampori came and, after due piping, seduced 
the snake from his hiding-place, caught him, and 
extracted the stone, in the way already described, 
before our faces. 

A clever Parsee servant had reminded us that we 
had lately lost many fowls, adding that he should not 
wonder if there was another samp, somewhere near 
the fowl-house. Thither we went ; and, after the 
usual ceremonials, sure enough another was caught. 
I smelt a rat ; and, causing the exulting catcher to 
bring his writhing captive into the viranda, watched 
narrowly the lithotomic process. At the proper 
moment, I, to the great astonishment of my friend 
FORBES and the other spectators, seized the snake- 
less hand of the operator ; and there found, to his 
dismay, perdue in his well-closed palm, the intended- 
to-be extracted stone. 

The fellow made a full and good-humoured con- 
fession of the trick, as touching the second snake 
and the concealed stone ; but stoutly maintained 
that he fairly caught the first ; and that, although 
the semi-transparent, amber-like stones were alto- 
gether fictitious, the opaque concretion was some- 
times, though not often, found in the reptile's head ; 
and that it really had some of the virtues ascribed to 
it. He good-humouredly blamed me for exposing 
him hinting that credulity was the easy parent of 
craft ; and somewhat slyly said something Hudibras- 
tically equivalent to the assertion that 

the pleasure is as great 

In being cheated, as to cheat. 



SNAKE STONES. 85 

After all, I repeat my confession that I, unphilo- 
sophically, retain a portion of my early belief, that 
some individuals of the serpent tribe elaborate a con- 
cretion in their palate : nor can I entirely shake off' 
the belief that it has some anti-poisonous virtue. I 
am, clearly, no chymist. If any such have a desire 
to analyse snake-stones (I never read of its having 
been done) several of mine shall be at his disposal. 
The semi-transparent ones are, confessedly, of a 
composition called in India, and I believe in Eng- 
land, sandarach, or false amber. 

Under this head, I find this note from WALPOLE'S 
" Turkey," p. 285. : " At Cyprus we were shown, 
as precious stones, compositions fabricated by artful 
Jews, said to have been taken out of the head of the 
KovQi. They are worn as amulets, to protect the 
wearers from the bite of venomous animals." 

Wonderful relations of tricks exhibited with dead- 
ly venomous serpents at Cairo, by a charmed tribe, 
are given by BRUCE. By wonderful, I do not mean 
mendacious. That enterprising traveller may have 
been deceived ; but I do not think, nor did I ever, 
that he intentionally deceived others. 

Having no intention of writing diffusely on Stones, 
but to throw together a few fragments that I find 
scattered among my memoranda, I am, I hope, 
drawing to a close on that subject. As among other 
races, the Hindus are found to have a mystic reve- 
rence for lithic forms. Their subterranean cavern 
temples colossal * statues towering obelisks stone 

1 The largest in the world perhaps, of a single stone, is 
H 



86 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

idols and other revered things, as well as their love 
of gems, mark them as sharing extensively, with the 
rest of mankind, in a veneration for stone formations. 

But it is under the designation of Salagrama that 
such a form is most mysteriously and awfully con- 
templated. Only that there is nothing too ridiculous 
for legend-mongers to invent and display, we might 
reasonably marvel at the seeming nonsense in which 
we find this pebble enveloped. 

Volumes have been written on its mysteriousness 
and virtues. Several ceremonies are uncompletable 
without one. In death, it is as essential an ingre- 
dient in the viaticum, to at least one sect of Vaish- 
nava perhaps to many sects as is the oleo santo of 
Papists. The departing Hindu holds it in his hand 
an easier, and less disturbing, and less unpleasant 
process than the greasings of the dying Papist. 

The salagram is used in other ceremonies, as well 
as in those funereal. In honor of RAMA CHANDRA, 
I know not how, it is accompanied by an offering of 
tulsi leaves, on the 9th of the month Chaitra, called 
Sri RAMA navami, or the birth-day of the holy 
RAMA. The nymph TULASI, or TULSI, as many 
Hindu females are prettily named after her, was 
metamorphosed by KRISHNA into this lovely plant 

depicted in Plate 73 of the Hindu Pantheon. It is upwards 
of seventy feet high. I suspect that plate is not from a good 
drawing. I have another, a more distant view, of this Colos- 
sus, who is at home called GOMUT RAYA. I have not seen 
a third. He stands on a hill a few miles inland from Manga- 
lore on the Malabar coast ; at, or near, the town of Einuru, or 
Yennoor. 



SALAGRAMA. 87 

the holy ocymum as related in a style perfectly 
Ovidian in one of the Puranas, among the exploits 
of the pastoral deity, enamoured of that virtuous 
nymph. Asiatic Researches, Vol. in. 277. Vol. TV. 
280. 

It does not occur to me that I ever saw a salagram 
while in India. My deceased friend, General 
CHARLES STUART, of the Bengal army, had two 
in England. He took them back, I understand, to 
India. One has, not long since, been presented to 
the Royal Asiatic Society, by a lady, with a de- 
scription ; from which, as abridged in a periodical, 
we learn that these stones are found in a lake 1 80 
miles in circumference, called Vishnu-chatrum. Its 
position does not appear. A fable is given, as to 
the origin of the salagram, in the usual Puranic 
style. VISHNU or rather, as I suspect, KRISHNA 
being foiled in his unlawful views on a virtuous 
woman, changed her husband into a salagram, and 
her into the Toolsee or tulsi plant, in recompense of 
their sufferings ; and commanded that both should 
thereafter be offered on his altars. 

If the Royal Asiatic Society should publish any 
account of this stone, it may be hoped and expected 
that a scientific description and analysis will be 
given of a pebble, which has somehow or other at- 
tracted the veneration of a numerous people, to a 
degree not perhaps predicable of any other. Se- 
veral salagrams are in the Museum of the Royal 
Asiatic Society. 

A slight notice is taken of the salagrama in the 
Hin. Pan. p. 309. They were supposed to be found 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

only in Nepal, and in only one of its rivers, the 
Gandaki flowing, according to the Vaishnavas, 
from the foot of VISHNU ; and, according to the 
Saivas, from the head of SIVA. In physical geo- 
graphy both sectarial legends are correct. It is now 
believed that the pebbles are found in other places ; 
and that, like Ganga, Gandaki is a generic name ; 
which, though pre-eminently applied, means rather 
o, than the, river. Being usually black, the sala- 
grama are, like the tithi, sacred to VISHNU or 
KRISHNA. They are mostly of a round form, and 
variously perforated, apparently by worms ; or, as 
is fabled, by VISHNU in that shape. Some have 
internal spiral ammonitic curves ; variations in which 
mark the legendary character of the worming deity. 
One perforation in four such curves the curves, 
perhaps, encircling the orifice, for these descriptions 
are not very perspicacious resembling, in imagina- 
tion's creative eye, a cow's foot and flowers, con- 
tains the benign characteristic forms of LAKSHMI- 
N ARRAY AN A. A timid Hindu may venture not 
only to invoke, but to touch or even to possess, a 
salagram of this innocuous formation. But border- 
ing on a violet colour, with other certain indications, 
they denote a vindictive avatara, or descent, of 
VISHNU, such as Narasingha, when no man of 
ordinary nerve dare keep one. The fortunate pos- 
sessor preserves his gem in a clean cloth. It is fre- 
quently perfumed and bathed; the water, thereby 
acquiring sin-expelling potency, is prized and drank. 
Those which I have seen are less than a common 
billiard-ball solid, without holes; resembling a 



SALAGRAMA. 89 

common hard smooth pebble black, as if soaked in 
oil. The stone is said not to effervesce with acids, 
and to elicit a spark when struck on steel. 

I have recently noticed a colossal statue in C- 
nara, as probably the largest, of a single stone, in 
the world. Since that notice was penned, I have 
read of another, a rival. It is described in Colonel 
WELSH'S Reminiscences-^ work which I have not 
yet had the good fortune to meet with. In the extract 
which I have seen from that work, it appears to be 
at Nungydeo, and is described as a finely formed 
image, about seventy feet high, carved out of one 
solid stone, representing a young man with wreaths 
of laurel T winding from his ankles to his shoulders ; 
every leaf of which is so exquisitely laboured, as to 
bear the closest examination. Two vultures were 
perched upon its head. The upper part was seven 
times the height of a man, who stood upon the 
upper part of a building adjacent; the legs and 
thighs of the statue being beneath him. " That it 
was cut out of the solid z rock cannot/' the Colonel 

1 My drawing of the brother of this Colossus shows rather 
loti ; or the common paun, or beetel leaf. 

2 A similar opinion was given by the Duke of WELLING- 
TON, who examined the first noticed statue. My plate in the 
Hin. Pan. is from a drawing in his Grace's collection. The 
hill or mountain itself forms a suitable base having, on this 
supposition, once sent a pinnacle up-ward, of seventy feet at 
least, now chisseled into a statue : the whole being a mono- 
lithe, in this, as in its twin brother, GOMUT RAYA, of the 
Hin. Pan. On farther consideration, however, I suspect it to 
be no case of twins, or of rivalry, or duality but that Col. 
W. and I have written on the same identical subject. I never 



90 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

says, " be doubted ; for no power on earth could 
have moved so massive a column to place it there, on 
the top of a steep and slippery mountain so steep, 
indeed, that we could not even see the statue till we 
had ascended close to it. The legs and thighs are in 
proportion, and attached to a large mass of the rock* 
I never in my life beheld so great a curiosity, every 
feature being most admirably finished. The nose is 
inclining to aquiline, the under-lip very prominent 
and pouting, showing the profile to great advantage. 
Every part from top to toe is smooth and highly 
polished. I could hardly conceive how the hand of 
man, particularly of a race by no means either intel- 
ligent or educated, could accomplish such a labour. 
No person on the spot seemed to know or care, when, 
or how, or by whom, it was made. The Brahmans 
called it Go MET RAUZ or Go MET REZ. At a 
distance it appeared like a stone pillar." 

The high pitch to which Hindu artists formerly 
attained in the line of sculpture has not yet been 
fully shown to Europe. It may be doubted if the 
sculptors of Greece have much surpassed them in 
that branch of the Fine Arts. 

Not foreseeing the length to which other Heads 
of these Fragments may extend, it appears advisable 
to close this Head ; and to proceed, albeit abruptly, 
to another. 

saw the gigantic structure. My wife, with a large wondering 
and admiring party, made a pilgrimage to it. 



FRAGMENTS SECOND. 

PAGANISM PAPACY HINDUISM NUNS 

CORONATION &C. &C. 

MAN, after all, is the same animal every where 
the Esquimaux or the Englishman, the Levite or the 
Brahman altered by the contingencies of geogra- 
phical position and education. His grand generic 
characteristics are proneness to accumulativeness and 
idleness. This may seem contradictory ; but the 
dread of want is the source of all exertion. Those 
who possess, will work by proxy. This is applicable 
to mental workings and to manipulation. The priest 
is ready to think for the wealthy, and to let the poor 
work for him : and who is not, more or less, as well 
as the priest ? 

If the following, so called, Christian fables were 
slightly altered, or merely a few Hindu names and 
words substituted, they might be unsuspectedly 
given as a translation from a Parana. It may, in- 
deed, be reasonably doubted if, in fact, they be not 
thence derived. I am about to quote from " GILLY'S 
Piemont" a literal translation of the 12th edition 
of a little book published by the Pope's authority. 



92 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

It is entitled " Breve Descrizione della sagra Bazilica 
di S. MARIA degli Angioti? The book in question 
is professed to be written "for the instruction of 
the devout, and especially of pilgrims visiting the 
holy Porziuncola." Here follow two of these pre- 
posterous tales : 

" It was in the year 1221, and in the month of 
October, that the holy father ST. FRANCIS was 
praying one night very fervently for sinners in his 
own habitation, distant about forty paces from the 
Purziuncola, and behold an angel came to him and 
told him that CHRIST and the VIRGIN MARY were 
waiting for him in the chapel. FRANCIS obeyed 
the invitation, and went and prostrated himself upon 
the earth, and adored the Majesty of the Most High. 
And CHRIST said to him, ' FRANCIS, in recompense 
for the zeal thou hast displayed for the salvation of 
souls, I permit thee to ask whatever thou shalt de- 
sire for the benefit of sinners, and for the glory of my 
name.' And FRANCIS, being prompted by the Vir- 
gin, humbly asked that to all those who should enter 
that church, pardon and indulgence for all their sins 
should be freely granted, upon condition of confessing 
them to the priest. And JESUS granted his request; 
but commanded him to go to Perugia, to his Vicar 
the Pope, and to demand the indulgence in his 
name." 

A tale exactly similar to this as to the outline 
of the machinery priestly prayers, holy apparition, 
proffered boon, solicited indulgence, purifying pil- 
grimage and penitence (or at any rate presents) is 
related of hundreds of Hindu temples. It is in India 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. 93 

the stalest of inventions and one is apt to wonder 
at its repetition ; until the reflection arises that it is 
found to take, and to work well. 

Tale the second from the said " Short Descrip- 
tion." 

" In the month of January, 1223, two years after 
the grant of the indulgence, ST. FRANCIS was in 
his little cell near the Porziuncola, meditating upon 
the passion of his blessed Redeemer, and lacerating 
his own body with stripes, when suddenly he heard 
a knock at the door, and a voice exclaiming 
' Where is the necessity of so much mortification ? 
You are a young man, and there is time enough be- 
fore you to prepare for death.' He knew directly 
that it was SATAN, with one of his evil suggestions ; 
and, in order to prevail against him, he threw him- 
self naked into a place full of thorns, which was near 
at hand, and rolled himself among them until every 
part of his body was pierced and covered with blood. 
Oh ! wonderful prodigy ! All of a sudden the 
prickly bushes were turned into roses, red and 
white, without any thorns ; the place was illuminated 
with a brilliant light ; the saint was arrayed in white 
apparel ; and a multitude of angels appeared, who 
invited him to accompany them to the chapel, where 
CHRIST was again waiting for him with his most 
Holy Mother. Having plucked twelve red roses and 
twelve white " (there is nothing like being particular 
in these relations) "FRANCIS, surrounded by the 
angels, who spread their wings over him, proceeded 
by a path, which was covered with the most precious 
stuffs, to the sacred Porziuncola, where he saw, for 



94 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

the second time, JESUS, sitting on one side of the 
altar, and the VIRGIN MARY on the other," &c. &c. 
But. this may suffice for the present. 

How many hundreds of similar fables might be 
collected from papal and from pagan legends ! I 
have many, Papal and Hindu, and a few shall be 
selected for the edification of the curious, and given 
in this volume. 

But I must pause here to note that the above 
extracts, and some pages of the preceding Head, 
were not intended for this volume of Fragments ; but 
for another, which was intended to have been pub- 
lished first. The title-page (which, in all volumes, 
although read first, is printed last) is written, and 
runs thus : 

ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 



PAGAN AND PAPAL ROME: 

CONNECTING THOSE 

ANCIENT AND MODERN 
PAGAN RITES, CEREMONIES, AND LEGENDS, 

WITH THE FABLES OF 

HINDU MYTHOLOGY ; 

AND SHOWING THE UNCHANGEABLENESS OF POPERY, AND 
MONKERY AND PRIESTCRAFT 

APPLICABLE TO THE PRESENT TIMES. 
BY , &c. 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. 95 

It is probable that the said intended volume may 
never see the light : but I may, as I am here doing, 
give some extracts from the pretty ample mass of 
materials that I have collected for it although, as 
before hinted, they may be confessedly out of place 
and possibly not the most apt that might have 
been selected. 

Let it be kept in mind, however, that this is a 
volume of Fragments , and that although the First 
Head (which was not intended for the First) is enti- 
tled of " Eastern Correspondence Seals Stones " 
I have had the presence of mind to add "&c. &c." 
There is great virtue, and to me, with certain mis- 
cellaneous rambling propensities, great accommoda- 
tion, in your " &c. &c." It may, thus, be not easy 
to say what is " out of place." 

The Rev. Mr. GILLY observes in the work here 
quoted, " that the Roman Catholics condemn as a 
fable the amours of JUPITER and DANAE, yet make 
no scruple of marrying CHRIST to ST. CATHARINE 
of SiemtOj and would deem the disbelief of it a sin ; 
though the mere relation of such a fiction has some- 
thing in it almost blasphemous to Protestant ears. 
Nay, the Romanist affects to have evidence to this 
fact : he appeals to documents ; he shows you, in 
the public library at Sienna, the Correspondence 
between the sainted CATHARINE and her affianced 
REDEEMER, and her mother-in-law the VIRGIN 
MARY. I have seen in the Cathedral of Milan a 
large picture representing our SAVIOUR exchanging 
his own blood with that of ST. CATHARINE of 
Sienna.'* 



96 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

" NUMA'S assignations with the nymph EGERIA 
are considered to be the inventions of an artful 
politician ; but who of the Catholic priesthood will 
permit his flock to doubt that the holy FRANCIS, 
of Assisi, had real interviews with the VIRGIN 
MARY?" 

These papal legends are really too bad. Those of 
the modern Greek church are, however, equally so. 
One may compare them with the legendary abomi- 
nations of KRISHNA ; which the Brahmans, in- 
deed, ashamed of their grossness, have the decency 
to gloss over, by saying that, notwithstanding ap- 
pearances and particulars which may not be here 
mentioned, all such indecencies were mere may a 
or delusion. Maya would be a very convenient and 
decorous veil or cloak to throw over sundry papal 
legends and fables, impiously detailed, of holy and 
divine characters. We do, indeed, see a semblance 
or imitation of it ; for if you seem shocked, as the 
Rev. Mr. GILLY was, at the blasphemous tenden- 
cies of such legends, the veil, or cloak of spirituality 
is adroitly thrown over the carnality of the fables. 
Like the Brahmans with Krishuaianaj the priests 
interpose their may a, between their unchristian 
legends and offended feelings. 

" Soon after Christianity had achieved its triumph 
over the polytheism of its predecessors, the principle 
which had assisted, began to corrupt it. Patron 
Saints assumed the offices of Household Gods. ST. 
GEORGE took the place of MARS. ST. ELMO con- 
soled the mariner for the loss of CASTOR and POL- 
LUX. The Virgin Mother and CECILIA succeeded 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. 97 

to VENUS and the Muses. The fascinations of sex 
and loveliness were again joined to that of celestial 
dignity; and the homage of chivalry was blended 
with that of religion." Ed. Rev. No. 84. p. 319. 

The indecent orgies in the sacrificial rites it may 
be here added of CERES and BACCHUS, became 
sanctified under a holier dispensation ; and from the 
disgrace have, by a happy transmutation, proved the 
consolation of a great, and increasing, portion of the 
best of mankind. 

" The goddess EOSTRE or EASTRE, the AS- 
TART E of the Phoenicians, is retained by us in our 
Easter; her annual festival having been super- 
seded by that sacred dayl" SOUTHEY'S Book of 
the Church, Vol. I. p. 20. 

The goddess just named has been supposed one of 
the Hindu divinities. This passage occurs in the 
Hindu Pantheon, p. 155. " One of the names of 
PARVATI is AsuTARA-devi : hence the ASHTAROTH 
of the Hebrews, and the ASHTARA," or SITARA, 
of the Persians. It is a name derived from spikes 
or points. See a legend accounting for it in 
Asiatic Researches, III. 390. 8vo. ed." 

On the above passage I find, in my interleaved 
copy of the Hin. Pan. this note " The Paphian 
goddess was anciently symbolized by a cone." 
CLARKE, II. 334. Dr. C. is describing some 
antiquities in the Holy Land, II. 578. and one 
might imagine he was in India. " A subter- 
raneous conical temple, having no resemblance to 

1 Meaning a star, or astral. 
I 



98 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

any Christian temple ; " its situation, " on the pin- 
nacle of a mountain, one probably of the three 
peaks or points of the Mount of Olives ; the highest 
of which was set apart for the worship of ASHTO- 
RETH or AsTAROTti," &c. &c. all denoting that the 
Hindu superstitions connected with the rites of the 
mountain goddess PARVATI have been prevalent 
there. 

" CERES and VENUS, JUNO and DIANA, &c. &c. 
are in fact the same goddess Nature under dif- 
ferent forms the pantamorpha Mater. URANIA, 
Isis, ASTARTE, &c. are the same. DEA JANA, or 
Diva Jana, is made into DIANA by the Romans, 
and JUNO is the same word. See CLARKE'S Tra- 
vels, II. 317. 319. GALE'S Court of the Gentiles, 
b. ii. c. 2. p. 119. Oxon. 1699. CLARKE'S Greek 
Marbles. KIRCH. &gyptiaca" So far the Note. 

Eostre, Eastre, lostre, Easter, Astra, a star, &c. 
may be easily connected all heavenly, or astral. 

In another article, not perhaps in this Volume, I 
shall endeavour to show the extreme and extensive 
prevalence of the Ionic sound and allusion; as found 
primarily in lo, extended to IONI (or Yoni) JUNO, 
loNifl, &c. among Hindus and other pagans; as 
well as among western Heathens and Christians of 
ancient and modern times. Meanwhile return we to 
the subject whence we have thus digressed. 

" Under the Romans a temple of DIANA stood 
where ST. PAUL'S now stands." SOUTHEY'S 
Book of the Church, II. 33. 

' The Pantheon, which AGRIPPA had 

dedicated to JUPITER and all the gods, was, by the 
Pope, converted into a church, inscribed to the 



PAGANISM AND PAPACY. 99 

Blessed Virgin and all the Saints. Nor was it in 
idolatry, polytheism, and creature-worship alone, that 
the resemblance was apparent between the religion 
of pagan and papal Rome. The priests of the Roman 
Church had gradually fallen into many of the rites 
and ceremonies of their heathen predecessors ; pro- 
fiting, in some cases, by what was useful ; in others 
not improperly conforming to what was innocent : 
but, in too many points, culpably imitating pernicious 
and abominable usages." Book of the Ch. I. 308. 

Several writers have noticed the striking resem- 
blance, amounting, indeed, to identity, between the 
superstitions of the polytheists of ancient times, and 
those of the more modern Romans. There can be no 
doubt but many of the fables and legends of the 
poetical mythologies of Greece and Rome have been 
vamped and altered not for the better by papists. 
Not confined, indeed, to fables and legends ; for the 
Capitoline statue of JUPITER, with scarcely a vamp, 
serves admirably and here good taste at least was 
shown for an image of ST. PETER in the Vatican. 
Substituting a key for the fulmen might haply have 
sufficed and the valiant apostle was substituted for 
JUPITER tonans. Nor was any lack of potentiality 
experienced ; for the transformed pagan was found, 
in adroit hands, to work as clever miracles as any 
saint in the papal kalendar and almost equal to 
those, unless under very favoured predicaments, such 
as Loretta or Radna even to those of Our Lady 
herself. 

" Nor is it easy to detect the cheat, 

Where knaves are plausible and dupes discreet." 



100 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

The transformation if properly so called of 
JUPITER into PETER may be taken as a specimen 
of the accommodating nature of papacy ; for the 
Jew PETER was merely, they say, foreshadowed by 
his thundering namesake, before they became iden- 
tically, and substantially, and petrifically one. 

It is the natural process of bigotry and fanaticism 
and almost of humanity in the abstract to 
triumph over prostrate foes. Such proneness is to 
be corrected only by the prevalence of real religious 
feelings combined with those of civilization and re- ' 
finement. A religious sect successfully opposing 
another, is too apt, all the world over, to mark its 
success by unseemly persecution and triumph. One 
of the most obvious manifestations of such baseness is 
in the desecration of religious edifices, and the change 
in the rituals of worship : or their destruction, and 
re-erection into the temples of the triumphant party. 
Of this many instances could be easily given. ST. 
SOPHIA at Constantinople has witnessed the crescent 
and the cross alternately victorious. The crescent 
has long kept its proud place there since its last as- 
cendancy. In our day it has tottered more than 
once. At Rome the Pantheon has witnessed a like 
change of scenery albeit the actors were somewhat 
different. Its namesake of Paris has, again in our 
own times, shown its mutations of destiny ; arising, 
in this instance, from political, rather than religious 
predominancy. Not, however, but religious feeling, 
in the alternations of its hot and cold fits, has had, 
perhaps, a sufficient share in the disorders of that 
vivacious capital. 



PAGANISM AND PAPACY. 101 

In India, the Mahommedan conquerors have been 
too often known as the despoilers of Hindu temples ; 
and in some instances they have been converted into 
what we call mosques, and they musjid. And the 
Portuguese have, in that country, evinced a similar 
spirit. But I have never heard of Hindus having 
done so ; or of their having evinced any of this per- 
secuting intolerant feeling of triumph. We read of 
religious wars among them of old ; originating, per- 
haps, like most of such wars, in matters of very 
little moment to the welfare of society ; and alike in 
another point the venom and malignity with which 
they have been prosecuted. But it is not, I be- 
lieve, on record, that when victorious over foes of 
another religion, the Hindus have ever converted 

O ' 

churches or mosques into what we call pagodas : l 
or even that they have destroyed churches or 
mosques. It seems a tenet of practice, as well as of 
doctrine, with Hindus, that all religions teach men 
to be good ; and that it is not a very momentous 
point by what name the religion of a sincere votary 
may be designated. It may be, that in the fre- 
quent change incident to the various wars which 
have ravaged India for centuries, Hindus may have 
found the temple of a subdued or an ejected party 
suited to their own purpose ; and, from feelings of 
economy rather than of triumph, may have devoted 
it to a holy purpose ; and if so, without any exult- 
ing desecration. The English cannot be accused of 

1 A word altogether, I believe, unknown in any language 
of India: nor is mosque much more intelligible to any native 
of that region. 



102 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

any such zealous intolerance : finding a church of 
the departed Jesuits in the village of Parel, at Bom- 
bay, five miles from the fort, useless as such, a like 
feeling of economy led to its conversion ; not, in- 
deed, into a Protestant church, but into a country 
retreat for the Governor : and the genii of festivity 
have long presided where the followers of IGNA- 
TIUS scourged themselves, and deluded others. So 
it may have been a sense of economy, combined 
with good taste, that allowed the statue of JUPI- 
TER to be a suitable representation of the more 
modern ST. PETER, as recently noticed. To that 
feeling, moreover, it may be that the lovers of art 
are beholden for the preservation of many precious 
remains in papal and other countries. Why should 
not an ancient sculpture of MARSYAS, poetically 
flayed by APOLLO, as fitly represent the execrable 
martyrdom of ST. BARTHOLOMEW, as that fine, 
though terrible, performance in the Cathedral at 
Milan, if as well executed ? 

We find no fault with such transfer of idolatry, 
when such are its results. How different from the 
detestable proceedings in CROMWELL'S time in 
England when every vestige of art was deemed 
superstitious, and destroyed or defaced by his, or 
his parliament's, brutal iconoclasts. In my county 
of Suffolk, you can scarcely pass or enter a church 
without cause to lament the " Visitation" of our 
imps of fanaticism, WILLIAM DOWSING and Co. 
Let us rob oblivion of her due, and gibbet his name. 
It is true, he may have been but a wretched tool in 
the dirty hands of more detestable miscreants than 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. 103 

himself. But he appears to have done his work 
con amore. And I cannot, as far as my country, 
my county, my neighbourhood nay, my own 
parish church, are concerned, but hold his name and 
memory in deep and deserved abhorrence. 

In my own parish of Great Beatings he decapi- 
tated and defaced three saints, whose effigies in 
stone ornamented the summit of our church porch. 
And the curiously, though grotesquely, carved wood- 
work of our seats are, in a hundred instances, sadly 
mutilated. I know not if the statues of our headless 
and handless saints were ever high specimens of 
art; but the physiognomy of our pretty porch is 
much injured by the injuries inflicted on theirs. 

I shall here digress from this digression from the 
immediate consideration of the conversion of images 
and temples, or of their destruction or defacement 
to another topic, marking a coincidence between 
pagan and papal Rome; connecting occasionally 
Hindu paganism more especially with the interme- 
diate and existing rites and superstitions. 

Some of the Hindu legends, like the fables of the 
Greek dramas, exhibit the grave irony of the gods 
triumphing over the impotent presumption of man 
the sport and terrible victim of insulted divinity ex- 
emplifying the adage, so often quoted, 

" Quern Deus vult perdere, prius dementat." * 

1 If it were asked in what classic author this trite line oc- 
curs, the answer must prohably be, that, although few lines 
of the Latin writers are oftener quoted than this, it does not 
occur in any one. A similar idea may be variously found- 
but not the line, nor any line very like it. 



104 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

This is applicable chiefly to the superior of the 
Hindu divinities, as in the Narasingavatara of 
VISHNU. INDRA, and others of the secondary 
causes of the operations of nature (he is the regent 
or ruler of firmamental, or atmospheric, phenomena) 
are sometimes in great danger, and even over- 
powered, by the machinations of men generally in 
the line of pious austerities. In this we may discern 
the cunning of priestcraft. Abstinence, privation, 
austerity, torture, suicide these are enjoined in 
artful graduation, corresponding with the plenitude, 
or lack, of faith or nerve of the neophyte. Hindu 
legends are replete with fables of the dominion, 
wealth, women, and all the reward that can await 
the ambition, cupidity, or sensuality of craving man, 
from the continuous completion of such austerities 
resulting from such vows. Papal lying legends 
tread closely on their heel, as to gullibility ; inde- 
licacy and atrocity abound in both. 

The avatar of VISHNU, just named, is one among 
the many Hindu legends where their gods appear as 
"wretches who palter in a double sense keeping 
the word of promise to the ear." In this descent 
that is the meaning of avatar VISHNU came to 
punish one who, by his pious austerities, had ex- 
torted this boon from SIVA that he should be in- 
vulnerable against man or beast, by night or day, 
within doors or without. Elated to unbearable im- 
piety and tyranny by such exemption, his destruction 
became necessary ; and VISHNU burst from a pillar 
so critically situated on the very threshold as to 
evade the promise, at the moment- " of night's black 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. 105 

arch the key-stone," neither in the form of man 
nara nor of lion singha but a compound of both : 
and in that shape, at that instant, and on that 
spot, " broke the word of promise to the hope;" and 
tore the impious tyrant into gobbets. 

ST. FRANCIS has appeared before us in his self- 
infliction of austerity and torture, as superior to the 
tempter. The Flagellantes of Italy, in the thirteenth 
century, had improved so monstrously on his tenets 
as to hold that flagellation was of equal virtue with 
baptism and the other sacraments ; that the forgive- 
ness of all sins was to be obtained by it from GOD 
without the merits of JESUS CHRIST; that the old 
law of CHRIST was soon to be abolished ; and that a 
new law enjoining the baptism of blood by whipping 
was to be substituted. Not only were the sacraments 
rejected by this sect, but all forms of external wor- 
ship save flagellation. On this and faith, they 
placed their only hope of salvation. The Pope, 
CLEMENT VII., of course poured out his anathemas 
against these poor creatures, who were duly burnt 
by the holy Inquisition especially in Germany for 
the faith and practice spread wonderfully. And 
why ? it was bitterly persecuted. 

It once, and but once, in all my wanderings and 
sojourn in papal regions or among papists, happened 
to me to witness the operations of the Flagellantes. 
That was at Tellicherry, on the coast of Malabar, in 
1786. I passed the night of the vigil of Easter at a 
Portuguese church. The ceremonies of singing, 
weeping, preaching, taking down the crucifix with 
the crucified ; processions of the body, large as life 



106 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

and hideous as death, on a bier; circumambulations 
of the church (called by Hindus pradakshna, a 
favorite mode of propitiation) and flogging, occu- 
pied, I think, the whole night, I assisted in several 
of these ceremonies assuredly not in all. I did not 
preach or whip myself; but I certainly prayed very 
fervently, and cried bitterly. 

How sympathetic is sorrow ! Go I into the pit 
alone, I choked occasionally at SIDDONS or O'NfiiL 

and do so still at the domestic miseries of that 
highly-gifted creature FANNY KEMBLE but do 
not always weep. But in a box, with melting fe- 
males, it is the same, or nearly, as in my younger 
days, with the heart-broken Christians at Tellicherry. 

The priest groaned and moaned as the table-cloth 

for it was a poor church was slowly lifted ; and 
exhibited, in its pierced, broken, bleeding, ghastly, 
state, the crucified body, to the sobbing, brisket- 
beating auditory and spectators. Not one of us 
knew a word of the preachment ; it was a sort of 
ritual tremulously and almost unintelligibly chaunted 
or blubbered out by the roaring priest : but most of 
us, perhaps all, " dropped tears as fast as the Ara- 
bian trees their medicinal gum" and faster too; 
for I can assure my readers and OTHELLO, that the 
said gum drops very slowly, if it drop at all. 

But, as to the FlageMantes five of them were 
posted outside the lofty western door. As the cross 
was high, and elevated, at the altar at the east 
end of the church, the whippers could see, over the 
heads of the sitting, kneeling, or standing congrega- 
tion, the awful object of their penitential adoration* 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. 107 

At particular portions, perhaps pre-arranged, of the 
ceremonies, they smote themselves more vehemently 
and frequently. At the first partial uplifting of the 
curtain which was after the fashion of a theatre 

and view of the pierced feet whip whip 

somewhat slowly, for some time ; for the priest, paid, 
no doubt, by the day or night, was in no haste ; but 
dwelt movingly on every pause of the curtain, which 
made four or five halts in its tedious ascent. The 
last, with a jerk, exhibited the upper limb of the 
cross, and the drooping head and stretched arms and 
pierced hands of THE CRUCIFIED. And now, 
whip whip whip as fast as ST. FRANCIS him- 
self, or ST. DOMINIC Loricatus, coryphee of flagel- 
lants, could himself have flagellated. 

There were five and, if my memory serves me 
right, standing one behind the other sized, as an 
adjutant would say. In front was a youth, judging 
by his stature and round soft muscles. But I have 
omitted, in the place perhaps most fitting, to 
describe how these deluded, deluding creatures, 
were habited. They wore long white shirts, or sur- 
plices, over all ; reaching from the crown of the 
head to the ground, having long loose sleeves tied 
at the wrist. These were wholly closed in front, and 
covered the heacf and ears, and face ; and were open 
behind, just from the nape, or what we in Suffolk 
call the nuddle, of the neck, to the small, or doke, of 
the back. So that no part of the face, head, or 
person, could be seen, save a certain number of 
square inches of the shoulders and back a paral- 
lelogram say of about one foot by two according tp 



108 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

the spread of shoulder at the hinder open part 
of the shirt or surplice. 

Each penitent had a ball of wax, hardened per- 
haps by borax, of about the size of a small billiard- 
ball, suspended by a string, from, I believe, the 
neck. In this were stuck many spiculee of broken 
bottle-glass, like inverted pins stuck thickly on a 
round pin-cushion. Holding the string at a parti- 
cular length, and somewhat skilfully and gently 
swinging the ball alternately over each shoulder, the 
flagellum, with its sharp points of glass, lit precisely 
on the naked portion of the shoulder of the floggee. 
Blood followed each swinged stroke every early 
stroke ; for the whole of the flesh and the neighbour- 
ing white shirt, and at length to the very skirts 
thereof, were soon, or eventually, smeared with 
blood. 

This was not altogether effected by the glassified 
ball of wax. Each flagellant had a piece of the more 
solid portion, or centre, of the leaf of the plantain- 
tree about a foot, or a foot and a half long, three 
or four inches broad, and an inch thick shaped 
something like the paddle of canoe-rowers, or the 
tail of the beaver (do I make myself understood ?) 
as it occurred and appeared to me at the time. 

After whirling the skin-piercing ball half a mi- 
nute perhaps a little more or less, as may have 
been agreeable the ball was gently dropped (sus- 
pending) and the beaver-tail-shaped flat piece of 
plantain-leaf was shifted from the left-hand to the 
right ; and with it the parties smote themselves over 
the right shoulder, on their bloody backs. This was 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. 109 

the measure or motion, more or less quick, which I 

meant to describe, when I said whip whip 

and whip whip whip. But those expres- 
sive and tickling words are of doubtful application 
here, for to the best of my recollection (I was no 
minute-maker in those days or nights) there were 
no whips : only the blood-drawing balls, and the 
plantain leaves, by way of disciplines. These were 
soon begrimed in blood ; and I suspect and sus- 
pected that, however frightful and horrible the ex- 
hibition of this ensanguined scenery, the pain in- 
flicted by the sharp ball, and that perhaps not 
much, was mollified or neutralized by the flat leaf. 
But this was not the only use of the leaf. The 
effect was greatly heightened by it. The blood was 
scattered and spirted all over the white dress, and 
even so as to fly off in small gouttes. 

1 have said there were five. The shortest in front 
- him I took for a lad of fifteen or sixteen, perhaps. 
The tallest in the rear a five-foot-ten, strapping, 
thick-skinned knave, whose blood did not show, 
worth speaking of, till his tough, and perhaps half 
unconscious hide, had received sundry servings of 
the whirled, and, as I thought, reluctantly im- 
pelled, ball of wax. Another, a central one, I really 
took for a woman ! I could not see her face, nor 
any part of her front, nor her hair ; but from the 
smoothness and seeming softness and plumpness of 
the only portion of the visible skin viz. the trape- 
zius muscle and its immediate neighbours and 
the ready spirting of the blood from even a delicate 
application of the ball, and a certain sympathetic 



110 .ORIENTAL FRAGMENT!?. 

thrill with the throb of the said tender muscles, that 
I think I should not have shared with a he skin 
from all these combined indications, I really thought 
it was a female ! The rear-rank man might have 
whipped till he actually and acutely smarted through 
his bull-hide, before I should have felt so. 

No vocal sound, not even a sigh, was to be 
heard from the Five. It did not seem decorous to 
go very near not within five or six feet of these 
disciplinarians. But from a certain impertinent 
curiosity touching the supposed female, I ap- 
proached rather nearer than I ought to have done, 
and was civilly admonished by my co-bystanders 
to fall back; and I did so but not till a few 
attenuated drops of- her scattered blood had flown 
off, from the smart fail of the leaf, on my sleeved * 
waistcoat. It was, to be sure, a piece of torn-foolery 
in me, but I did not send my ruby-spotted vest to 
the wash for several weeks. I was only fifteen 
years old of a temperament excitable, and highly 
excited by the passages of the night which I have 
described. I accordingly luxuriated in the feeling 
that I possessed the blood of a young and beauteous 
and pious female ; for so, in those days and, of all 
places, in Tellicherry, then the Paphos of the world 
- did I, in my mind and heart's eye, pruriently 
depict her. 

The discipline, with intervals, and with more or 

1 The then usual outer garment of the English and a 
very comfortable dress in lat. 11; especially in the equato- 
rial atmosphere of a crowded, excited church, well censereit 
through the night. 



PAPACY AND HINDUISM. Ill 

less severity and frequency, of stroke the leaf and 
the ball alternately lasted hours so it appeared to 
me. The crucified body was taken down, with great 
ceremony and vociferation, and carried by priests 
several times in slow procession round and round the 
church, with singing and swinging of censers. In 
these processions the flagellants walked immediately 
next the bier, followed by some priests, and us, the 
mere observers of the ceremonies that is, however, 
by the whole congregation. 

This is a fair and full account perhaps too full 
and long of the first and only time that it has fallen 
in my way to witness a scene, not creditable to the 
religion that it is meant and perhaps -entirely con- 
trived to honour and uphold. It is a triumph of 
priestcraft, alike in kind, though differing in degree, 
with the self-inflictions, even the Sati (Suttee) or 
concremation of the Hindus. 

Whatever my feelings may have been at the time, 
such scenes are not in accordance with my present 
notions of right or wrong. The female, as I deemed 
her or the young central penitent may have been 
really penitential ; and let us humbly hope that, 
albeit in error touching the channel, the intent may 
be accepted. And the lad in front may also have 
been a victim of what I cannot but deem a demora- 
lizing church. But the three rear-rankers I hugely 
suspect were actors in a melo-drame not badly got 
up, considering their means. Piacular whipping by 
proxy is recognized by the Romish church. There 
may have been twenty or thirty priests, and perhaps 
five or six hundred of the congregation. The church 
would not hold us all. 



112 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

No I am sometimes disposed to be an Epicurean : 
speaking rather philosophically than theologically ; 
remembering that if pleasure be the greatest good, 
virtue is the greatest pleasure. Carpe diem with 
qualifications. Bounteous Nature has filled for us a 
cup of sweets, and spread at our feet a carpet of 
roses. Why should we then go out of our way to 
quaff bitters and to tread on thorns ? Away with 
such frigid Calvinistic, Franciscan philosophy and 
such ungrateful return. Let us rationally enjoy the 
good which a kind Providence has set before us, and 
be thankful. Let us humbly aim at being really 
pious ; and nowise disposed to quarrel about doxo- 
logies, or to engage in the logomachy of sectaries. 

It would tend much to mitigate the severity with 
which we judge others, if we would duly consider 
the advantages which we enjoy, rather than their 
supposed demerits. When disposed to condemn mil- 
lions in the mass for cowardly submission to mental 
or personal slavery, let us rather be thankful that 
our ancestors broke their religious and political 
bonds, at the expense even of their lives; or we 
might now be, as are the population of Home and her 
dependencies. Are subjects vindictive and sangui- 
nary : do not such deeds mostly result from injustice 
in their rulers? Wherever justice is ill administered, 
the injured will redress their wrongs sooner or later. 
Ill administration of justice includes its withholdance, 
as well as the infliction of absolute injustice lead- 
ing, as has been often predicated, to the oppressed 
breaking their chains on the heads of their oppres- 
sors. Are rulers arbitrary and oppressive : it 
results often from not knowing better not knowing; 



EDUCATION. 113 

liow to reform their measures and manners ; too 
often taught, as rulers are, that innovation is dan- 
gerous that reform is revolution. Much allowance 
should be made in princes for the disadvantages of 
their birth the debasing prejudices of their educa- 
tion for the almost inevitable consequences of being 
ever surrounded by parasites and panders ; and 
rarely, if ever, hearing the monitory voice of friend- 
ship or of truth never feeling the wholesome rub- 
bings of equality. 

What, generally speaking, are princes and nobles 
taught ? It is well if such tuition lead only to the 
blowing of the idle bubbles of folly and fashion. 
The fact is well known, that the mace of the Royal 
Society, laid before the President at all meetings, 
and perhaps used on other occasions, is the identical 
" bauble " which CROMWELL so emphatically bade 
" take away," in his dignified dissolution of the 
Rump parliament. Some years ago an English 
prince, heir-presumptive of the throne, among other 
Lions of London, was shown the library, rooms, &c. 
of the Royal Society, and among them the " bauble." 
His tutor attended his Royal Highness. The youth 
was informed, not by the tutor, of the said identity 
of the mace but his Royal Highness had never 
heard of CROMWELL! nor, it may be assumed, of 
CHARLES I. 

Consideration should also, differing with their con- 
dition, be had to the less unhappy, but still disad- 
vantageous and dangerous predicament of nobility and 
aristocracy. If nearly equal in point of morals and 



114 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

intellect to their inferiors, as they are apt to deem the 
grade next below them, they should be hailed, indeed, 
as superior. If not greatly inferior in those and 
other important points of moral and social bearing, 
such exalted persons should be allowed much merit. 
But merely as "the tenth transmitter of a foolish 
face," I confess that, with a due allowance, as above 
indicated, I do not, for such personages, habitually 
cherish any high degree of veneration. I am disposed 
to say, with the lamented Sir WILLIAM JONES, 
" I .know none above me but the wise and virtuous, 
none beneath me but the ignorant and base." 

Reform in the Church, or in any of the institutions 
of a state, parliamentary, legal, &c. too long with- 
held or withstood, must in the end, sooner or later, 
lead to resistance, rebellion, revolution. Subjects 
then go much greater lengths than they contem- 
plated at the outset. It has been well said that 
the results of rebellion cannot be thought of too 
often by sovereigns, nor too seldom by subjects. 
Nations are naturally passive ; and rarely rise in 
rebellion, until, degraded by the long sufferance of a 
bad government, they know not what a good one is. 
We must respect knowledge ; but we may not hate 
or despise ignorance. The ignorant think as their 
forefathers thought worship as they worshipped, 
taught and led by the same class of tutors. Let us, 
I repeat, be thankful that we know and do, or ought 
to know and do, better ; and that mummeries and 
mortifications, and such fooleries as we have just 
read of, so enjoined by knaves on pain of damnation, 



EDUCATION. 115 

and so believed by fools in fear of it, are no longer 
deemed piacular among us. 

What I am now engaged 1 in is, I confess, an 
undisguised attack on popery. But do I hate 
papists ? No. I pity and pray for them. Am I a 
foe to priests ? No. To priestcraft I am, believing 
it to have arisen from, and to exist in, motives of 
cupidity and unwarrantable ambition ; to be con- 
tinued, if at all, only in imposture and hypocrisy ; 
and to end inevitably in evil to mankind ; I am and 
must be, until otherwise persuaded (and I am I 
hope very yielding to reason and conviction), how- 
ever feeble, its uncompromising foe. 

If I have spoken disrespectfully of priests gene- 
rally, I have done ill and I ask pardon. But it is 
to good priests that I make the amende. What 
share the papal priests may claim of my retractation, 
let them determine. 

There are few, however low, who have it not in 
their power, somehow or other, to inflict injury and 
pain on others. Happily the will is more rare. The 
power to give pain, the ability to inflict injury, is a 
worthless, wretched, possession. Every ruffian, 
every venomous reptile, possess it; and they are 
hateful in the ratio of their desire to exercise it. Do 
I wantonly endeavour to inflict pain ? No. May the 
wormwood cling to his cup, who wantonly mingles 
a bitter potion for another. It is but just that the 
sum of pain gratuitously or unnecessarily inflicted on 
sentient beings, rational or irrational, by every indi- 

1 The intended volume as mentioned in page 94. 



116 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

vidual in this life, should be re-inflicted on him in 
the life to come. 

But as to papacy, it may be gathered from what 
precedes, that I think very ill of it. And so think- 
ing, I express myself, peradventure, with seeming 
bitterness. The disease admits not, I fear, of tender 
palliatives. For half a century I have, or believe I 
have, half over the globe 

" Mark'd its darkening, desolating, sway ; 
Bad man its instrument weak man its prey:" 

and Heaven forgive me if I err I cannot but re- 
gard it as the wide-spreading, moral Upas tree of 
Christianity and human happiness. 

Let me then repeat that it is not of priests generally 
that I speak disparagingly but only of bad priests ; 
including those of every religion and sect. And 
farther, let me deprecate the too intimate intermix- 
ture on this occasion of priestcraft, or even of priests, 
and religion. It is too common a trick, all the world 
over, to hear a cry equivalent to " the Church in 
danger," when it is only the fame of a shrine, or of 
a saint ; the merit of a pilgrimage, the renown of a 
relic, or a tithe-pig. 

I am, I trust, as loyal and fair a subject in Church 
and State, as need be. But I detest king-craft and 
priest-craft, as ardently as any democrat, or atheist, 
if there be one in Europe. He is the best friend of 
King and Church who, thinking he sees error in 
either, respectfully and modestly points it out. 

Atheist ! Is there, can there be, an atheist ? I 
never met with more than one who professed to have 



EDUCATION. 117 

no religious feeling of any sort. He was a democrat 
in politics, and an Epicurean, in its worst bearing, 
in philosophy. But I much question if his feelings, 
as to atheism, were or could be consistent. I sus- 
pected him it was in 1794 of " pride, vain-glory, 
and hypocrisy" or of self-delusion. He was a man 
of talent ; and his mind had ranged over an ex- 
tended circle of science. If very ill, I have little 
doubt but he would experience certain " compunc- 
tious visitings," and fears that denote the presence 
of religion, beyond the mere " dread of falling into 
nought." And that is sufficiently dreadful. 

I have lately 1830, since the above was written 
heard of another who, though not ostentatiously, 
avows atheism. I have met him at table ; but did 
not hear any sentiments of that tendency. He 
seemed intelligent and agreeable had travelled 
much. 

We read sometimes the relation of a traveller in 
barbarous countries, that " the natives had no no- 
tions or feelings whatever of religion" and presently 
perhaps " that they have abominable ceremonies of 
funerals, worship the devil," &c. What is this, or 
either of these, but religion ? Even the fear of lonely 
midnight, or of passing a gibbet or a murderer's grave, 
is religion as far as it goes. It has reference to 
something supernatural, something psychological 
and that alone is religion. Certain orthodox, or 
ultra-orthodox, individuals are sometimes apt to 
think that none others can be religious or devout, 
who are not so exactly in the same way as themselves. 
A religious deist, or a devout pagan, they can form 



118 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

no conception of. But surely such persons, however 
erroneous their faith, may and do exist. 

In a passage quoted, or to be quoted, from Sou- 
THEY'S Book of the Church, we read of " twenty-eight 
thousand Franciscan nuns in nine hundred nunneries, 
and one hundred and fifteen thousand friars in seven 
thousand convents." Twenty-eight thousand nuns ! 
nine hundred nunneries ! Indulging in a mental 
range, what strange things come across the imagina- 
tion of those who have as I have passed some por- 
tion of their days and weeks in nunneries and 
convents and monasteries. Twenty-eight thousand 
nuns ! I can easily fancy it immured, sweet crea- 
turesand one hundred and fifteen thousand friars 
fogh ! let them pass. I, for one, have seen and 
heard enough of them. But with a nun, or with 
nuns rather, as STERNE says on another occasion, 
" I could commune for ever." But let us be sober; 
and I will, with permission, relate a passage or two 
in my life, mixed up with recollections of these in- 
teresting, but misguided, creatures. 

In very early life my destiny (and a foul wind) 
drove me to South America. After a long, first, 
sickening voyage, the delight of entering the fine 
harbour of Bahia da Todos Santos, the view of the 
city and shores, the near smooth approach to, and 
gliding along, those shores, fringed with all that is 
verdant and delectable to the ravished eye, and 
clothed with trees almost to the water's edge, loaded 
and glowing with that most grateful of all fruits, the 
orange one of the choicest gifts of beneficent Pro- 
.vidence to the animal Man the delierht of these in 



NUNS. 119 

combination with their attendant feelings, it is hum- 
bly hoped, of thankfulness and devotion, can never 
be, ought never to be, forgotten ; and can never per- 
haps be felt, in all their poetry, but once. 

A short stay of only a few weeks at St. Salvador, 
as the fine city of Bahia is otherwise called, has 
left vivid recollections of long-received impressions. 
The beauty and richness of the churches were 
among the most striking objects, after the first im- 
mediate feelings of arrival and being once more 
near and on land. And these feelings, I may re- 
mark, in passing, are of a description known, felt, 
appreciated by those only " who go down to the 
great deep." 

The obliging, courteous, demeanour of the nume- 
rous priests, and indeed the inhabitants in general, 
ought to be remembered. We received daily civi- 
lities and kindnesses at the grates of the nunneries, 
to which we had, at seasonable hours I think I 
may from recollection say, unobstructed and unin- 
terrupted access : to the grates mark not to the 
nuns. The grates were double distant the thick- 
ness of the walls of the convent say five feet the 
apertures, or windows, lofty, looking usually into 
corridors or cloisters : so that one could well see 
the inmates through the double grates though, as 
I recollect, we could not join hands. Little cour- 
tesies could be interchanged. " The interstices 
between the intersections" of the stout, strong, iron 
" net- work," are squares of four or five inches the 
inner grates wider than the outer; and the kind, 
pretty, immured creatures could thrust across with- 



120 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

in our reach, custards, and capillaire, and fruits. 
Our little returns of scissors, needles, ribbons, and 
such trifles were apparently acceptable. Scarcely a 
day passed without finding me at these loved grates. 
Having learned a little French in England, and on 
the voyage, from my German fellow-passengers, and 
a little Portuguese from a servant, I found, after a 
few days, no great colloquial difficulty. 

After tremendous equinoctial rollings in the Bay 
of Biscay, in company with a fleet of upwards of 
500 sail of ships, many in great distress, (none but 
a sailor can know the horror of such " lying-to" 
three weeks in such a tremendous adverse gale, in a 
deep ship, with over-much dead weight of anchors, 
guns, shot, and shells ) such rolling as I have never 
since experienced, though I have frequently crossed 
the " vexed Atlantic," and doubled the Cabo da 
Torment ados, after, as I have said, such a tedious, 
lengthened, baffling voyage, in this deep ship over- 
filled with German troops, aggravated by the appre- 
hensions of capture and imprisonment, (for all the 
fleets of all the world were then, 1782, hostilely at 
sea) after for many months seeing humanity only in 
the shape of boisterous, bearded, dirty, swearing, 
hideous sailors and soldiers after all these, and more 
" horrors of the deep," to be at once, as it were, 
thrown into such a climate, and into the society of 
such delicate, tender, beautiful, pure, creatures this 
first awakened feeling of sympathy and kindness, 
after the first sad severance of parental and frater- 
nal, and all denominations of happy family ties 
it was almost all of Heaven that earth can yield. 



NUNS. 121 

11 Airs, vernal airs, 

Breathing the smell of field and grove attune 
The trembling leaves ; while universal PAN, 
Knit with the Graces and the Hours, in dance 
Led on th/ eternal spring." 

My recollections of those " pearls in the ocean 
of purity," never, to continue the metaphor, 
" to be strung on the thread of matrimony," are, 
that they were beautiful. My feelings at the time, 
I am sure, gave that impression. They were at- 
tractive and interesting under our peculiar circum- 
stances, in a degree not to be easily described or 
understood. The universality of black hair and 
black eyes, things to which we had been unaccus- 
tomed, was striking and touching whether of novi- 
ciate or nun I cannot tell, but I do not think cutting 
off the hair, at taking the veil, is intertropically 
universal. 

Surely my tuneful and sensitive namesake must 
have been at the grates of Bahia, or in some such 
predicament, when he thus conceived and sang of 
the eyes of the maidens of Iran : 

" And see a sweet Brazilian maid, 

With all the bloom, the freshened glow 
Of her own country maidens' looks, 
When warm they rise from Bakia's brooks 
And with an eye, whose restless ray, 
Full, fleeting, dark> ah ! he who knows 
His heart is weak, of heaven should pray 
To guard him from such eyes as those." 

Lalla Rookfi. 

He will, I hope, pardon my having changed two 
words not for the better, for who can change two 



122 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

words of MOORE'S for the better, but to suit my 
story. 

But this was not the only danger of danger, in- 
deed, here was no great (that is, there was a grate). 
The courtesy of some of the priests was not altoge- 
ther limited to their usual display. My attentions 
at convent and church for these semi-divine min- 
strels sang there were thought well of; and a kind 
feeling of pity, and I believe a wish to save me from 
the results of heresy, were noticed. Our stay at 
J5a//?a was not sufficiently lengthened for much to 
be effected ; and I was put on my guard by my ob- 
serving and listening messmates. And however frail 
one might have proved, opposed to such fearful odds 
as might in more time have been put in operation 
against me, backed by the approaching recurrence 
of the detested tossings of the Atlantic, I happily 
escaped from becoming a novice, and embarked 
unscathed, save by the black eyes aforesaid. 

I ought to look back with thankfulness rather 
than with levity, on the above passages of my early 
life ; for few lads ever left their family circle, offer- 
ing more yielding materials for zeal or knavery to 
make an impression on. Ignorant, precocious, 
tender, credulous, half broken-hearted these ele- 
ments intermingled with others that may be gathered 
from what precedes, combined to render me the 
easy victim of misdirected zeal, or the ready devotee 
of kindness and sympathy. I am tempted to relate 
one little anecdote of my yet earlier life, to show 
what melancholy stuff my mind was, even then., 
composed of. 



EDUCATION. 123 

In my father's book-case was, of course, the 
Pilgrim's Progress: not in that form so tempt- 
ing to all " with cash and sense/' as it now appears 
in, from out of the hands of my much-respected 
friends SOUTHEY and BARTON ; but in that nine- 
penny shape, where honest JOHN'S immense hand 
supports his more immense head, in his rapt 
imaginary dream. Passing over the strange embo- 
dying of the artist's notion of the Valley of the 
Shadow of Death, and CHRISTIAN'S Combat with 
APOLLYON, whose cropped ears still dwell in the 
smiling eye of remembrance there was one picture 
by which I was " perplext i' th' extreme." It was 
where CHRISTIAN meets EVANGELIST, by the sea- 
shore, with a beetling cliff over their heads. The 
sea-shore had been the scene of my contemplations, 
or rather of my wonderment, since infancy and it so 
happened, or I so fancied, that a neighbouring cliff 
at Bawdsey resembled the cliff represented in the 
picture. I had read BUNYAN'S book so often and 
so intently as to have been amused into enthu- 
siasm and another book, that I now deem of a 
dangerous tendency, until I was wound up almost 
into despair. This latter book had for its frontis- 
piece a monstrous pair of expanded jaws, armed 
with enormous teeth, and with goggle eyes. A 
dragon-like forked tail convolved above. Imagina- 
tion might furnish the body and entrails. Into these 
flame-vomiting jaws divers grinning devils with pitch- 
forks were driving terrified sinners, or their souls. 
To my infinite horror, one or more of these affright- 



124 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

ed sinners seemed about my own age. Beneath the 
print was this motto : 

" Oh ! who can dwell in everlasting torments ?" 

In a long ague, and during the lingering weak- 
ness of recovery, this terrific picture haunted me. I 
began to think that I was old enough and wicked 
enough to be damned : and I write now not in 
levity, for I much doubt if the lapse of more than 
half a century have yet wholly worn off the effect of 
that picture I consulted a neighbour, one of our 
washerwomen, on the subject ; and she had the good 
sense to comfort me with the assurance of my 
groundless fear. In this mood EVANGELIST and 
CHRISTIAN> the sea and the cliff and these words 
of the text of the Pilgrim's Progress also, came 
to my comfort : 

" CHRISTIAN What shall I do to be saved?" 

<( EVANGELIST Flee from the wrath to come.' ? 
And in my convalescence, I loitered and lingered 
under Bawdsey Cliff, in the earnest and eager hope 
of also meeting EVANGELIST ! I may at that time 
have been six or seven years old. 

I note all this not perhaps very wisely for 
fwo reasons : one, as a warning to those entrusted 
with the care of children to keep such terrifying books 
out of their way ; the other, to show, as I have said 
above, of what mystical, enthusiastic stuff my young 
mind was composed, when my destinies drew me 
to the grates of Bahia. 

I was still very young so young as not to be sus- 



NUNS. 125 

pected by the innocent inmates of my favorite con- 
vent, of any treachery or baseness. I took a tender 
leave of several of one in particular; and the good 
abbess kissed me, and wept and prayed over me at 
my last visit. She said she was a mother, and had 
lost her son. I can never forget her. Heaven's 
peace be with her ! 

Fifteen years elapsed eventful years fraught 
with all the wanderings and voyagings, and bustlings 
of a soldier's life compounded of drilling, reviewing, 
campaigning, hunger, thirst, maims, wounds, excite- 
ment, depression, exultations, and miseries, &c. &c. 
and my destinies again led me to So?tth America. 
I ought before to have noted that I had served as a 
soldier in all the quarters of the world before I was 
twelve years old. 

Times were changed so was I. No longer a 
beardless, heedless boy, but a sobered man; still, 
however, as to years, in my prime under thirty 
with the cares of a family superadded, and the 
"coming events" and my fortunes, still, as much 
as ever, shadowed in futurity. 

The magnificent entrance to the spacious harbour 
of Rio for St. Sebastian was the city I was now ap- 
proaching was equally, if not more, striking and 
admired ; and so were the smoothness of the waters 
of St. Janeiro compared with his immediate neigh- 
bour, the vast Atlantic, and the manifold beauties of 
the scenery and city. Another baffling voyage, under 
however less unfavorable aspects, had brought its 
mitigated sufferings ; but the dread of capture and 
imprisonment for it was again war-time, 1796 had 



126 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

recurred augmented and the indescribable sinkings 
of sea-sickness are always the same. But I was 
changed. Here were again the orange-groves, and 
priests, and nuns almost as young and beautiful as 
those of Bahia ; but the grate was no longer my 
daily resort. It is to those of Bahia (where are 
they ?) that I apply the lines above quoted. To 
resume : 

The Roman Papists are a much more enlightened 
race than the Greeks. The latter may well be pitied 
in their mental darkness ; governed, as so many mil- 
lions of them have long been, by the degrading des- 
potisms of Russia, Turkey, and Persia. It is, no 
doubt, equally the object of the Greek priests and 
rulers to keep their flocks and subjects in, if possible, 
more than Romish ignorance, fear, and slavish dark- 
ness knowing that the cradle of reflexion, reasoning, 
and intelligence, is, if not the grave of superstition, 
and king-craft, and priest-craft, at least a plank in 
its coffin. A great many a majority, perhaps of 
the Greek priests may be themselves besotted, and 
almost believe what they teach. I, of course, speak 
not now of doctrines common to all Christians if, 
indeed, any do remain unsophisticated, uncorrupted 
to all but of monkery, mummery, miraculous le- 
gends and lies, too common to many. The Romish 
priests must, very many of them, know better. How 
is it possible that in Rome, the general resort of 
intelligence and philosophy, her popes, cardinals, 
bishops, priests, gentry, and others, can believe in the 
mendacious stuff preached and practised ? May I be 
forgiven if I wrong them ; but iust not their lives 



PAPACY. 127 

* some of them be " one vast hypocrisy?" Are 
they without sense to perceive it, or without candour 
to confess the truth ? As was said by one of their 
heathen predecessors (was it CICERO?) of the 
Aruspices, or augurs, of his day the worthy fore- 
runners of the popes, cardinals, &c., of this " two 
cannot pass each other in the streets without thrusting 
their tongues into their cheeks " in insolent derision 
of their poor, stupid, misguided flocks. But knavish 
priests work every where with the same tools, and 
on the same crude materials, and of course with the 
same results. Their work must be undone with 
caution. Premature attempts at enlightenment are 
of little use : they are or rather, have been more 
likely to result in the punishment of the incautious, 
hasty teacher his incineration, haply than in 
much good to the willing victims of mysterious de- 
lusion. 

"They shall have mysteries ay, precious stuff 
For knaves to thrive by mysteries enough 
Dark tangled doctrines, dark as fraud can weave, 
Which simple votaries shall in trust receive 
While craftier feign belief 'till they almost believe/'' 

And again very pat to my purpose 

Still they believe him ! Oh! the lover may 
Distrust the look which steals his soul away ; 
The babe may cease to think that it can play 
With heaven's rainbow ; alchymists may doubt 
The shining gold their crucibles give out: 
But Faith fanatic Faith once wedded fast 
To some dear falsehood, hugs it to the last." 

Lalla Rookh. 1 

1 It seems an ill requital to make, for the pleasure afforded 



128 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

A mind individual or general thoroughly em- 
bued and besotted with papacy and monkery, may 
be easily kept so ; and in the sad fanaticism of sup- 
posing all wrong, save self and Co. It is easy to 
fiddle effectively to those bitten by a tarantula. 

No people are greater fanatics or bigots than the 
Abyssinian Christians, as they call themselves. For 
fastings, processions, and manifold mummeries, none 
exceed the Christians of Habesh : nor are they ex- 
celled, or exceeded rather, in debauchery and pro- 
fligacy by any of their own, or of any other, per- 
suasion. Their Lent lasts fifty-six days. The fasts 
for the Apostles fifteen in one year, thirty in the 
next (a mythos, no doubt, for which a " brave 
legend " is not wanted ). The feast of the Blessed 
Virgin most fortunate of women ! not so much for 
her honour in Habesh as in other quarters her fast 
continues fifteen days. The fast of Quos Quom 
Quos Quom! was there ever so good a word, except 
that fine one hum-bug? the fast of Quos Quom 

by this delightful poem, to cavil at its very first word. But 
it is a doubt with me, if LALLA ROOKH be a legitimate Ma- 
hommedsui female name. I have known many men I think 
both Mahommedan and Hindu named LALLA ; but never, I 
think, a woman. And very many names of females of both 
persuasions have officially passed under my eye. Lakh ruhh 

or rookh, if preferred . ^ or .L^.. t\] Laleli rukhsar, 

may be translated Tulip-cheeked. If rosy, or ruby, or red- 
cheeked were intended, it would be from a different word 

(JjJ laal, (see p. 64.) pronounced broad and open. Hence the 
UU! the " liquid ruby " of the Anacreontic HAFEZ. 



PAPACY EGYPT. 129 

lasts thirty days. This is kept by priests only, (I 
warrant ye,) and those only who have fasted with 
priests, not exactly Quos-Quom-arians, as I have, 
can tell how. In all, they have one hundred and 
sixty-five fast-days a year. (In my better days I 
should have enjoyed the keeping all of them being, 
what LEXIPHANES would call, a palatician of pis- 
cine and ovivorous propensities, or, in plain English, 
fond of fish and eggs.) To spit, on the day of re- 
ceiving the Eucharist, is almost damnable. And as 
to creeds, no people are so well provided. Their 
commandments are short their observance, as 
elsewhere, shorter. On the whole the Habshis, 
Christian or Mahommedan, are a sad race. 

But, after all, what is man, that he should thus 
seat himself in judgment, as it were, and think and 
speak ill of his brother worm? The autumn, in 
which generous season I now scribble, furnishes, 
with its fruits and falling foliage, disorders for us 
all; and the winter's cold will convert them into 
acute diseases. Spring brings flowers to strew our 
hearse withal; and the summer yields turf and 
brambles, to cover and bind our graves. All these 
are our common lot and all are mere food for the 
omnivorous worm. Why then embitter the cup, 
whatever it be filled with, which Providence has 
variously put into the hands of his creatures ? Let 
us rather endeavour to render it palatable to the lip 
of our brethren, as far as may seem compatible with 
their benefit, immediate or remote. 

Some speculations are, I believe, on foot, tending 
to show that Habesh, or Abyssinia, was the cradle of 



130 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

the religion of the Egyptians. If so, the mythology 
and religion of India, and of Greece and Rome > 
Rome pagan and papal may (must ? more or 
less) be traceable to the same source. But, not 
denying the possibility of all this, one may be 
allowed to observe that in these bold speculative 
days, no theory seems too outrageous for adoption, 
or too improbable for hypothetic ingenuity to show 
up, persuasively. On this topic, or bearing some- 
thing on it, I find two or three little memoranda, 
which I will take the liberty to give here : and, 
hereafter, as I may see fit, I may descant somewhat 
farther hereupon. 

As a counterpoise to the certainty that MOSES 
was in Egypt and, as it is said, in Habesh also 
then, perhaps, a portion of Egypt we may believe, 
if we please, that OSIRIS, or his brother PH.ZEDON, 
brought to Italy a colony of Egyptians, and do- 
miciled them at Turin. There is nothing like being 
particular on such occasions : so the year is given 
1530 years A. C. The fine situation of Turin, at a 
junction of two rivers, in view of peaked rugged 
mountains, mark it as a probable site for an Egyptic- 
hindu to fix on, for an abode or for a temple ad- 
mitting his locality and power of choice. The cele- 
brated tablet of I sis at Turin gives a colouring 
rather faint to be sure to this fancy ; though it 
was not actually found there, but at Mantua. And 
after all, its genuineness is doubted in common with 
several hieroglyphic-bearing obelisks also in Italy. 
This fine region seems the destined abode of im- 
position. 



PAPACY EGYPT. 131 

The Egyptians had the notion of the mysticism of 
the number four, in common with many other peo- 
ple. In a papyrus of great antiquity, divers quater- 
nions have been discovered. An altar with four 
horns is consecrated to mythic love invocation is 
made to him who made the four elements, and 
blended the four winds he is mentioned who agi- 
tates the winds of the four corners of the Red Sea. 
" Indeed," saith the Edinburgh Review, June, 1831, 
" the whole mythological system of Egypt may be 
described as a vast aggregation of tetrads or quater- 
nions. Besides the four elements, which are fre- 
quently mentioned by IAMBLICHUS, we have the 
four zones or firmaments the four primary cosmo- 
gonic powers ; viz. primordial darkness, A MM ON 
generator, his female emanation AMMON NEITH, 
and CHNOUPHIS PHRE the four divinities that 
presided over the birth of man ; viz. the Demon, 
Fortune, Love, and Necessity the symbolical cro- 
codile with four heads, representing, probably, the 
gods PHRE, SOON. ATMOU, and OSIRIS. Nor was 
it in Egypt alone that the number four was conse- 
crated, or peculiarly sacred. At an early period the 
same notion appears to have taken root in Judea. 
PHILO the Jew, in his Life of MOSES, dilates on the 
holiness of this number, while discoursing of the 
tetragrammaton, JEHOVAH composed of four let- 
ters : and JOSEPHUS holds it in equal reverence, by 
reason of the f OUT faces of the tabernacle; The four 
elements of matter were held by some ancient mystics 
as the image of the sacred number. Nor was this 



132 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

doctrine confined to the Gnostics ; for we find IRE- 
N/EUS, one of the Christian fathers, maintaining 
that, as there were only four climates, fouf cardinal 
winds, and four elements, so there could be only 
four gospels, 1 and neither more nor less. Nor is he 
the only one of the lights of the Church 1 who had 
imbibed this fanciful and ridiculous notion." 

The Hindus have many mysterious quaternions ; 
but I think more triads. The four vedas proceeding 
out of the four mouths of BRAMHA ; the four arms 
of VISHNU, KRISHNA, RAMA, and others of their 
divinities, male and female ; the four, and twice four, 
cardinal and demi-cardinal points or winds, and the 
regents, male and female, presiding over them ; and 
the like of their divine matres or mothers, and many 
others that might be noted. But in this place I 
merely mention them with the view to the observa- 
tion, that I have collected many instances of fanciful 
superstition connected with numbers-^-3, 4, 7, 8, 9 
also as connected with mystical letters. I mean to 
put together an article on these subjects of" Mysti- 
cal numbers and mystical letters," showing how 
widely such fancies have spread. The contemplated 
article will be superficial, but it is hoped amusing. 
It may include a number of the striking coincidences 

1 Four Evangelists, or Gospel historians, rather for surely 
there is only one Gospel ? 

2 Of the Church of Rome ? It may he questioned how far 
he, and others of the Fathers, can be termed the Lights of 
the Church of CHRIST, or of England. At any rate, their 
light is too often dimmed by superstition and credulity. 



CORONATION HINDUISM. 133 

in the practices of the early Christian Gnostics and 
the Hindu Nastikas which last word might as well 
be written Gnostics of the present day. 

I do not like to allude too often to the subject of 
so many heathen and papal practices being retained 
in our ritual. In others of our ceremonials I am less 
compunctious. In those of the coronation of our 
sovereigns there seems too much of this. The dove 
and the oil savour of la saint e- ampoule of which 
something presently. They can have but little, if any, 
good effect even on our mere vulgar populace ; and 
they are not now admitted to view and admire such 
proceedings ; and surely all archbishops, &c. &c. 
down to mere poor philosophers, must, at the least, 
smile at them. In truth they are the mere lingering 
relics of pagan and papal priestcraft ; and take no 
good hold now on the public mind. The sceptre and 
the dove may be unobjectionable ; and so may now be 
the S , albeit a symbol of a less holy rite. On this 
occasion the king offers a wedge A of gold. This 
too is of Sivaic origin, as I shall endeavour to show 
in the little Essay " On IONIC and Lingaic Myste- 
ries." * Being of pure gold, and weighing a pound, 
no wonder that the king (or his people) has to 
repeat thrice this welcome wedge, this Linga A, 
to the gaping omnivorous recipients. The dirty 
ceremony of anointing, or what we in Suffolk call 
dinting, (see Suffolk Words) is, perhaps, the most 
objectionable. It is too ampoule-ish. Surely this 

1 But whether in this volume or not, I cannot now say not 
being able to foresee the extent to which other Fragments 
may be dilated. 

M 



134 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

cruciform application of the oleo santo might be dis- 
pensed with. Why should our passive sovereigns 
have the filthy operation of being greased, or ainted, 
inflicted on them ? It is a barbarous relic of super- 
stition, fit only for the inventors and upholders of 
the Heaven-descending holy phial and holy oil of 
King CLOVJS ; of which, as I have recently said, 
more hereafter. As long as the title of " the Lord's 
Anointed " availed, it had its use. But many ribald 
poets and others, both before and after PETER PIN- 
DAR'S day, have rendered the term rather ridiculous 
than sacred ; and the public feeling smiles in unison. 
Then the accolade the hugging and kissing. From 
what I gather from recent speechifying in the House 
of Lords I scribble this on the day of the Corona- 
tion of their gracious Majesties WILLIAM and ADE- 
LAIDE, whom Heaven preserve ! this vile custom 
is to be still observed, labially. Fogh ! it is too 
foreign too much in the whiskerandos vein alto- 
gether un-English. In continuation (this occurs 
in another page of my C. P. B.) of what I have said 
on the subject of the apparently idle, or worse cere- 
monies attendant on some parts of our august com- 
pact of Coronation, I take some hints from the news- 
papers of the day, which describe that of WILLIAM 
the Fourth and his good Queen. 

In the Times of the following day, I find nearly 
the same view taken of some of those usages that I 
had noted. After many loyal and sensible and pious 
observations, that influential journal offers some 
remarks, which I substantially quote with much 
pleasure and advantage : 



CORONATION. 135 

" Never was an hereditary King so hailed and 
welcomed by a free and reflecting people. It must 
be added, however, that the sanction imposed ought 
to be drawn from the fountains of that peculiar faith 
which is received as truth by the parties binding 
themselves to observe it. 

" Nothing could be more foolish than to perform a 
Te Deum, read the litany, or appoint the Bishop of 
London to preach before a Mahommedan congrega- 
tion, on the accession of a descendant of the Pro- 
phet. So the bald Unitarian worship would little 
suit the prejudices of a Peloponnesian audience ; or 
the grotesque mixture of old feudal barbarism ad- 
monish, to any very salutary purpose, the King of 
England and his people, being Protestants, of even 
the most sacred of their duties. 

" Yet, with the exception of the Litany and Com- 
munion service, and the sermon (provided the lat- 
ter be an exception; that is to say, not a divine- 
right and king's-chaplain sermon) what can be 
more thoroughly and revoltingly compounded of the 
worst dregs of popery and feudalism, than a pro- 
digious number of the quackeries played off in the 
course of King WILLIAM'S coronation? 

" What a fuss with palls, and ingots, and spurs, and 
swords, 1 and oil for anointing (greasing) their sacred 



1 Three swords, I think, are carried and three wedges 
of gold (A lingo) are offered. One sword is named Curtana 
it is called the sword of mercy, and is pointless a pretty, 
albeit a petty, conceit. It is sometimes, by old writers, 
written Curteyn, and called the " sword of King EDWARD 



136 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Majesties ! and whipping off and on of mantles ! 
and the rest of it. Why, what has all such frippery 
to do with an oath ? and what with the spirit of a 
great political contract ? what with the splendour of 
a public festival? 

" A recognition, if you will : there is a fine ani- 
mating shout of acceptance when the sovereign is pre- 
sented to his people. A crown, by all means. It is 
the received and immemorial badge of the kingly 
office. A procession too there is no harm in it, but 
much to put the people in good-humour, were it for 
nothing but a train of graceful and lovely women, 
sweeping past in the robes and ornaments which de- 
note their station by certain and intelligible symbols. 

*' But the matters which nobody understands or 
cares about the rigmaroles above alluded to, which 
we 'do not condemn because they are old ; but, be- 
cause, with reference to our religious and civil his- 
tory, they are now utterly untrue, and therefore no 
longer have any meaning what is their effect, but 
to give an air of " unreal mockery " to the whole 
affair to transform it into a masquerade, or puppet- 
show, and to weaken any solemn * and deep impres- 

the Saint/' It is perhaps a short sword. Giving names to 
swords, guns, &c. is an extensive usage of which something 
farther hereafter. 

1 How ridiculous, even at solemn mass, at which one can- 
not help being sometimes seriously, and I hope usefully, af- 
fected, to see the incense-whirling urchin, at a particular 
part of the ceremony, lift up the petticoats of the officiating 
priest, and fumigate him a posteriori. This is, as I have 
been told, to scare away evil spirits, which might be lurk- 



CORONATION. 137 

sion which the mind might otherwise be disposed to 
receive from those parts of the performance which do 
accord with our religious sentiments and our modern 
habits ? 

" Heaven forbid there should be any cause in the 
health or prospects of his present Majesty to think 
for many years to come of another coronation ! But 
when a leisure hour shall arrive, it will, we know, 
be an acceptable service to all reflecting people to 
recast the entire character of the solemnity rejecting 
those parts which had been fitted only to a period 
when the outward senses were made panders to the 
all-absorbing superstition within ; and retaining those 
in which an educated and reasoning people may see 
some relation between the form and the substance 
between the nature of the kingly contract and its 
accompanying incidents." Times. 

The ampulla, which, on such occasions, contains 
the " holy oil " the oleo santo is in the form of an 
eagle, with the wings expanded. The head unscrews, 
for the convenience of putting in the oil, which is 
poured out through the point of the beak. The bird 
is hollow. The anointing spoon is curiously orna- 
mented. 

The choice rings of the coronation appear to be of 
rubies. Her Majesty's ruby, with sixteen rubies sur- 
rounding it, is put on by the Archbishop, whose 

ing not like delicate ARIEL, "where the bee sucks" nor 
lying "in a cowslip's bell : " but fogh ! I have some- 
times thought the " incense-breathing censer " not altogether 
useless in reference to other mauvais svjets. 



138 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

benediction on that occasion savours of the feeling of 
other people, noticed in Fragments First, p. 60, as to 
the mystical properties inherent in that stone. " Re- 
ceive this ring the seal of a sincere faith that you 
may avoid all the infection of heresy, and compel 
barbarous nations, and bring them to the way of 
truth." 

The greater part of the prayers used in reference 
to the Queen are said to be the same which were ad- 
dressed to Queen JUDITH in 856. She was the 
daughter of CHARLES the Bald, who married 
^THELWOLF, the father of ALFRED, king of the 
West Saxons. These prayers are therefore nearly 
1000 years old. 

The kissing of the priests by the King, and of the 
King by the nobility, was not discontinued at the 
recent coronation ; and the indelicate ceremony of 
oiling was inflicted also on Her Majesty's person. It 
is really too bad. Priests ought to be ashamed of 
themselves in thus pertinaciously striving to retain 
their ancient hold of these obsolete and disgusting 
observances. 

In addition to what I have before hinted of the 
possibility of these very ancient ceremonies not, as 
the Times sensibly remarks, therefore bad because 
old, but because, for the reasons given, they are re- 
volting, being of Eastern origin, I have a few more 
observations to offer : 

In the ceremonials of our Coronation we read 
much of palls, wedges, the ampullic eagle, holy oil, 
ruby rings, mystical spoons, &c. &c. 



CORONATION HINDUISM. 139 

First, of the pall. This word has other significa- 
tions in English ; not all, perhaps, cognate in mean- 
ing. Coronation and funereal seem far apart. Our 
present sense of it is doubtless from the pallium 
of popery. Whence that is, may be difficult to show. 
The pallium was of old a most mystical thing an 
essential part of a bishop, sent or given by the pope, 
with much ceremony and cost, both at episcopal 
consecration and translation. The bishop could not 
wear the same pallium at two sees, and it was buried 
with him. 

In Sanskrit, pal or pala means protection, and is 
in that sense extensively used in India. The pro- 
tection which a monarch affords his subjects a war- 
rior to the weak a father to his family a nurse to 
a child a hen to her brood, and other similar 
relationships is expressed by derivations from pal 
or pala. In Hindustani, palna or pulna, is the infi- 
nitive to hatch; pala, hatched. The funeral pall may 
have reference to the spiritual protection afforded to 
the deceased over whose remains it is spread. And 
such may also have been a consideration in the 
superstitious times in which the over-spreading of 
the coronation pall consecrated most likely was 
first thought of. A pallium from the pope may have 
been as essential a thing at a coronation as at a 
consecration of a bishop, in those days when kings 
kissed his holiness' toe, and bishops held his stirrup, 
as, in mock humility, he mounted an ass. In times 
much later, perhaps still, happy was or is the man 
who could or can obtain a monk's cowl to wrap his 
dead head in. Such cowls have also been called 



140 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

palls. The hoods of our more modern dignitaries are 
of a like description, but I believe never now so 
called. 

A pal or pall is again, on the western side of 
India, and perhaps in other parts and regions, a 
protection of j ust the same form or shape as our 
Coronation and funeral palls either a parallelo- 
gram or a square. It is indeed a tent with this 
difference it has no projecting hips, no rotundity, 
no upright walls. It is, when pitched, exactly of a 
pyramidal or wedge shape like the Royal Corona- 
tion offering of gold before spoken of that is Lin- 
gaic, or Sivaic but here accidental, probably ; not 
mystical. 

The Indian pall is of one long piece (made up, of 
course, to shape and size) of cloth, stretched to 
pegs, sloping close to the ground. It is a two- 
poled tent ; with a third, ridge-pole, between and 
connecting the two uprights, from front to rear. 
The ridge-pole supports the pall in its whole width, 
its ends being pegged to the ground. The upright 
back is close ; the upright front is open in the mid- 
dle, where it overlaps ; and when thrown back, 
which it may be wholly or partially, is the entrance. 
Looked at end-ways, it is of the wedge-form of a 
gabled roof. 

I know of no other name for this common descrip- 
tion of tent. It is sometimes conveniently spacious. 
In my early campaigns I lived in one for years. It 
is less dignified than a marquee. Mine may have 
been twelve feet square, or a little longer on the 
ridge-pole than in the frontal width. The sloping 



CORONATION HINDUISM. 141 

sides coming close to the ground, render a pall less 
commodious than a tent. It is cheaper, and is more 
readily pitched, struck, packed, and carried. 

I have spoken of a conveniently commodious pall. 
Some are larger, more smaller, much smaller, down 
to a single cloth two or three yards long, stretched 
on short bamboos, like walking-canes, under which 
the poor sepoy and camp-follower sadly shelter their 
wives and families. Exactly such things are some- 
times seen in use by gypsies in England. Five 
minutes would, I should think, suffice for unpacking 
and pitching one of these humble dimensions and 
as many for striking, rolling up, and packing one on 
a donkey. 

My pall was made, as almost all tents are in 
western India, of white cotton cloth called kadi 
in Bombay, dungari, from the name of a village 
on that island, where it is, or used to be, made. 
It was four cloths thick the inner red, then called 
karoa. When green it is called horoa. When blue, 
which is most used for the inner cloth, or lining, it 
has another name ; which I have forgotten. 

Our magnificent Coronation pall, which appears 
to be also called dalmatica (Dalmatia, the region 
of gypsies ?) spread as above described over a ridge- 
pole, would form the body, or sides, all except the 
upright ends, of an Indian or gypsey pall. What 
do gypsies call their palls c t 1 expect, in my next 
discourse with those curious people, to find that pall 
is also their name. 

We have seen that the episcopal pall was a part 
of dress ; it was a sort of mantle, or robe. From 



142 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

some texts in our poetry, I should guess it to have 
been of some length, with a train : 

" let gorgeous Tragedy, 

In sceptred pall come sweeping by." MILTON, II Pen. 
" He gave her gold and purple pall to wear/' 

SPENSER, F. Q. I. vii. 16. 

" Crown'd with triple wealth and clothed in scarlet pall" 
FLETCHER, Purp. Isl. iv. 17. 

" In the old ballads, ' purple and pall ' is a fre- 
quent phrase" saith NARES ; from whose admira- 
ble Glossary the last two quotations are taken. 

Our word apall may originate in a fearful sense, 
traceable to the funereal gloomy super tunica so to 
borrow a coronation term or finaktunica of our poor 
remains : 

" Come, thick night, (saith SHAKESPEARE) 

And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell 
That my keen knife see not the hole it make/' 

The three linga-sh&ped pyramids, or wedges, of 
gold, offered by the King, I shall say nothing more 
upon at present. Of the ampulla, I have to note, 
that we have taken the name and the notion from 
the same source as the French did in KingCLOvis's 
day. 

I had a few notes on the holy vial of CLOVIS 
but I prefer taking the following account of this cu- 
rious matter from Dr. MIDDLETON, Miscell. Works, 
1.361.: 

" This vial is said to have been brought from 
heaven by a dove, for the baptismal unction of CLO- 
VIS, the first Christian king of France, and dropped 



CORONATION PAPACY. 143 

into the hands of ST. REMIGIUS, then Bishop of 
RheimSy about the end of the fifth century ; where 
it has ever since been preserved, for the purpose of 
anointing all succeeding kings. Its divine descent 
is said to be confirmed by this miracle that as soon 
as the coronation is over, the oil in the vial begins 
to waste and vanish, but is constantly renewed of 
itself, for the service of each coronation. 1 

" The Abbe de VERTOT defends the truth of this 
miracle, by the authority of several witnesses, who 
lived at the time of REMIGIUS, or near to it, and of 
many later writers also, who give testimony to the 
same through each succeeding age. Yet a learned 
professor at Utrecht, in a dissertation upon this sub- 
ject, treats it as a mere forgery, or pious fraud, con- 
trived to support the dignity of the kings and clergy 
of France ; and ranks it in the same class with the 
palladium 3 - of Troy, the ancilia of old Rome, and the 
cross which CONSTANTINE pretended to see in the 

Cujus prece rorem 

Mjsit in ampullam coelestem rector Olympi, 
Corpus ut hoc lavacro regis deberet inungi, 
Deficeretque liquor, ibi corpore regis inuncto. 

NIC. de Braia de S. REMIGIO. 

s The protector or guardian genius : any reference to 
the Sanskrit palla ? The palla^inio. of Troy was, like Jaga- 
naut, of wood, three cubits long : both fell from heaven. A 
statue of CERES in Sicily an image of DIANA at Rome 
many images of the VIRGIN MARY there and elsewhere, 
were sent from heaven as well as the ancile, or heavenly 
shield of NUMA. The last-named article descended from the 
clouds, in great pomp, according to OVID, in the presence 
of all the people of Rome, Hindu legends match all these, 



144 -ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

heavens and the rest of those political fictions which 
we meet with in the histories of all ages." 

The Abbe de VERTOT begins his Dissertation in 
the following manner : 

" There has scarce ever been a more sensible and 
illustrious mark of the visible protection of God over 
the monarchy of France, then the celebrated miracle 
of the sacred vial. On the day of great CLO vis's 
baptism, heaven declared itself in favour of that 
prince and his successors, in a particular manner; 
and, by way of preference to all the other sovereigns 
of Christendom. So that we may justly apply to 
every one of our kings, on the day of their co- 
ronation, the words of the royal prophet God, even 
thy God, has anointed thee with the oil of gladness 
above thy fellows." Diss. au sujet de la S. AM- 
POULE. 

This is pretty well even for papal priests and 
ranks with the " brave legend " of the santa casa 
of Loretto, and another sainte ampoule at Naples, 
containing the blood of S. JANUARIUS and with 
the invention of the holy cross, and its mendacious 
accompaniments of the tottering ST. HELENA. 

What a convenient spiritual guide is that pri- 
mitive authority TERTULLIAN, who lays down this 
rule "that the true disciples of CHRIST have 
nothing more to do with curiosity or inquiry ; but 
when once they are become believers, their sole bu- 
siness is to believe on :" cum credimus, nihil de- 
sideramus ultra credere. 

From the time of CLO vis to that of Louis XVL, 
comprising a period of about 1300 years, this 



CORONATION PAPACY. 145 

wretched farce was played off by the priests at 
Rheims ; where this heaven-descended-dove- brought- 

O 

never-failing vial of oil was, and is, kept. NA- 
POLEON, we may presume, did not condescend to 
be anointed but I am not sure of it. He did not 
go to Rheims to be crowned, as all his predecessors 
did ; and probably the Rheimish priests would not 
trust their precious charge to be brought to Paris. 
We may, however, marvel, if the fact were so, that 
the Pope would consent to perform his part in the 
drama of coronation without so important an in- 
gredient as the sainte ampoule and its self-wasting, 
self-renewing contents. 

If Louis XVIII. was anointed with it he went 
to Rheims , and most likely was he must have 
laughed at it ; for he had although almost 
half a papist, especially in the infirmities of his 
latter days something of a philosophic mind ; not 
content on ail occasions to follow TERTULLIAN'S 
dogma, merely to " believe on." But his bigoted 
niece of Angouleme would probably, in the mastery 
of her comparatively vigorous mind, have insisted on 
so important a measure being renewed on the person 
of her uncle, le Desire. 

CHARLESX. would of course undergo the greasing 
gladly. The Duchesse <f ANGOULEME had then 
other females to back her, as well as poor CHARLES'S 
fears and feelings. But will Louis PHILIPPE sub- 
mit to it ? No it would cost him his crown. 

Holy oils and unctions are in very extensive usage. 
We will pass over the papal sacrament of unction in 
extremis, the viaticum ; observing, merely, that where 

N 



146 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

faith can be extended to the efficacy of such appli- 
cations, they must be of exceeding comfort to the 
departing on the dreary journey. It has been said 
that of all religions papacy is the most comfortable 
to die in. 

Hindus also have their holy oils. Images and 
statues, and Lingas, are with them honoured by such 
over-pourings. Connected with the subject of the 
Linga, or phallic emblem, it may be here noted that 
the oil of the papal saint COSMO, or COSMUS, or, a& 
the Italians call him, COSIMO, is, or until lately was, 
in great demand, in honour of that saint of strange 
repute, at Isernia, in Calabria, not far from Naples. 
Iscrnia is one of the most ancient cities of that clas- 
sical region. I will here pause to observe that an 
inquirer, without outrageously upholding a favourite 
hypothesis, might at every step in Calabria find 
Lingaic debris. Calabria itself what is it ? Cala or 
Kala, or SIVA : and briars little else than " a hill " 
or " hilly," denoting a mountainous region. KALA 
and his consort PAR v ATI are the mountain deities 
of the Hindus and he is the most Bacchic of their 
deities : " BACCHUS amatcolles" occurs in a classi- 
cal poet ; but I cannot refer to him. And as to 
Isernia ISA is a name of SIVA, and nya is a San- 
skrit termination. It is, indeed, primarily, the con- 
sonant 3f nya. 

The abominations of the festival in honour of the 
saints COSMO and DAMIAN, so late as 1780, at- 
tracted the notice of those in authority and orders 
were issued that the great toe of the saint should no 
longer be exhibited. At the great altar in the catte- 



PAPACY HINDUISM, 147 

drale at hernia a canon attends to give the holy 
unction with the oil of S. COSMO ; which is prepared 
or consecrated by the same receipt as that of the 
Roman ritual ; with the addition only of the prayer 
of the holy martyrs SS.CosMUS and DAMIANUS. 

The canon anoints the part affected, and receives 
the offering, which is usually in money, but fre- 
quently a waxen vow in the form of that part. These 
ex-voti, even those offered by females, must not be 
mentioned here. The reverend canonico rewards the 
devotee while anointing by this benediction " per 
intercessionem beati Co SMI, liberet te ab omni 
malo. Amen." 

The concourse at ihisfesta, which lasts three days, 
is described to be (have been in 1780) " prodigiously 
numerous," and the advantages to the canonid very 
great. They of course divide the spoils ; which in 
vows of wax of the parts affected, as well as in 
money and other things, are very considerable. 

No less than 1400 carafiues or flasks of S. 
COSMO'S oil are said to have been expended at the 
last described grand fete at Isernia, in 1780 either 
at the altar in unctions, or charitably distributed for 
the purpose of anointing the diseased parts of per- 
sons having faith and piety and pence. 

This last lingering relic of a very ancient rite 
Phallic, Lingaic, or loNiaw, as one may be dif- 
ferently disposed to view it in Christendom, has 
been thought to deserve a separate and somewhat 
lengthy dissertation. I have compiled such a one, 
from sources not now mentionable, with a running 
commentary showing its close correspondence with 



148 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

existing Hindu rites. It may fill a hundred pages 
of such a volume as this or, what is more likely, it 
may never appear. In this, I shall say no more 
thereon. 

Our coronation ampulla in the shape of the bird 
of JOVE and of his Hindu brother, or double, 
VISHNU, might furnish a subject of curious inquiry. 
It reminded me of something similar, which I more 
than once observed at the durbar of DOWLUT RAO 
SINDEA, whose great seal has in an earlier page 
been presented to the reader. On occasions of state 
visits at Indian courts, it is usual to bring in quids 
of areka, or betel-nut, leaf, lime, &c., which are 
given to each individual, by the great visited, to 
those of sufficient rank ; and by some officer of state, 
according to the consequence, or no consequence, of 
others. A vessel, which may be called ampulla 
there called golabdani meaning rose-water bottle, 
is also brought in. At courts it is of gold, and 
lillagree'd, and beset with gems ; and the guests are 
besprinkled out of its pierced top. 

My last visit to SINDEA'S durbar was in com- 
pany with my gallant and noble friend, Marshal 
Lord BEHESFORD, then Lieut.-Col. of the 88th. I 
had told him of SINDEA'S gvlabdani ; and put him 
on his guard against smiling too conspicuously, 
should they I believe there were more than one 
be re-produced. 

On the top of the long-necked golden bottle were 
two beautifully executed pheasants, a cock and a 
hen, in a position not to be described. The cock 
was the most conspicuous ; and his fine plumage 



CORONATION HINDUISM. 149 

well represented by suitably coloured gems and 
enamel. Sure enough, the golabdaui re-appeared ; 
and we, with reasonable gravity, interchanged a 
significant look while undergoing the operation of 
besprinklement, through the beaks (as in our coro- 
nation ampullic process) &c. &c. of the billing birds, 
after a fashion that might, to the fastidious, be 
thought not over-delicate. 

Oil or air of roses or sandal is smeared on your 
hand or handkerchief at such visits, by a spoon. 
And curiously ornamented sacrificial spoons are used 
by Brahmans in their ceremonies for anointing with 
holy oils, persons, or images, or lingas, in their 
various ceremonials. Specimens of such spoons 
may be seen in the Plates of " Sacrificial utensils," 
Nos. 85, 86, of the Hindu Pantheon. Some of those 
specimens are elaborately ornamented. Our coro- 
nation ampullic spoon is described to be " curiously 
ornamented." 

A great deal ofSiNDEA's property and baggage 
was captured at different times and places by our 
active forces under Sir ARTHUR WELLESLEY, and 
others; perhaps the very golabdani above described. 
If so, they are most likely in England. Such pro- 
perty, so captured, was sold at the prize sales at 
Poona. At those sales a great collection of paintings 
or coloured drawings taken from SINDEA, and per- 
haps others (NAN A FURNAVEESE had a large 
collection, some of which I have inspected,) were 
purchased by an officer of high rank and distinction. 
Many were mythological, some historical, some por- 
traits, &c. But many were of a description not to 



150 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

be described. By way of insuring their non-inspec- 
tion, the whole were placed in my hands. I garbled 
and expurgated them into a state of some arrange- 
ment ; placed them in portfolios, according to their 
subjects ; and on the departure of their exalted owner, 
shipped them off with his baggage, and have never 
heard more of them. They are, probably, in England. 

Having mentioned King CLOVIS and King WIL- 
LIAM'S ampullian birds, I will add a few lines on the 
subject of the dove, which were also intended for 
another place, but may come in, not unsuitably, in 
this page, devoted to corresponding superstitions. 

Allusions to the dove are very frequent in ancient 
and modem mystical legends. Among the modern 
practices, derived, probably from antiquity, is a 
ceremonial annually witnessed at the cathedral at 
Florence, in which crowds of neighbouring farmers 
take great interest. On Easter eve, just as the 
priests begin the fine " Gloria in Excelsis," a pyro- 
technic pigeon starts from the choir, glides along the 
nave on a wire into the street or piazza contiguous, 
where it ignites a load of straw, and returns whizzing 
to its starting-post. The eyes of the peasants are in- 
tently riveted to the transit of the sacred puppet ; 
for on the dexterity of its proceedings they rest their 
hopes of the coming harvest. 

On the subject of the dove, connected with religion 
and mysticism though here conjoined, I mean to be 
understood as using those words antithetically much 
has been written, and perhaps remains to be written. 
In respect to ST. COLUMBA, or COLOMB, and other 
superstitious names and things in close relationship, 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 151 

1 shall have, in another place, something to say. I 
shall try to connect Col-omb, with Kal O'M those 
infinitely mysterious words of Hindu mythology. 
And with these, divers mythi converging into, or 
diverging from O'M A U M, the Irish Ogham, 
I A MAmen\ A <JUIl-Kolmkill, &c. &c. &c. 

Meanwhile, to the arkite dove, and the more mys 
terious form awfully contemplated by pious Chris- 
tians, I shall reverently refrain from alluding. As 
an apt emblem of gentleness, beauty, timidity, faith- 
fulness and love, it is of course applicable to all that 
we desire to clothe in those attractive attributes. 

Among the many wonders which attended the 
martyrdom of ST. POLYCARP, bishop of Smyrna, as 
related in the circular Letter of that Church, such as 
the odour of his body like the smoke of frankincense 
or some rich spices, his incombustibility (he was, 
however, burnt to ashes notwithstanding) the great 
quantity of blood, sufficient to extinguish the fire, 
which came out of a wound made by the executioner 
among all these miracles, none amazed the multi- 
tude more than a dove, which issued also from the 
wound. 

This story of the dove took well for some time ; 
until, perhaps, the raillery of LUCIAN upon the 
death of PEREGRINUS, the philosopher, who burnt 
himself about the time that POLYCAUP suffered. 
From the philosopher's pile he caused a vulture to 
ascend, " in opposition, it may be," says Archbishop 
WAKE, " to POLYCARP'S pigeon." 

No early martyr, scarcely, suffered without most 
wondrous miracles, attesting all that might require 



]52 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

proof as to his piety, faith, sanctity, &c. Resistance 
to all kinds of tortures, so as to tire the monsters 
who inflicted them, was common : but after all such 
vain profusion of miracles the saints did not suc- 
ceed : they were always burnt, at the last. 

The early editors of the celebrated Circular of the 
Church of Smyrna manfully detailed the story of 
the dove; but the later editors, shamed, perhaps, 
by the apostate LUCIAN, omitted it. But one does 
not readily see why one miraculous thing may not 
as well happen as another, on such occasions why, 
if at the martyrdom of a saint, twenty miracles are 
to be upheld, twenty-one may not. On the death 
of a noble virgin named EULALIA, a dove, accord- 
ing to a hymn of PRUDENTIUS, flew out of her 
mouth. 

It does not occur to me that much use has been 
made of the dove by Hindu my thologians and, con- 
sidering what precedes, and has been adverted to, I 
am rather surprised at it. The Mahommedans are 
said to be fond of the pigeon, in gratitude for im- 
portant service rendered to the Prophet by one. 
His life appears to have been so saved. I do not 
recollect the legend. 

Passages crowd thickly upon me on that 

fruitful subject priestcraft papal and pagan. 
Without much pretension to arrangement, I will pro- 
ceed to quote and note a somewhat curious variety. 

We have seen something of the inventive faculty 
of papal mendacity in the earlier centuries of its 
darkness. Let us now exhibit an instance of similar 
gullibility in the 19th. While such full-pocketed 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 153 

fools exist, how can we wonder that greedy knaves 
are promptly forthcoming to encourage them? 

This specimen may serve to show also the un- 
changeableness of that Church. It is taken from the 
newspapers of July, 1830: 

" Lieut.-General Don PEDRO GRIMAREST, first 
slave of the royal and illustrious slavery of the Holy 
Trinity of the parochial church of ST. ANDREW 
the Apostle, of this town, in his capacity of Lieut. 
General of the King our Lord, (whom Heaven pre- 
serve ! ) who is the perpetual slave thereof, in his 
name, as well as in that of the other officers of the 
illustrious and royal slavery, invite you, Sir and 
hope, from your devotion and your piety, that you 
will accompany them in the procession on Sunday 
evening, to be solemnized with the images of the 
ineffable mystery. You may rely on the Divine 
reward that will be granted you for this act of re- 
ligion, and the gratitude of an illustrious and royal 
slavery." 

The above is a circular addressed to many indi- 
viduals in Seville. 

This worthy Lieutenant-General I mean nothing 
personal, as they say in our House of Commons we 
may set down as a suitable helpmate to the royal 
embroiderer of petticoats for the VIRGIN MARY. 
He may, peradventure, be otherways described, as 



the tool 



Which knaves do work with call'd a fool." 

Under another head I intend to devote some 
pages to the sad subjects of " Cursing and Ly- 



154 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 



ing." One can never think or write of lying, 
without adverting to those grand magazines of men- 
dacity the more immediate object of these current 
pages pagan and papal. How instructive is my 
incomparable friend SOUTHEY, on this subject; as, 
indeed, on every other to which his clear head and 
rapid pen are applied. 

" The monks promoted every fantastic theory, 
and every vulgar superstition, that could be made 
gainful to themselves ; and devised arguments for 
them which they maintained with all the subtleties 
of scholastic logic. Having introduced a poly- 
theism little less gross than that of the heathens, 
and an actual idolatry, they hung about their altars 
(as had also been the custom in heathen temples) 
pictures recording marvellous deliverances, and 
waxen models of diseased or injured parts which 
had been healed by the saint to whose honor they 
were there suspended. Cases enough were offered 
by chance or credulity ; as well as by impostors of 
a lower rank : and the persons by whom the prac- 
tice was encouraged were neither scrupulous on the 
score of decency l nor of truth. Church vied with 
church, and convent with convent, in the reputation 

1 " The curious reader is referred to Sir THOMAS MORE'S 
JDialoge, for an example of the scandalous practices arising 
from this superstition. ST. VALORI, in Picardy, was the 
scene : p. 76. Ed. 1530." This "scene" may have been 
shifted to Calabria, as a region of more mental darkness than 
Picardy, and SS. COSMUS and DAMIANUS may have sup- 
planted, or succeeded to, the abominable mysteries of ST. 
VALORI. 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 155 

of their wonder-working images some of which 
were pretended to have been made without hands, 
and some to have descended from Heaven. But the 
rivalry of the monastic orders was shown in the fic- 
tions wherewith they filled the histories of their 
respective founders and worthies. No language can 
exaggerate the enormities of the falsehoods which 
were thus promulgated ; nor the spirit of impious 
audacity in which they were conceived. Yet some 
of the most monstrous and most palpably false, re- 
ceived the sanction of the papal authority. The 
superstitions founded on them were legitimated by 
papal bulls ; and festivals in commemoration of 
miracles which never happened nay worse than 
this of the most flagitious l impostures, were ap- 
pointed in the Romish kalendar, where at this 
moment they hold their place." Book of the Church, 
I. 305. 

" While the monastic orders/' continues Mr. 

SOUTHEY, " contended with each other in exag- 
gerating the fame of their deified patriarchs, each 
claimed the VIRGIN MARY for its especial 
patroness." She had, " among other marks of 
peculiar favour, espoused their founder with a ring, 
or fed him, like a baby at her breast ! (it is fitting 
and necessary that this abominable system of im- 
posture should be displayed : ) and each of the 
popular orders had been assured by revelation that 
the place in Heaven for its departed members was 
under her skirts. All, therefore, united in elevating 

1 " For example, the five wounds of ST. FRANCIS." 



156 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

her to the highest rank in the mythology of the 
Romish church ; for so, in strict truth, must this 
enormous system of fable be designated. They 
traced her in types through the Old Testament : 
she was the tree of life the ladder which JACOB 
had seen reaching from earth to Heaven the ever- 
burning bush the ark of the Covenant the rod 
which brought forth buds and blossoms, and pro- 
duced fruit the fleece upon which alone the dew 
of Heaven descended. Before all creatures and all 
ages she was conceived in the eternal mind and 
when the time appointed for her mortal manifesta- 
tion was come, she, of all human kind alone, was 
produced without the taint of human frailty. And 
though, indeed, being subject to death, she paid the 
common tribute of mortality, yet, having been born 
without sin, she expired without suffering ; and her 
most holy body, too pure a thing to see corruption, 
was translated immediately to Heaven, there to be 
glorified. This had been presumed ; because, had 
her remains existed upon earth, it was not to be 
believed, but that so great a treasure would have been 
revealed to some or other of so many saints who 
were worthy to have been made the means of en- 
riching mankind by the discovery : and that all 
doubt might be removed, the fact was stated by 
herself to ST. ANTONIO." 

" As an example of the falsehoods by which this 
superstition was kept up, it may suffice to mention 
the brave legend of Loretto, where the house in 
which the Virgin lived in Nazareth is still shown, as 
having been carried thither by four angels. The 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 157 

story of its arrival, and how it had been set down 
twice by the way, and how it was ascertained to be 
the genuine house, both by miracles, and by the 
testimony of persons sent to examine the spot where 
it was originally built, and to measure the founda- 
tions received the sanction of successive Popes, 
and was printed in all languages l for pilgrims of 
every nation, who were attracted thither by the 
celebrity of the shrine ; and by the indulgences 
promised to those who should visit it in devotion." 
Book of the Church, I. 307. 

On the rival orders of Franciscans and Domini- 
cans Mr. SOUTHEY is again most instructive. The 
former " gave themselves the modest appellation of 
the Seraphic Order having in their blasphemous 
fables installed their founder above the Seraphim, 
upon the throne from which LUCIFER fell." Ib. 
334. 

" The friars were bound to the severest rule of 
life : they went barefoot ; and renounced, not only 
for themselves individually, but collectively also, all 
professions whatever ; trusting to daily charity for 
their daily bread. It was objected to him that no 
community, established upon such a principle, could 
subsist without a miracle. The marvellous increase 
of the order was soon admitted as full proof of the 
inspiration of its founder. In less than ten years the 
delegates alone to the general chapter exceeded 5000 
in number : and by an enumeration in the early part 



1 " I have seen it, " notes Mr. SOUTHEY, "in Welch, 
brought from Loretto." 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

of the 18th century, when the Reformation must 
have diminished their amount at least one third, it 
was found that even then there were 28,000 Francis- 
can nuns in 900 nunneries, and 115,000 Franciscan 
friars in 7000 convents besides very many nunne- 
ries which, being under the immediate jurisdiction of 
the ordinary, and not of the order, were not included 
in the returns." Ib. I. 335. 

" The rival order of ST. DOMINIC became in time 
the opprobrium and scandal of the Church. The 
falsehoods which they fabricated in rivalry of each 
other were in a spirit of blasphemous impiety, beyond 
all former example, as it is almost beyond belief, 
The wildest romance contains nothing more extrava- 
gant than the legends of ST. DOMINIC, and even 
these were outdone by the more atrocious effrontery 
of the Franciscans. They held up their founder, 
even during his life, as the perfect pattern of our 
Lord and Saviour and to authenticate the parallel, 
they exhibited him with a wound in his side, and 
four nails in his hands and feet ; fixed there, they 
affirmed, by CHRIST himself, who had visibly ap- 
peared for the purpose of thus rendering the con- 
formity between them complete ! Two miserable 
wretches, only two years before, had attempted the 
same fraud in England ; and, having been detected 
in it, were punished by actual crucifixion. But in 
the case of ST. FRANCIS, it succeeded to the fullest 
extent of expectation. Whether he consented to the 
villany, or was in such a state of moral and physical 
imbecility as to have been the dupe or victim of 
those about him ; or whether it was committed with 



PAGANISM PAPACY, 159 

tbe connivance of the Papal court, or only in certain 
knowledge that that court would sanction it when 
done, though it might not deem it prudent to be 
consenting before the fact are questions which it is 
now impossible to solve. Sanctioned however the 
horrid imposture was by the Church which calls itself 
infallible ; a day for its perpetual commemoration 
was appointed in the Romish Kalendar ; and a large 
volume was written, entitled " The Book of the 
Conformities between the Lives of the Blessed and 
Seraphic Father FRANCIS and Our Lord ! 

" Jealous of these conformities, the Dominicans 
followed their rivals in the path of blasphemy but 
with unequal steps. They declared that the five 
wounds had been impressed also upon ST. DOMINIC 
but that in his consummate humility he had prayed, 
and obtained, that this signal mark of divine grace 
might never be made public while he lived. They 
affirmed that the VIRGIN MARY had adopted him 
for her son, and that his countenance perfectly 
resembled the authentic description and miraculous 
portrait of our Saviour." Ib. I. 338. 

These curious extracts and powerful passages suit 
my purpose so well, that I feel I am borrowing of my 
instructive friend if not without shame, without 
mercy regardless of the Byronian interdict 

" Thou shalt not steal from SOUTH EY nor 
Commit flirtation with the muse of MOORE/' 

But who can bear being plundered so well as 
SOUTHEY? who so lavish of his intellectual wealth ? 
who is so often pillaged ? 



160 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Taking a passage in the preceding quotations as a 
text, I may append thereto some observations and 
matters here and there, taken from my own notes, 
and from other sources. 

Any learned, ingenious, and reasonably indus- 
trious writer might make a curious and extensive 
addition of instances of papal imposture to those 
above, and to the many others given in Dr. MID- 
DL ETON'S Miscellaneous Works : and if extended 
to the legendary lore of Egypt and India, he would 
render the conformities of pagan and papal Rome 
still more curious and complete. 

Without pretence to either of the qualifications 
above indicated, save perhaps the last, I will add 
two or three instances to what have already ap- 
peared. 

Travellers who have looked much into Papal ca- 
thedrals and churches, as I have, must have ob- 
served the vows ex-voti the exact counterpart of 
the votiva tabellce of Pagan Rome hung up and 
exhibited occasionally, in the shape of pictures, or 
modellings in wax, representing parts of the human 
body. These may be otherwise called offerings, in 
performance of vows made under the fervors of dis- 
tress or hope. An edifying collection of them may 
be seen at the Jesuits 7 Church at Lucerne in Swisser- 
land another at the Cathedral of Ypres in Flanders 
of which something more in another place. 1 In 

1 In neither of these did I observe any ex-voti of an inde- 
cent, or very indelicate nature. In other churches such may 
be seen in that, for instance of La Madonna de' Povtri, at 
Augusta, a pretty little port in Sicily. 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 161 

this I shall bring forward perhaps a still more nota- 
ble assemblage of such materials, at the church of 
the celebrated Convent f of Franciscans at Radna in 
Hungary. 

It is famous for a picture of the Virgin, which 
has, from the earliest ages, worked stupendous mi- 
racles, and is still visited by pilgrims from all parts. 
All the walls of the galleries and corridors of the 
Convent are covered with pictures, from one end to 
the other, and from the floor to the ceiling. They 
are generally about a foot square, offered by persons 
who have been cured of diseases, or preserved from 
calamity, by the intervention of Our Lady of Radna. 
They represent the incident, and are marked ex voto. 
One depicts a carriage upsetting, and the people in 
danger under the wheels another a boat sinking, 
with drowning passengers a third, a rider thrown, 
and dragged by the stirrup a fourth, a sick bed, 
the family weeping and praying. In all, the Lady 
appears in the sky ; and, stretching out her hand, 
saves the victim of accident or disease. 

Compartments in the wall of the chapel represent 
different actions in the life of ST. FRANCIS, by a 
German artist of Pest ; and the rest, like those of 
the gallery, are covered with votivtz tabelltf. 

But that which attracts most attention is the pic- 
ture itself of the Virgin, which has worked all these 
miracles. It hangs over the high altar, and is a 

1 Or Monastery ? Or are they nearly the same ? Convent 
conveys to my mind the idea of a nunnery where, of course, 
there are also priests ; a monastery the abode of priests, 
where there are no (resident) nuns. 



162 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

paltry painting, about two feet square, representing a 
female encircled by a large gilt crown, holding out 
an infant decorated with another. It is blackened, 
apparently, with smoke. When in the hands of the 
Turks, it was cast into the fire ; where, to the confu- 
sion of the infidels, it remained unhurt, and walked 
out uninjured, except by the smoke, which it retains 
as an irrefragable proof of the miracle. 

This picture is a source of great revenue to the 
Convent. On all occasions it is sent for, or visited, 
by the patient, who fees it like a physician. And 
adds the intelligent writer on whose authority I 
quote " where the imagination is powerfully in- 
fluenced, in all probability it effects many cures." 

Inquiry was made for the library. " The books 
were not in order :" but the ignorant and talkative 
monk said very candidly, shrugging his shoulders 
with an arch expression, that " they had not much 
occasion for books, and seldom troubled themselves 
with any but one." This the reverend inquirer sup- 
posed, of course, was the Bible : but not so ; it was 
a legend of all the miracles wrought by the picture, 
and sold at the Convent " for the benefit of the 
pious." He purchased a copy it is in German, 
with wood-cuts. The Latin preface states it to con- 
tain " Sacra Iconis originem, locique ipsius prima 
initia. Multa insuper et magna Dei benefida ope 
Virgin e& Matris in Radnensi Parthenio exposita" 

Among the plates of this volume, is one represent- 
ing a Turk trying to burn the image (q. picture ?). 
There were not, when Dr. WALSH visited it, more 
than five monks in this immense Convent. All the 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 163 

other numerous apartments were filled up by visi- 
tors, come to be healed of their wounds and dis- 
tempers. 

This relation of the Lady of Radna is taken sub- 
stantially from Dr. WALSH'S very entertaining and 
instructive " Journey from Constantinople to Vien- 
na," p. 337. 

Sou THEY calls the famous story of the Santa 
Casa, or holy house, of Loretto, " a brave legend." 
It is so and it may be difficult to find one, in all its 
bearings, more audacious. Many suitable compa- 
nions may, however, be easily produced. " The 
Invention of the Cross " may be written in the same 
page " with a pencil of light" ? And this place 
the subject being in connexion, more or less, with 
the preceding all of a piece may serve for the 
following extract from my C. P. B. 

The reader is aware that HELEN, the mother of 
the Emperor CONSTANTINE, followed the example 
of her son, and became an early and an important 
convert to Christianity. Not satisfied with the pro- 
ceedings in Palestine, she determined on a pilgrimage 
thither having, among other objects, a hope of dis- 
covering the true Cross. The mother of an Emperor 
rarely makes an unprofitable pilgrimage unprofita- 
ble, I mean, to the shrine visited and such a one 
as HELENA was not likely to travel unheeded. Her 
fortunes are striking ; daughter of an innkeeper 
a divorced wife an empress-mother mother of 
CONSTANTINE the Great a pilgrim a saint ! 

She, of course, found the true Cross. On de- 



164 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

molishing a temple of VENUS at Jerusalem, three 
crosses were discovered. Miraculous tests soon 
proved which was the true cross, and which the 
crosses of the thieves. In due time it was found 
more profitable to cut up this precious timber, than 
to preserve it entire. By the way, it was not brought 
whole to Rome. A portion of it was left with the 
bishop of Jerusalem. But if such a large piece 
worked such miracles, it was hoped and believed 
that smaller pieces might do the like. And so they 
did. What a happy discovery ! What church would 
be so lukewarm in the cause having the means be 
so indifferent to its honour and glory, as not to endea- 
vour to obtain a fragment ? In short such was the 
miraculous nature of this timber, that abstraction 
seemed to have lost its usual property of diminishing 
the original, in bulk or in virtue : and some irreve- 
rent travellers have gone the length of saying that 
there was as much of the true cross scattered through 
Christendom, and all of miraculous potentiality, as, 
in mass, might suffice to build a seventy-four. I 
speak in the past tense there certainly is not so 
much at present. It is not so abundant of late days 
it is not, at any rate, exhibited so often to travel- 
lers now, as of yore ; and its miraculous energies are 
somewhat palsied by, it may be apprehended, the 
decrement of faith inevitably consequent on the 
expansion of knowledge and spread of reason. 

The first piece of the true cross that I ever saw 
was at the fine Church of Notre Dame, Our Lady, in 
Paris. The armies of occupation were there also 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 165 

and no miracles were current. No reverence, in- 
deed, was apparent in any of the party exhibitor 
included. 

It was enclosed in glass, blown over it that is, if 
I recollect right, hermetically sealed. An attesta- 
tion of a Pope and conclave for aught I know of 
its genuineness, and, of course, miraculous power, 
was, or had been, among the archives of the cathe- 
dral. The wood was sound in good preservation 
a square piece, but not a regular parallelogram. It 
seemed to me old oak or chestnut darkish from age. 
I was allowed to handle it. It may be about six or 
eight inches long, by an inch in squareness. 

The next piece that I saw was at a curious church 
perhaps the cathedral at Ypres in Flanders, near 
the fine Maison de Vilte. This church is very rich 
in relics. There are several large wardrobe-like- 
looking presses, filled. Among them I will say no 
more of the true cross a surprising quantity of the 
bones of the 11, 000 virgins, and a curiously preserved 
head of a negro saint, whose history I have forgotten. 
I am sorry I did not make a little catalogue raisonne 
of these curious things. On congratulating the cour- 
teous priest who very obligingly and patiently ex- 
hibited and explained to us these strange matters 
on the reliquary wealth of his church, he replied 
and I thought, like his brother of Radna, with ra- 
ther an arch expression " Oui Oui, c'est une belle 
collection." I watched but I could perceive no 
curl of the lip nothing derisory, when he said this. 

Before I take my leave of this Christian HELEN, 



166 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

I will indulge in a little point of reflection, or mora- 
lizing : 

The rock on which the most Christian Emperor 
and King t,ne eldest son of the Church NA- 
POLEON last lived and died, was discovered on 
the name-day of our illustrious pilgrim and saint 
21 May, 1501 and named after her, ST. HELENA. 
How different this Lady from her interesting name- 
sake of the Iliad ! If classes of women were polled, 
which would they choose to be, or to have been 
HELEN of Troy, or HELEN of Rome and Jerusalem? 
How would self-election go ? I do not mean in the 
extent of universal suffrage. It might puzzle females 
in general to understand the merits of the nominated 
and of the case, as much as it does the male voters 
at usual elections of members of Parliament. But 
take the two classes and poll them the pious and 
the poetical how would it go? Answer the 
saints would be for the pious pilgrim the poets for 
the sweet, though frail, creature of the Iliad. 

Having mentioned the three crosses found by the 
fortunate pilgrim, HELENA, I will note a little point 
that I have been rather posed at, which perhaps 
these three crosses may help to explain although I 
do not see exactly how. 

In some parts of Italy a very old woman being 
asked her age will answer " Tre croci ;" by which 
she is understood to mean ninety. One does not 
readily see why ffforXXXor + + + , or any 
such crossings, should mean ninety. I know not 
where I saw this. A younger person might indicate 
thirty very well by tre croci, XXX. 



PAGANISM PAPACY, 167 

But the tre croci have puzzled wiser heads than 
mine. It has been noted that the happy HELENA 
of Jerusalem found three crosses. But which was 
the true one? It would, indeed, have been sad to 
have selected that of a thief. The bishop of Jeru- 
salem promoted afterwards to a saintship, ST. MA- 
CARIUS hit upon a happy and certain test. This 
is the eminent logician who overthrew the heresy of 
ARIUS at Nice. A lady of high rank at Jerusalem 
lay extremely ill. The bishop suggested to HELENA 
to touch her with each cross. Two were tried no 
effect. But on the application of the third, the lady 
arose in perfect health, and stronger than she had 
ever been. Others relate the proof somewhat diffe- 
rently, viz., that it was a dead body on which they 
experimented. 

But (in the liberal spirit of a very sincerely 
pious lady of the Romish faith a lady too of great 
strength of understanding and goodness of heart, 
with whom I was in serious discourse about the 
11,000 virgins who said " it makes no great dif- 
ference a few thousands more or less " ) it makes 
no great difference, whether it was an extremely 
sick lady, or a dead body, which was thus in- 
stantaneously restored to health and vigour. 

A volume might be filled " a volume ? " this is 
a very moderate measure a score of volumes such 
as mine might be filled and have been on the 
immediate subject of our present pen. But half 
another page must suffice for what we permit our- 
selves to scribble on this occasion. 

The unwasting property of the wood has been no- 



168 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

ticed, in reference to its value in a ship-yard. On 
this, ST. PAULINUS remarked that it was " a very 
singular thing a vital virtue in an insensible and 
inanimate substance which hath yielded and con- 
tinues to yield daily its precious wood to the de- 
sires of an infinite number of " (paying this word 
not in PAULINUS)- " persons, without suffering 
any diminution but continuing all the while as if it 
had been untouched." " It permits itself," con- 
tinues the Saint, " every day to be divided, and 
yet remains exposed entire to the veneration of the 
people." 

Poor HELENA was not quite ire croci old, when 
she set out on her hopeful pilgrimage but she was 
four-score. But she does not enjoy the undisputed 
honour of this inventio crucis. As on other im- 
portant points, theological doctors differ on this 
even a Jew by name JUDAS is upheld by some 
as the happy man. Some compensation was how- 
ever made to HELENA for, as well as the Saint- 
ship, her body has the property of being (like 

Sir the Irish member's bird) in two places at 

once. It is buried in Rome and in France. 

Now gentle reader you may at your pleasure 
in England or France believe in these things 
as we once did universally in both or you may 
not: and you may smile and laugh at them, in 
either country, at your pleasure, and in safety : 
and so you may, albeit unbecomingly, at Rome. 
But it will be well to keep your countenance, and 
hold your peace, in certain parts of Spain and Por- 
tugal ; and perhaps of Italy and other priest-ridden 



PAGANISM PAPACY. 1(59 

portions of Europe, on these and similar matters. 
You may otherwise, in the dungeons of the inqui- 
sition the holy office ! be taught a useful lesson 
on the blessings of your own country as to things in 
general and the Habeas Corpus Act in particular. 

I have had occasion to quote the name of ST. 
ANTONIO, and have a word to say to that influen- 
tial person, in passing. 

A saint is not nor is even the Virgin herself, 
equally influential every where, always. We have 
seen what potency our Lady of Rudna possesses. 
But she is not equally so at her less renowned 
shrines. Whether the potency spring from the re- 
nown, or the renown from the potency, let others 
determine. As we say in my county in cases of 
difficulty that I leave. The Virgin is so exten- 
sively useful, that she sometimes trenches on the 
prerogative of other saints. We have seen her, 
of Radna, plucking victims from under imminent 
carriage-wheels, and from swamping vessels. But 
it is ST. ANTHONY and more especially he of 
Padua that is supposed, and expected, to assist the 
most promptly, on such untoward events. 

" ST. ANTONIO of Padua presides over escapes 
and overturns by sea and land. Pictures and other 
offerings are now dedicated and made to him, 
as to NEPTUNE of old." MooFtE's BYRON, II. 
309. 

The respective priests at say Radna and Padua 
are now too wise to expose themselves in such in- 
decent revilings as we have seen reciprocated be- 
tween the Franciscans and Dominicans, as to the 



170 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS, 

superior sanctity of their respective patrons. In 
former times their credulous flocks were sure to pin 
their faith on the sleeve of the one or the other* 
Now, they would, perhaps, be sometimes disposed 
to believe in both. Both sets of priests might be 
suspected of playing at the same game (of hum- 
bug) and quarrelling for the stakes. 

It may be almost too trivial to notice but I will 
venture to throw out a hint, that where we can find 
no other good reason for the particular patronage to 
which a papal has succeeded a pagan saint as in 
the case of NEPTUNE and ANTONIO, or as I have a 
thousand times heard him called, ANTOON it may 
be worth while to test them euphonically or phoneti- 
cally. For instance, can a better reason be given- 
for it in this case than the corresponding sound of 
the last syllables of their respective venerable 
names ? They would be sounded exactly alike in 
Portugal. ANTOON and NEPTOON are not to be 

C 

classed with All-eggs-under-the-grate, 

I have been afloat and in gales with papists ; 
under some alarm, but perhaps not in any danger. 
On such occasions my friend if he will permit me 
to call him so ST. ANTOON, was invoked and 
propitiated, as I witnessed, by prayers and prostra- 
tions and promises, to his image or picture, by the 
affrighted. But I never saw him i. e. his effigies 
as others have abused or whipped, or irreve- 
rently treated. No papal ship goes to sea, it is said, 
without, a sea-stock of images and pictures of his 
saintship, in view to tempests or foul winds. As 
much is conjectured of the older Romans, in respect 



PAPACY HINDUISM. 171 

to Saint NEPTOON. I know not if any thing espe- 
cial, beyond what I have noted, has been developed, 
connecting, by mythological legends or superstitious 
usage, these two illustrious protectors of voyagers 
and travellers NEPTOON and ANTOON. How 
comes it, by the way, that a horse is the common 
attribute of both ? 

Perhaps, in advertence to the weakness of man's 
unexcited faith and piety, the pursers of papal ships 
take out a sea-stock of ST. ANTOON s and their 
precursive brethren of pagan ships may have taken a 
store of NEPTOONS to be produced (sold or let) to 
affrighted sinners, in a gale of wind : as our wary 
pursers conveniently do, of slops of all sorts for 
JACK'S accommodation and comfort in hot and cold 
latitudes. For in Wapping or at Portsmouth, JACK 
thinks no more of flannel and tobacco and such 
comforts, beyond his back and his pipe, than the 
secure sinners of papal or pagan latitudes and 
smooth water do, or did, of ANTONIOS, NEP- 
TONIOS, and tempests. 

The unchangeableness of popery is a matter oi 
boast by its adherents ; and sometimes of reproach 
by its oppugners ; by its adherents, in proof of its 
consistency and apostolicity by its opponents, as a 
test of its dangerous ambitious tendency and un- 
yielding spirit. Like the practice of others, it ex- 
hibits a persevering tendency to get all it can, and 
keep all it can get, Be it as it may, the unchange- 
ableness of Hinduism is more manifest. It is no 
great stretch of credulity to believe that in point of 
essentials, in almost every particular, and as to 



172 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

many ceremonials and less important matters, Hin- 
duism is now what it was when MOSES sojourned in 
Egypt* an( i " became learned in all the knowledge 
of the Egyptians/' who then were, in faith and 
practice, nearly what the Hindus are now. 

Here, surely, may be found a clue to guide us in 
connecting such practices with those of Western 
heathens and through them to the early as well as 
later usages of Christianity : coincidences which 
have reasonably surprised observers of recent days. 

A striking instance of the uniformity of practice 
between distant priests, evincing that " man is every 
where the same animal," is seen in the importance 
attached by Brahmans and papal priests to the secrecy 
of their Scriptures. I will take a passage, by way of 
text, from the Hindu Panthefin, and extend the sub- 
ject through a page or two, by way of illustration 
or improving on it; as other, sometimes tiresome, 
preachers say : 

" The religious doctrines of the Hindus may be 
divided, like those of most other people whose Scrip- 
tures are in a hidden tongue, into exoteric and eso- 
teric. The first is preached to the vulgar ; the 
second known only to a select number. The doc- 
trines thus divided may be otherwise styled religion 
and mythology. The latter is, perhaps, the invention 
rather of poets than of priests; but, being so well 
adapted to their purpose, the priests have artfully 
applied it to rivet the mental chains, that, when the 
Scriptures are concealed, they seldom fail to assist 
in forging for mankind." p. 1. 

Cunning and selfish priests soon discovered the 



PAPACY HINDUISM, 173 

effects of the gathering, by the people, of the fruit of 
the Tree of Knowledge ; and in all countries inter- 
dicted such gathering. In countries where the 
schoolmaster has been able to stir abroad with effect, 
they know better. Omitting a relation of this de- 
scription, allowed by most reasoning men to be 
allegorical, we shall here perceive the corresponding 
Papal and Brahmanal interdictions. 

Publicity is the soul of justice and of right. Ini- 
quity ever seeks to shade itself in secrecy, and 
dreads nothing so much as exposure. Dislike of 
publicity may not always be a proof of existing 
wrong, but it usually is a reasonable ground of sus- 
picion ; and the partisans of concealment, by encou- 
raging suspicion, debar themselves of the right to 
complain of calumny. If they have nothing to fear 
from the scrutiny of the public eye, why desire to 
be shut up in the suspicious privity of conceal- 
ment ? If unjustly calumniated, why not refute it 
by publicity ? It is sadly unwise in public men to 
deprive themselves of the support of public opinion, 
Is it merely from lack of wisdom ? Let us place 
ourselves above suspicion by showing that we have 
done nothing that fears the honest light of day. 

A Hindu of a servile class may not read, or hear 
read, the Veda, his scripture he may not read some 
portions of the Sastra; or Parana, a less venerated 
portion of his revered books nor even some poems 
founded on divine legends. I am not aware that 
Christian priests have gone the whole of these Brah- 
manic lengths. They have been content, I believe, 
with the general and entire interdiction of the Bible 



174 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

making up their short-falling, as compared with 
their brethren of India, by the partial enforcement, 
where they dare, of the Index Expurgatorius thus, 
as far as they can, emulating the more extended 
daring of the Eastern Levites. The perusal of the 
papal puranic fables, as the lying legends of the 
Church of Rome may, without lack of charity, be 
designated or the mythology of Christianity is 
freely permitted to their benighted flocks. 

Like some enjoined observances of pilgrimages to, 
and prayers at, favored shrines, the fastings, 8cc. of 
papists, similar doings are highly profitable amono- 
Hindus : promises of good resulting from such obser- 
vances indulgences are liberally scattered by the 
priests of both persuasions. While some books are 
interdicted, others may be read with advantage, or 
heard. The Hindu poem, the Ramayatia, may be 
profitable to all. At the end of the first section, 
great benefit is promised to any individual of the first 
three classes who shall duly read, with the pre- 
scribed ceremonies, that sacred poem, viz. "A 
Brahman, reading it, acquires learning and elo- 
quence ; a Kshetriya * will become a monarch ; a 
Vaisya * will obtain vast commercial profits ; and a 
Sudra, J hearing it, will become great/' Hin. Pan. 
193. 

So Sou THEY " The puritans, like the Roma- 
nists, maintained the extravagant and pernicious opi- 
nion, that the scripture had no efficacy unless it were 
expounded in sermons ; the word, no vital efficacy 

1 A soldier, 2 A trader. 3 A servile, 



PAPACY -HINDUISM. 175 

unless preached from the pulpit ; that prayers and 
sacraments were not merely unprofitable, but tended 
to farther condemnation ; and that sermons them- 
selves must be heard, not read for it was through 
the ear only that they could reach the heart." Book 
of the Church, II. 340. 

Thus we see how closely cognate are the doctrines 
and practice, the sayings and doings, of Rome and 
Benares; Padres and Brahmans are, in these in- 
stances, a twin fraternity born of the same parents, 
whose names I shall not here display. 

But a more complete epitome of priestcraft than 
the passage just quoted, can scarcely be penned it 
may be entitled, " The Priests' Vade-mecum." It 
would do as well, exchanging a word or two, but 
not their sense, for Brahmans as for Puritans and 
Romanists ; and what is before quoted from the in- 
troductory paragraph of the Hindu Pantheon, would 
apply as well to Papists as to Hindus, with the mere 
alteration of those words. The Church of Benares 
will re-echo to the Church of Rome the doctrine of 
TERTULLIAN, as noted in a former page " that, 
being once of the right faith, the believer has nothing; 
to do but to believe on." 

Great coincidences might be found in Heathen, 
and Hindu, and Christian practice, touching Sanc- 
tuary. Time and place were papally sacred ; some- 
times from sun-set on Wednesday to sun -rise on Mon- 
day, in every week. " The time of God " was 
ordered to be observed by the Council of Clermont, 
on pain of excommunication. Temples, of course, 



176 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

were sanctuaries and their precincts and environs- 
in extent, proportionate to the potent odour of their 
patron saint ; and this depending, probably, on the 
virtue of his body, or relics or on the possession of 
a piece of the true Cross or of an image, or a pic- 
tureor some other equally important, holy, and 
profitable species of famed property. 

Such is the case under change of circumstances 
with the Hindus. Their temples are sanctuaries 
not all, I believe nor do I know what rules such 
privileges are governed by, if any. Some cities and 
their environs partake of them, more or less. In 
countries despotically governed, frequent sanctuaries 
from the ire of tyrants might be highly beneficial to 
societies so oppressed. It would, of course, be a 
triumph when priests could show themselves above 
the power which oppressed others and when put 
forth to shield the victims of persecution was, so far, 
a happy institution : but, like other good in the 
hand of man, was liable to abuse by extension, and 
has been the frequent source of well-founded com- 
plaint that villains, secure of refuge from the de- 
served punition of their villanies, were, by such in- 
discriminate protection, encouraged in them. 

I am somewhat disappointed at finding among my 
memoranda so little mention of Hindu Sanctuary. 
Punderpoor, on the river Bhima, a holy city about 
100 miles S. E. from Poona, I have, I think, in a 
former publication, noticed as a place extensively 
privileged in this particular, as well as in many 
others. The following, from TOD'S Rajapootana, 



PAGANISM HINDUISM. 177 

is the only other instance which occurs, of Hindu 
Sanctuary and this I have taken from some review 
of that work : 

" The most celebrated fane of the Hindu APOLLO 
(KANYA) is Nathdwara. It owes its celebrity en- 
tirely to the image of KRISHNA, said to be the same 
that has been worshipped at Mathura [ever] since 
his deification. Within the sanctuary, which ex- 
tends to a considerable distance around Nathdivara., 
the criminal is safe from pursuit. The rod of justice 
dares not appear on the mount nor the foot of the 
pursuer pass the stream." 

The use or abuse of such an immunity is scarcely 
to be appreciated by us, so unused to speculate on 
its existence. It would not be enough, in our state 
of society, to imagine one of our churches and its 
precincts a refuge for every class of offenders. Nor 
even if we were to imagine a city or town so privi- 
leged. But it might afford a curious subject for 
contemplation, were we to picture such a place in 
England or Ireland, " where the rod of justice dare 
not appear, nor the foot of the pursuer pass/' Take 
Oxford, for example, and fancy it so situated. It 
might, peradventure, have arisen to its present state 
of elegance and wealth sooner, as the resort of suc- 
cessful unpunishable villany, than from having been 
the seat and repose of virtue, and religion, and 
learning. 

Under the head of Limbo, I find a paragraph or 
two in my C. P. B. that bear on some of the pre- 
ceding topics ; and although, perhaps, one or more 
passages may be little else than a repetition of some 



178 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

that precede, I am induced to introduce the extract 
in this place. 

Limbo that happiest of all happy imaginings for 
filling priestly pockets. Proposition : Given, the 
undoubted power of preaching souls out of purgatory, 
or of averting future punishment by priestly process : 
and required the sum of acquisition, in time, of 
the said priests. Answer : All the wealth of all the 
world. It is by doubting of that power in the first 
instance, and the mental effort resulting from doubt 
in the next, that any limit can be put to the impos- 
ture, or to the consequent acquisition. 

The next happiest step if, indeed, it may not 
have been the first, on the part of both Eastern and 
Western priests was the sinfulness of laymen read- 
ing the Scriptures. All religions teach men to be 
good : it is the interpretation by priests that gives a 
contrary tendency. If the people were allowed to 
" read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest," their 
sacred volumes, priestcraft is immediately shorn of 
its pernicious predominance. In a former paragraph 
we have seen, touching the Ramayava, that " a 
Sudra hearing it, will become great." He may not 
read even that, in some parts, frivolous and licen- 
tious poem. Reading any portion of a Veda would 
subject the impious (impertinent) inquirer to severe 
inflictions of fine, penance, &c. in proportion to the 
strength of his purse, or the weakness of his mind. 
Man is alike every where and, of course, priests. 
How accordant is the practice of Hindu and Papal 
priests in this particular ! 

And in another, which is, more or less, observable 



PAPACY HINDUISM. 179 

all the world over : this is, the cunning contrivance 
of inducing the people to sanctify, or render spiri- 
tual, or even to look on them as sacraments, many 
of the inevitable physical predicaments of humanity. 
Thus birth, naming, marriage, burial, &c. A man 
cannot be born or die without pecuniary homage to 
the priesthood. Nor live he must be named and 
married, &c. &c. If rich, there are " month's 
minds" and their equivalents in all priest-ridden 
countries. If very rich, annual feasts and gifts 
even septennial and decennial, if the deceased party 
left his piety as well as his pence to his successors. 
Faith in their donivorous pastors and spare coin in 
pocket are all that are needed to secure all these, 
and many more, " delicate attentions," to the eternal 
welfare of the deceased ; who, while living and 
penurious, had attracted a very small portion of pas- 
toral regard. The Brahmans have, I think, succeeded 
best in these periodical feastings and payings for the 
good of the departed. Their institution of Sradha, 
or obsequies, is of a very elaborate and finished sort. 
Daily, fortnightly, monthly, and so on as long, 
indeed, as the faith and money hold out feastings 
and gifts are meritorious. But with them, as all the 
world over u no pence, no paternoster." 

The Hindus, like perhaps all others, are supersti- 
tious in the ratio of their ignorance. Those who 
know the least of the principles of religion, are the 
most earnest and fervent in the practice of its exterior 
rites and ceremonies. The learned respect them, 
and sacred symbols and things the ignorant, con- 
necting them with some inherent virtues, worship 



180 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

and adore. The simple and pure devotion of the 
heart may be humbly hoped to be acceptable to the 
Deity ; but it is unprofitable to priests. Not but 
many priests, even of the most superstitious people, 
are sincere ; although they cannot be enlightened. 
They are enthusiasts. A warm imagination acting 
on ignorance is generally the parent of enthusiasm. 
We had better, perhaps, leave the question of hypo- 
crisy, where my Uncle TOBY left it and not de- 
cide, like TRIM, on its immediate presence. Still 
one cannot help having suspicions, where the pocket 
and the practice stand and continue in the same re- 
lation to each other as parallel lines. I do not, how- 
ever, mean in the ordinary terms of definition of the 
latter. Quite the contrary for whereas the pa- 
rallel lines can never join, the pocket and practice 
never separate. 

In connexion with this copious subject of priestly 
self-interest governing their actions too much, in as 
far as their profession of poverty and humility are 
incompatible with the reputed development of their 
bump of acquisitiveness I am induced to give a 
text from a Hindu work entitled Vaxauta-Rajasha- 
Koona, with a little commentary. 

" If a vulture, a heron, a dove, an owl, a hawk, a 
gull, a basha, or a pandura" (I know not what 
these last two birds are) " should settle upon a 
house the wife, or the child, or the master of the 
house, or some other person belonging to him will 
die or some other calamity will befall him, within a 
year afterwards." 

The ingenuity, the cunning, manifested in such 



PAPACY HINDUISM. 181 

texts as this, cannot escape notice. Let the people 
have faith and fear in the augury, and the work of 
the priest is done. He is a made man. Listen to 
his power, and its results. 

To avert this calamity, saith a commentator, the 
house so threatened, or its value in money, must be 
given to a Brahman. Or the master thereof must 
commute by an offering of the following articles : 
1. The five productions of the cow, viz. dung, urine, 
curds, milk, and ghee, with the grass kusa (poa 
cynosuroides). 2. The five gems, viz. gold, sil- 
ver, crystal, pearls, and emeralds. - 3. The five 
nectareous juices, viz. ghee, 1 milk, curds, sugar, 
and honey. 4. The twigs of the five trees, viz. 
Jicus Indica, Jicus religiosa, Jicus glomerata, the man- 
go, and mimus ops elertgi. 5. The five astringent 
juices, viz. eugenia jujuba, bombex heptaphy Ilium, 
sidarhomboida, zizi/phus jujuba, and seshana grandi- 
flora. These are to be macerated in a particular 
way, as pointed out in the ritual, and presented as 
an oblation. The guardian deities of the cardinal 
points z of the universe must then be worshipped, 

1 As the sailor on whom a fairy conferred the gratification 
of three wishes, having demanded all the grog in the world 
and all the tobacco, in the first two, was puzzled what farther 
to want and ask, demanded, as his third wish, " more backa " 
(JOSEPHUS MILLERIUS, Vol. III. p. 247) so the Brahmans 
seem to covet all the curds, milk, and ghee, in the world, and 
then to crave mure ghee, milk, and curds. It is a curious 
fact that while East Indians are so lacteal, the Chinese, as is 
said, use no milk in any form whatever. 

* The eight points perhaps our four cardinals and their 
media. These are: KUVERA, regent or deity of the N. 

Q 



182 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

and a hundred and eight oblations of ghee made, 
simmered with a sumidh, or sacrificial piece of the 
wood of the kudhira (acacia catechu}, while the man- 
tra 1 of mrityaonjaya* is repeated. The oblation called 
the mahavyadi-homa, 3 is to be performed either at 
the commencement or end of the ceremony. Obla- 
tions of ghee, at each of which the gayatri* is (men- 
tally) recited, are then to be made to VISHNU, the 
nine planets, 5 Udboota, 6 and the household gods : 
which being done, the Brahmans must be enter- 
tained with ghee and rice-milk. It is then required 
that the sacrificial fees be paid, and water sprinkled, 
with appropriate mantras ; when, assurance being- 
given that all has been duly performed, a prostra- 
tion is made to the Brahmans, and their benedic- 
tion is given.? 

And all this, gentle reader, because a gull, or a 
dove, &c. sat on the house of a rich man ! rich in 

ISA, of the N.E. INDRA, of the E. AGNI, of the S.E. 
YAMA, of the S. NIRUT, of the S.W. VARUNA, of the W. 
and PAVAN of the N.W. But they differ on different autho- 
rities. See Hin. Pan. p. 271. 

1 Invocation, or charm generally understood to be of a 
threatening, malefic, gloomy tendency. 

2 Mritya, death jaya, victorious. 

3 I am at fault here. 

4 The holiest verse of the Veda. Of which more hereafter. 

5 Seven of our oldest, and the ascending and descending- 
nodes, or dragon's head and tail, & IS- Of which, also, 
something hereafter. 

6 I am again at fault. 

7 This is marked as having been taken from the Oriental 
Herald, No. 37. 



PAPACY HINDUISM. 183 

faith as well as pelf. It might puzzle even Papacy to 
exhibit any thing more exquisite of its kind than the 
above. The single invention of purgatory, with the 
bank or treasury of supererogation at the priest's 
command, he requires indeed little else, as has been 
before hinted, if his flock have but faith. Talk of 
acts of parliament our statute of mortmain is 
worth a wilderness of them. 

How difficult it is for Christians and Protestants 
to credit the undeniable fact, that many millions of 
our fellow-Christians firmly believe in, and are gulled 
by, such trash as I have last pointed to. The 
Papal " Church " that is, their popes, cardinals, 
councils, and priests with pretty obvious results, 
uphold and encourage such scandal. And, beyond 
Christendom, there are still many more millions of 
our fellow-subjects and others, who, similarly en- 
couraged by their Brahmans, with nearly similar 
results, as firmly believe in their silly trumpery in 
lying legends equally disgraceful and atrocious. 
Still, let us not be uncharitable. Very many of our 
easy-faithed brethren and fellow- subjects are, not- 
withstanding and in spite of such priestcraft and 
credulity, as good people and as good subjects as 
ourselves in some instances, better. I am ac- 
quainted with a lady of great kindness of heart and 
strength of intellect, and on every other point save 
Papacy perfectly rational, who yet firmly believes in 
all that her Church and her priests have taught her 
even to the extent of the Hohenloeic miracles. I firmly 
believe and trust that she will meet the reward of 
her goodness in heaven. She, I have no doubt, hopes 



184 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

and wishes the same good to me ; but an equally 
strong trust and belief in the infinite mercy of our 
common FATHER, she is not, I fear, permitted to 
entertain. 



Differing in degree, the same in essentials, are the 
influences of the Fetish men (equivalent to Brah- 
man, or priest) on the Gold Coast of Africa. Major 
RICKETTS informs us, in substance, of the follow- 
ing, among other particulars, on that point. 

The Fetish-men are so called from being sup- 
posed to possess supernatural powers. They are 
easily bribed they take money under the pretext 
that having consulted the deity, he would take 
a certain sum. 1 More is soon demanded, the fetish 
not being satisfied. Natives will pawn their chil- 
dren to raise the means of appeasing his wrath. 2 If 
implicit obedience be not paid, horrid expedients are 
resorted to. If forgiveness be implored, the aven- 
ging fetish expects a handsome present of recon- 
ciliation. Alarming diseases are mitigated or cured 
by a fetish-man depositing an egg on the highway. 
The unhappy person who may tread on it picks up 
the disease of the credulous party. Passengers, 
aware of this, carefully avoid those charms. The 

1 Purgatorial masses, in Popedom. 

3 In all religions chiefly ceremonial, coincidences are 
striking, " Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, 
or with ten thousand rivers of oil ? Shall I give my first- 
born for my transgression ? The fruit of my body for the 
sin of my soul?" MICAH vi. 7. No! saith a higher autho- 
rity, " I will have prayer, not sacrifice." 



PAPACY HINDUISM. 185 

celebration of the yam harvest calls forth public 
offerings to a great fetish ; which, at Cape Coast, 
appears to be a great rock 1 near the walls of 
the castle. Another fetish is a salt pond. 2 Offer- 
ings are made, mostly by women, 3 of yams, eggs, 
oil, and the blood of some animal. Every family of 
consequence has its own domestic fetish. 4 ' Funerals, 
as elsewhere, are attended by divers ceremonials 
not omitting feasting and presents to the fetish men. 
Cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry, are purchased on 
such occasions ; sometimes to the extent of ruining 
the survivors of the family. If wealthy, these are 
repeated, to the seventh year 5 after the decease. 
Births and marriages are likewise, as elsewhere, the 
occasion of feasting, and paying to the fetish. 

If half a dozen words were changed in Major 
RICKETTS' relation, it would describe Papal and 
Hindu practices as correctly as those of Cape Coast : 
so true it is that man, especially priestly or fetish 
man, is the same all the world over. 

Many texts bordering on, or tending to, folly, 

1 His residence, I should rather judge. It is probably of 
Lingaic form. Of this, touching Africa^ more hereafter. 

2 The spirit of the rock, or of the waters ? Traces of a 
poetical mythology are discernible even in the interior of 
Africa. 

3 The depositories of superstition in every clime, and, 
no doubt, of religion also. One has been described as the 
injudicious extension, the exacerbation, of the other. 

4 Or patron saint or, with Western pagans, Lares with 
Eastern, images. 

* The same, among Hindu, and, I believe, Papal, feti* h- 



186 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

vice, or greater enormities, may, perhaps, be found 
even in the Sastra, or venerated Scripture of the 
Hindus in their Puranic legends, no doubt too 
many. All such deserve to be exposed to reason- 
able reprehension : and I am willing, as far as able, 
so to expose them ; and similar matters observable 
among others. On the whole, however, a very good 
code of morality and religion might be culled out of 
their revered books rejecting, of course, much 
lumber : and the fruit of such doctrines, where 
individuals look more to good works, hope, and 
charity, than to faith, may be seen in the simple, in- 
nocent, and good lives of many. I have sometimes 
been disposed to think, with sufficient vagueness, 
that as many Hindus as Christians lead bating 
faith, if such abatement must be made a truly 
Christian life. 

The doctrine, to me so repelling, of faith, over, or 
without, works, I cannot help thinking very dan- 
gerous. With too many of us faith seems to be all 
in all. The hope which arises out of charity, humi- 
lity, and all their works, is nothing worse than 
nothing even damnable ! We may, I apprehend, 
for this, in a great degree, thank ST. ATHANASIUS. 
Saint ! forsooth. The creed which goes by his 
name is reputed to be the production of one Vi- 
GILIUS, " a contentious bishop of Tapsus." I have 
no ready means of ascertaining whether or not the 
memory of the saint really deserves to be tainted by 
the appropriation to him of the creed which bears 
his name. If so, may Heaven forgive him ! for I 
cannot help thinking that no one thing has caused 



PAPACY HINDUISM. 187 

o much schism, or rather separation, from our good 
Church, as that creed ; or so much sadness to its 
more timid adherents. Faith, mere faith, wears 
indeed too much semblance to those easy cushions, 
on which mental laziness loves to repose. No doubt 
but a great majority of mankind, if they think at all, 
think by proxy and it is fit they should. 

I earnestly hope that, though advancing into 
years, I may yet live to see that creed struck out of 
our ritual. ST. A., were he alive and in his ple- 
nitude of power, would perhaps set his inqui- 
sitors to work ; and, by virtue of the bull de heretico 
comburendo, burn me alive for saying this ; and con- 
sign my soul to eternal torments. And this for lack 
of what he and they would call faith that is, not 
thinking exactly with them. Fire and fagot in 
their potent logic, shall consume where they cannot 
confute may make cinders, but not Christians. 
Do any of his spiritual successors exist ? I hope not 
and believe not, out of the purlieus of the Inqui- 
sition. But if such do exist, and wherever, thus I 
retort on them and him May all-merciful Heaven 
forgive their want of charity ! and may my humble 
hope be hereby strengthened ! 

Man, wretched man, must surely in all cases, 
where not blinded by fanaticism, see that humility 
of pretension, with reasonable confidence of hope, 
best becomes him. 

In the time of Louis XIV, "a constellation" 
of poets was beautifully called the Pleiades re- 
minding us of the " gems " of the Indian Court 
of VIKRAMADITYA. The names of the French 



188 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Pleiads do not occur (to me) and those of the 
" gems " need not be given here. Who but a most 
wretched, I had nearly said a most wicked, fanatic, 
could, after persecuting one of " the seven " sus- 
pected of heresy, to the stake, declare that of all the 
actions of his life, he looked back on that per- 
secution with the most satisfaction ? This is said of 
NICOLAS RAPIN. The names and memory of such 
men should not be spared. 

Oh, what are we 

Frail beings as we are, that we should sit 
In judgment, man on man? and what were we, 
If the All-merciful should mete to us, 
With the same rigorous measure wherewithal 
Sinner to sinner metes ? BYRON. 

How idle, to give it no worse a name, the en- 
deavour, to make all men think alike ! how foolish 
to expect it ! You cannot make two watches, the 
nicest pieces of machinery produced by the in- 
genuity of man, go alike : and the mind of man is 
infinitely a more refined and complicated machine. 
No two men thinking men think exactly alike on 
any important question not strictly mathematical ; 
where there is no scope for diversity. There may be 
some easy-faithed folk who are the more disposed to 
believe, because the point is impossible. Of such it 
has been sarcastically said that they would wish there 
were twice Thirty-nine Articles, that they might prove 
their orthodoxy by believing them all. Peace to all 
such. But if two cannot on any deeply important 
point think alike, can they be compelled to do so on 
many ? You may unsettle a man's faith in several 



INFIDELITY. 189 

ways but can you give him your own ? You convince 
an inquirer that he is in error ; but you make him 
a sceptic or an unbeliever. In these two descrip- 
tions of person there is this difference the sceptic 
doubts ; the unbeliever is confirmed in his infidelity. 
Infinitely diversified then as is the human mind, 
and prone as man is to diversity in his mode of 
reasoning, how can such vastly complicated pieces 
of moral machinery be made to work alike ? Those 
who think, must of necessity think variously ; and, 
as the result of thought and reasoning, believe and 
disbelieve variously, and to such a degree of variety 
as to be, as above said, almost infinitely diversified. 
Who is right ? Who is wrong ? Where, in this in- 
finitely graduated line, is the right to stop and the 
wrong to commence ? Are all on the one side of the 
line wrong, infinitely, damnably, wrong? and all 
on the other side, infinitely, ineffably, blissfully 
right ? It is fair in such arguments to push them to 
extremity to show to what absurdity dogmas may 
tend. The doctrine of the eternity of extreme pu- 
nition for being, however involuntarily, on what is 
deemed by a few the wrong side of the delicately 
and infinitely graduated line of faith, is revolting. 
And it is no wonder that the churches and sects 
which insist on it should exhibit appearances of de- 
clension in their number of adherents, and in the 
estimation of those who yield to reasonings rather 
than to denunciations. Such anathemas may, haply, 
keep those within the pale of reprobation, who fear 
to look or search beyond it. These may be divided 
into three classes those who dare not, those who 



190 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

will not, and those who cannot, reason. Of these it 
has been, I think, well said, that he who dare not, is 
a coward ; he who will not, is a slave ; and he who 
cannot, is a fool. 

Every indulgent allowance should, however, be 
extended to the enduring mental infancy of the 
illiterate. It should plead strongly in their be- 
half if, in their ignorance, they adopt and per- 
petuate error. The strength of faith is too often in 
an inverse ratio to the strength of evidence, and the 
extent of intelligence. 

As to fanaticism in its enthusiastic excess, it is as 
contagious as the itch. Its immediate spread among 
the auditors of WEST LEY was most extraordinary. 
He was honest ; and many of his hearers were, no 
doubt, smitten with a sort of convulsive epilepsy. 
Of some we may be pardoned if we think less 
charitably. I believe MR. IRVING to be, in the 
main, honest. His excess of zeal not to call it 
violence may, perhaps, sometimes outrun his con- 
viction. The Irvingarians feel, or fancy so, or affect 
it, the gift of tongues, among other inspirations. 
But what comes of it, if neither listener or utterer 
can understand a syllable of what is said? " Un- 
known tongue" is a curious sort of gift. If tried by 
any ordinary test, it utterly fails. Bishop PECOCKE 
justly maintained that it was not the purpose of 
revelation to teach any thing that may be learned 
or discovered without it. This may be extended to 
inspiration also a miraculous thing. A profound, 
or even a skilful, poet, never, as has been said of 
HOMER, employs celestial machinery where he can 



INFIDELITY. 191 

do without it. And both in ethics and physics no 
plurality of principles may be assumed where the 
phenomena can be explained by one. Essentials 
are not to be multiplied unnecessarily. 

The freedom with which certain priests, and 
indeed others, fulminate, or deal out, reprobation, 
on such as think differently, or who act in oppo- 
sition to what is felt to be the good of the craft, is 
strikingly contrasted with their seeming self-com- 
placency as to the security of their own salvation. 
If such things were not, as Bishop BEVERIDGE 
saith, too serious, they might be amusing. As to 
what he says of absurdities and mysteries, it may be 
noted that the difference seems to be this mysteries 
are things that we know nothing of; absurdities we 
know to be false. A mystery we cannot under- 
stand : it cannot be understood. If understood, it is 
no longer a mystery. 

There may be although I hope not still some 
parts of Christendom, Spain or Portugal, 1 pre- 
sume, if any, where one might be in danger if not 
of being, as heretofore, burned alive of being im- 
prisoned possibly for life, for the espousal of what 
are called heretical doctrines or opinions. Formerly 
a suspicion even of entertaining such, mere matters 
of belief or speculation, would have sufficed for the 
harpies of the Inquisition. It is not long since that 
almost all the Christian world held that some cases 
of heresy as righteously deserved death as murder. 
And possibly the denial or non-profession of the co- 
equality and co-eternity of the Hypostases " the 



192 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

consubstantiality of the Hypostases ! " as some 
theologians have so clearly expressed themselves 
or of transubstantiation or of consubstantiation, or 
of the eternity of hell torments and of all mankind 
deserving them, the particular mode of the incar- 
nation all these, and other occult and mysterious 
points, may have been among the sufficient crimes 
to induce some " who professed and called them- 
selves Christians " to burn alive their weaker 
brethren "for the honor and glory of GOD" the 
GOD of Infinite Mercy! If HE were, indeed, not 
such, how could his other awful attribute of In- 
finite Justice, not have been put forth in visible and 
immediate avenging ? Such forbearance might fur- 
nish an unbeliever an argument against all special 
Providential interposition. 

The pious Dr. WATTS gave the epithet of rant 
to the dogmas of those who substituted unmeaning 
words for unknown things. Bishop HURD, with 
more force than precision, speaks of things " at 
which reason stands aghast, and faith herself 
shrinks, half confounded." Bishop BEVERIDGE 
says " they would be ridiculed as absurdities, if 
they were not adored as mysteries/' If men do 
now really believe in such things as transubstan- 
tiation, human infallibility, the potency of indul- 
gences, 1 miracles by rags and relics, &c. and that 

1 I have never seen Indulgences publicly offered, except 
at Aix-la-Chapelle. In a rapid inspection of the Cathedral, 
I saw plenary indulgences announced on sale ; but I neg- 
lected to note the words, and the language, and the style or 



INFIDELITY. 193 

millions still do so firmly believe, it were mere wan- 
tonness of scepticism to doubt such men, in Europe 
at any rate, must surely soon see that they are 
grasping a bubble. And it will as surely soon burst 
in their hands, leaving them amazed at their cre- 
dulity. 

Exhibiting a miracle, real or pretended, tends 
more than any thing presupposing faith in the 
spectator to exalt the reputation of the performer. 
It is the most unequivocal test of the potentiality of 
the worker ; and in a degree commensurate with the 
magnitude, above the natural impossibility, of the 
miracle. We see, perhaps, only one act ; but we 
cannot measure the extent of the power. It is put 
forth but for a moment ; but we know not its du- 
rability were it willed. Enthusiasm may work 
wonders, but not miracles. It is unreasonable to 
expect philosophers, or even common reasoners and 
thinkers, to have faith in such hocus-pocus things as 
most if not all modern miracles are. Curing a green- 
sick girl ; liquefying or transcolouring the contents of 
a phial; epileptic jabbering such are the pitiful 
shifts resorted to by the miracle-mongers of late 
days. " The brave legend of Loretto " has scarcely 
been equalled. 

It might too much move the apprehensions of 
some pious timid minds, were any one to propose 
the total abolition of creeds from our ritual. But it 



mode of the announcement : but I think it was in Latin, cut 
in stone, and suspended conspicuously. Nor cau I tell if it 
apply to the present time. 

R 



194 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

has been made a question if, on the whole, they 
have not been hurtful to the cause of our Church, 
and, of course, to Christianity. The creed which I 
have above ventured to blame for its unyielding 
austerity, is understood to be the most objectionable 
article of our service : and if any revision of it, with 
a view to emendation, were undertaken, that creed 
would probably be among the earliest of the articles 
to which the pruning-knife would be applied. Of 
the other two creeds, one might, haply, suffice. And 
of the two I prefer the Nicene, although the longest, 
if either must stand as it is. Should the other, the 
Apostle's, be in preference, or also, retained, I hope 
the descent will be altered to the unobjectionable 
phraseology of the Nicene " He suffered and was 
buried." The well-wishers to the Church among 
whom I unfeignedly profess myself, though not ac- 
cording fully in its doctrines or discipline may be 
assured that the objectionable term indicated in the 
Apostle's creed, drives many from it, and shocks 
many who remain, and think, and feel. Scholars 
and philosophers may know exactly the extent of the 
meaning of the phrase, so revolting and offensive to 
ordinary ears, and view it in the right sense : but 
creeds were made not so much for such men, as for 
other classes ; and if they were, such men will not, 
cannot, be bound by them. Who can, on such mo- 
mentous points, think for another? I have little 
doubt but the phrase here, I hope not unbecomingly, 
objected to, has shocked and terrified millions of 
pious men. Can it have edified or comforted one 
such man ? 



INFIDELITY. 195 

For myself I have, I confess, some doubt as to 
the efficacy, in these days, of any creed as to de- 
nunciatory creeds, I have none, in the present, and 
probably future, state of English society. Either of 
the two creeds, if retention be thought essential, 
might be advantageously shortened retaining all 
the points on which faith or doctrine hinge. Some 
one has sagaciously remarked the proneness of 
mankind to lengthen their creeds and shorten their 
commandments. 

Our Church services are too long. In a great 
majority, unwearied attention cannot be so long kept 
up. The Gloria Patri is repeated to a degree 
rendering it unimpressive; not to say tiresome. 
Twice or thrice would surely be enough : and the 
fine Gloria in Excelsis, given with such effect in 
Papal cathedrals, might be advantageously intro- 
duced ; if it were thought alarming to reject twenty 
or thirty repetitions of the first without some com- 
pensation. The Lord's Prayer, of admitted excel- 
lence, seems not to require such repeated recitation. 
Might not twice or thrice, instead of six or eight 
times, suffice ? 

Those fine compositions the Psalms might be ren- 
dered more impressive by leaving out some parts 
bearing on no points of history or divinity, and pos- 
sessing no poetical beauty. Some now adverted to 
may be called trivial not to say, in a few instances, 
vulgar and indelicate. Some repetitions in the Psalms 
are not agreeable or instructive in the recital par- 
ticularly as the responses are usually given by the 
clerks. I never knew the potency of the fine poetry 



196 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

of our Psalms till I heard them read by my Ency- 
clopaedic friend, Dr. REES, at his chapel in Jewin 
Street. He made a selection for his congregation 
with much judgment, and read with great taste, 
pathos, and effect ; not alternating verse and verse 
with his clerk, as is usual in churches ; but reading 
the whole psalm himself, most impressively. 

More than half the available effect of the Psalms 
is lost by the responses. A verse is perhaps finely 
given by the minister. Then follows the response; 
drawled out nasally by the clerk, mumbled over by 
some of the congregation near you, and squeaked, 
out of all time and tone, by half, or a whole, hundred 
of hissing children : so that no one, not even those 
who can read, can connect or feel what is so drawled, 
mumbled, squeaked, and hissed. 

Now, if the minister read the whole, like Dr. 
REES I never, I think, heard any other clergyman 
so read the Psalms the unreading portion, happily 
decreasing, of the congregation would hear, under- 
stand, and be edified even if not recited so finely 
as by my lamented friend. 

Omissions I have, with due deference, hinted, 
might be profitable : for instance, in the 136th 
Psalm. What do we, now-a-days, know of, or care 
for, " OG, the king of Basan?" His history, or the 
geography of his fat-bull-producing country, is not, 
if even known to the learned of any importance 
to us, the multitude. What the Psalm may have 
been in Hebrew, sung by DAVID to his harp, it is 
useless to conjecture. A tasteful lyrist can make 
almost any thing agreeable. And in that day some 



INFIDELITY. 197 

not unimportant, or not unpleasing, association, 
might have been connected with the passage. Not 
so now. To our English untutored ears the sen- 
tence just quoted I do not choose to quote it again 
is, in plain prose, very undignified and caco- 
phonic. It is indeed, vulgar ; and when, as I have 
heard it in Warwickshire, and Leicestershire, his ma- 
jesty of Basan's name is strongly aspirated by the 
clerk, it really makes sad work and, if attended to 
at all, excites any feeling, save a solemn, or serious 
one. In Leicestershire they are prodigious pork- 
eaters ; l and I have little doubt but Hog and basin 



1 It was soon after hearing " Hots, the king of Basin/' 
not Basan, as palpably pronounced by a clerk as Mrs. SID- 
DONS herself could have given it, that I first heard Dr. REES, 
and admired his method of giving the whole of a well-se- 
lected, perhaps the next beautiful psalm. The contrast was 
most striking. One word more on the misplaced aspirations 
and the omissions so observable in some of the Shires, and so 
(offending to unaccustomed ears. I was once puzzled, in 
company with six or eight Meltonians, not of the hunt any 
more than myself, but respectable intelligent men, by one of 
them using again with almost Siddonian distinctness of 
articulation the term, " hern-eater/' No one of the com- 
pany but myself seemed at all puzzled. They all as readily 
transposed the initials by the ear, as the speaker had by his 
voice. I was the more perplexed for the immediate mean- 
ing of those strange words, as they had no applicability to 
what preceded or followed. Perhaps the reader does not 
take* " Do you give it up?" My worthy friend spoke of 
an urn-heater. 

I will take leave here to repeat, as a sort of apology for a 
seeming familiarity of style, that parts of this volume are 
taken, with little or no alteration, from letters to a friend. 



198 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

are associated by this verse, in a way little suspected 
by many. 

Although I feel a sufficient self-conviction that in 
what I may here or elsewhere venture, in humility, 
to put forth, touching imagined improvements, or 
reform, in our Church service, is so done in the sin- 
cerity of right feeling and good wishes towards that 
Church ; I am yet aware that there are many pious 
and good men much better and wiser men than 
myself who may view all such suggestions with 
mistrust. There are many pious and good men 
their wisdom may be questionable who will resist, 
by every means, the touch of reform to any clerical 
thing, be it ever so objectionable. " The Bible, the 
whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible," is taken by 
many as a text and test ; and is a good one to a cer- 
tain extent. But let it be recollected that those who 
have left us the Bible as it is, rejected a great deal 
that they pretended to no inspiration since the time 
of the LXX, and may possibly have left us still too 
much. And why may not the pious and wise men 
of the present day be allowed the exertion of their 
piety and wisdom, as well as those of earlier cen- 
turies, in the honest endeavour to render a good 

One of my valued and lost correspondents thought some of 
my letters worth preserving; and his executors lately re- 
turned to me more than a hundred and fifty. This apology is 
not offered as an excuse for selecting therefrom any thing ob- 
jectionable. Should unfortunately any passage wear that 
apparent hue to the reader, he is requested to impute it to 
my bad taste and lack of good sense. I agree with him that 
such things "admit of no defence." 



THE CHURCH. 199 

work still better ; by the omission of things on which 
hang no matter of faith or discipline, or beauty or 
solemnity, or any element of excellence ; nor, indeed, 
any point of importance but which are reasonably 
objectionable to many ; and which by their retention 
tend to drive and keep many from and without the 
pale of our Church ? 

Reluctant as any one to give any reasonable cause 
of offence, I would humbly suggest that while every 
thing else is in forward movement, it is not safe for 
the Church to stand still. Standing still is not 
standing fast. Is every thing national law, finance, 
navy, army, &c. &c. to undergo, of necessity, almost 
annual reform and amendment, and the Church es- 
tablishment to be allowed to remain encumbered with 
all the unbrushed cobwebs of centuries of accumu- 
lation? Is any one hardy enough to declare I 
speak not of the wish that the Church of England 
and Ireland requires no reform ? If any, I fear, 
while I may respect his hardihood, if sincere, that 
neither my, nor more potent, arguments will have 
any weight with him. Fancy our army and navy to 
have remained as they were a century or two back 
all at the head of them and of the nation, perti- 
naciously, as some churchmen are supposed to do, 
resisting all amendment, all reform what a con- 
dition would those important national departments 
be in? would they still be of that description? or 
would not England rather have been missed from 
the list of great nations ? True it is that lt Time is 
the great innovator." My earnest wish is, that 
whatever amendment or reform I desire to use the 



200 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

words synonymously may be undertaken in or for 
the Church, should be done mainly by churchmen 
say by the Bench of Bishops. But I will here 
pay no more. I emphatically disclaim every inten- 
tion of harming, in the remotest degree, the real 
interests of the Church, or the immediate income of 
any of its present members : but I desire its good, in 
the amendment of its obsolete or objectionable doc- 
trines and practices and I desire it by and through 
the Church itself lest the conviction of its necessity, 
so widely as I believe it is spread, should be ag- 
gravated by continued lukewarmness and resistance 
and call forward a class of dangerous innovators ; 
who, instead of a restoration and extension of the 
purity and beauty of the spiritual edifice, seek rather 
to share in its carnal loaves and fishes, and to wash 
their dirty hands in the Font. 

Having quoted from ROBERTS' Cam. Pop. Ant, 
I will here advert to another passage, not alto- 
gether perhaps out of place. 

He marvels that so little notice has been taken by 
mythological writers of the wife of NOAH; who, 
as the second great mother of the whole human race, 
can be no unimportant personage. Her name is not 
given in our translation of the Bible and I presume 
is not in the original. 

In the Koran she is frequently alluded to ; but 
not, I think, by name. The commentators call her 
by the name of WAI LA, and confound her with 
LOT'S wife, who is also named WAI LA, or WAHELA. 
More than one wife is given to NOAH; and one of 



THE KORAN. 201 

them is spoken of disrespectfully, as an unbeliever, 
and deceitful. Not, it may be supposed, the Arkite. 

The Koran, being so manifestly grounded on our 
Bible in regard to its historical portion, may not 
supply the names of any important persons which 
our older book may have omitted. But the commenta- 
tors on the Koran sometimes supply such omission 
on what good authority I cannot say. Thus, as well 
as the wives of NOAH and POTIPHAR, they name 
JOB'S. Some call her RAHMAT, the daughter of 
EPHRAIM the son of JOSEPH; others, MAKBIR, 
the daughter of MAN ASSES. She is very respect- 
fully spoken of, as having faithfully attended her 
husband in his distress, and supported him by her 
labour. But when she, seduced by SATAN, asked 
her husband's consent to worship him, and end their 
sufferings, the enduring man lost his temper ; and 
swore, if he recovered, he would give her a hundred 
stripes. 

He is recorded to have uttered this esteemed pas- 
sage, in the 21st Sura of the Koran: "Verily evil 
hath afflicted me. But Thou art the most merciful 
of those who show mercy." Whereupon the angel 
GABRIEL took him by the hand and raised him. 
And a fountain sprung out ; of which having drank 
and washed, his offensiveness fell off and he recovered 
his health and beauty. His wife also became young 
and handsome again, and she bore him twenty-six 
sons ; and all their property was restored and doubled 
to them. But JOB'S oath had perplexed him; and 
it was revealed to him that striking her one blow 
with a palm-branch having a hundred leaves would 



202 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

suffice. The traditions differ as to the duration of 
JOB'S calamities one says eighteen years; another 
thirteen another three and another exactly seven 
years seven months and seven hours. 

MOSES' wife is likewise named. In the Koran 
it is pleasingly related how he watered the sheep of 
two women, who modestly kept at a distance, at the 
well of Madian, and becomingly " retired to the 
shade." And one of the damsels afterwards came 
unto him, walking bashfully, and said, " My 
father calleth thee, that he may recompense thee 
for thy trouble." It ended in MOSES marry- 
ing her, SEFORA, 1 the eldest daughter of old 
SHO A IB. Others say, it was the youngest daughter. 
It appears, that the mouth of the well had been 
closed by a stone of such great weight that the 
strength of seven men, by some accounts a much 
greater number, was required to remove it. On the 
kind occasion of watering the modest damsels' sheep, 
MOSES moved the stone; not, it appears, unob- 
served for " one of the damsels said, ' My father, 
hire him ; the best servant thou canst hire, is an 
able and trusty person.' " Sura 28. entitled, The 
Story. The girl, being asked by her father how she 
knew MOSES deserved this character, said that he 
had, unaided, removed the vast stone ; and had not 
looked in her face, but held down his head till he 
had heard her message, and desired her to walk 
behind him, because the wind ruffled her garments 
and discovered part of her legs. SALE, u. 236. 
NOAH'S mother is also mentioned by name in the 

1 ZIPPORAH in the Bible. 



MAHOMMEDANS. 203 

Commentaries on the Koran. That of SHAMKHA 
is given her " the daughter of ENOSH." Ib. 
462. 

The 66th Sura, or chapter, entitled the Prohibition, 
displays a curious specimen of the domestic bicker- 
ings among the wives of the Prophet; and on what 
trivial, not to say improper and indelicate, questions, 
he pretended to receive revelations from on high. 
The Prophet's morals hang as loosely about him in 
this, as in any chapter of the Koran. He is very 
severe on the wives of NOAH and LOT; and by way 
of lecture to his own " GOD/' he says, " propound- 
eth, as a similitude unto the unbelievers, the wife of 
NOAH and the wife of LOT. They were under two 
of our righteous servants, and they deceived them ; 
wherefore their husbands were of no advantage to 
them in His sight. And it shall be said unto them, 
at the last day, ' Enter ye into hell-fire!' HE also 
propoundeth, as a similitude unto those who believe, 
the wife of PHARAOH, when she said, ' Lord, deliver 
me from PHARAOH and his doings' and MARY, 
the daughter of IMRAN, who preserved her chastity, 
and into whose womb we breathed our spirit, and 
who believed in the words of her Lord and his Scrip- 
tures, and was a devout and obedient person." 

It was on this occasion that the Prophet paid the 
high, but exclusive, compliment on the four excel- 
lent women, as named in p. 26 preceding. Two of 
the four were those last mentioned, ASIA and 
MARY. Although he restricted the believers to four 
wives, he did not so restrict himself. By revelation, 
he appears to have been at liberty on that point. 



204 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

The chapter, entitled Prohibition, opens thus " O 
Prophet ! why boldest thou that to be prohibited 
which GOD hath allowed thee, seeking to please?" 
" God hath allowed you the dissolution of your 
oaths/' He had, it seems, pacified some of his 
wives they are named by the commentators on this 
occasion, HAFSA, ZEINAH, AYESHA, SAWDA, and 
SAFIA by swearing that he would give them no 
more offence by his preference of MARY, a Coptish 
slave presented to him by the governor of Egypt. 

It was HAFSA who was more especially injured 
and insulted on this occasion ; and she so sharply 
reproved her libertine husband that he promised with 
an oath not to repeat his offence. It was to free 
himself from this restriction that he promulged this 
seasonably revealed chapter. " If" he continues 
his admonition to his angry wives " he divorce you, 
his Lord can easily give him in exchange other wives 
better than you women resigned unto GOD, true 
believers, devout, penitent, obedient, given to fast- 
ing," and other merits moral and personal. 

But, as the nature of the Commentaries indicate, 
the ladies were not so penitent, obedient, given to 
fasting, or resigned, as the Prophet expected after 
such admonition. HAFSA was implacable; and he 
not only divorces her, but separated himself from all 
his other wives for a whole month ; indulging in the 
allowed dissolution of his oath respecting the Copt- 
ish slave, as revealed to him from on high. How 
positively contemptible are these frivolities and gross- 
nesses ; and how surpassingly so when compared 



SCRIPTURE HINDUISM. 205 

if comparison can be allowed with the purity of life 
and doctrine of the Founder of Christianity ! 

The Prophet, however, took HAFSA again, as he 
gave out, by the direction of the angel GABRIEL, 
who commended her for her frequent fasting and 
other exercises of devotion ; assuring him likewise 
that she should be one of his wives in Paradise. 
SALE, n. 447. It seems to be extensively true that 
a prophet is not duly honored at home ; and that no 
man is a hero to his valet de chambre. 

The old Welch poets sing of NOE and his wife 
ESEYE. NOAH, or NOE, or Nu, has been suffi- 
ciently identified with the lawgiver of the Hindus, 
ME Nu, the 7th and last of that name. And in the 
ESEYE of the Welch, and of others perhaps, we may 
recognise the Isi of the Hindus. I may have occa- 
sion to say something in another page of Isi and 
ISA ; and shall here merely allude to a probable (and 
provable?) connexion in the names so distantly ve>- 
nerated as ISA, Isi, Isis, ISAIAH, ESAU, ISHA. 
The Helio-arkite relationships are very extensive .^ 
The sun and moon are all in all with Hindu mytho- 
logians every deity and almost every mystical thing 

melt into them ultimately, or originate thence all 

are male and female, and sexual allegories are end- 
less. In like manner, the sun is with some, the 
ark, or both, with other, westerns, the origin and end 
of all mythic allusion : saving always " that greater 
LIGHT whence all have come, whither all return; 
and which alone can shed the radiations of Truth." 1 

'The substance of the Gayatrithe holiest, the ineffable, 
rerse of the Hindu Yeda. 



206 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

Another scriptural lady of some notoriety is also, 
with us, anonymous and so much the better for her, 
as far as we are taught to speak and think of her. 
A general bad name is not so bad, as when specifi- 
cally, and personally, applied. I allude now to 
POTIPHAR'S wife. Her celebrity, as well as reputa- 
tion, is differently considered in other countries. In 
India, Arabia, Turkey, and Persia, she is as well 
known by name as any woman of antiquity or his- 
tory. Under, and to, the name of ZULEIKA there 
are hundreds of poems in the various languages of 
those countries, and thousands of allusions in other 
poetical and amatory writings. No one can, indeed, 
read ten pages of such writings without finding some 
allusion to the amours of JOSEPH and ZULEIKA. 
They are frequent to a tiresome degree. She is 
sometimes called by another name RAHIL, or RAIL. 
This occurs comparatively very seldom, and is much 
less poetical than the other. Every Mahommedan 
has read endless stories of ZULEIKA, the heroine 
of half their most impassioned poems and tales. But 
her name is not in the Koran. 

Mahommedan history has, perhaps, been more 
tender of her fame or perhaps they shroud half her 
shame in the prurient descriptions of her beauty, and 
in the degree of temptation to which she was exposed 
by the dangerous proximity of the " full moon of 
Canaan" one of the periphrases for JOSEPH. Nor 
is he described with such historic truth as with us 
not that very virtuous youth, that our beautiful ver- 
sion clothes his fair fame withal. 

The Persians, more particularly, seem never tired 



MAHOMMEDANS. 207 

of writing, or of reading, or of hearing, or of telling, 
of the "Loves o/'Yusur and ZULEIKA." There is 
a copy of a poem by JAMI under that title, in the 
Bodleian Library, which Sir W. JONES thought the 
most beautiful MS. in the world. I possess a copy 
of HAFEZ not so complete I believe as some copies 
of his celebrated diwan so beautiful as to be, in my 
eye, the criterion of caligraphy. It is that men- 
tioned in p. 10. I once, so prepossessed, took it to 
Oxford, and compared it with the famed JAMI and 
without being turned in my opinion, as far as regards 
the beauty of the penmanship. My HAFEZ I 
have indeed three copies, the second very pretty 
is in small letter, very little ornamented. JAMI'S 
work is large and splendidly illuminated. 1 

Some Mahommedan writers insist on it that the 
"Loves of YUSUF and ZULEIKA" are merely 

1 I may, perhaps, be pardoned in here noting that in my 
early day, with the view of improvement in writing Persian, 
I copied the whole of my HAFEZ ; imitating as nearly as I 
could the pretty turns of the original ; which was, I believe, 
written in Persia. I copied it into small, convenient books, 
which in time became dispersed, I know not how given 
away, lost, &c. Many years afterwards I was rather 
pleasingly surprised at seeing one of them exhibited at a tea- 
table in England, as an Oriental MS. of some curiosity and 
value ! It would have been cruel to have disabused the con- 
tented possessor. 

In a former page I have touched on the high price given 
in India for fine MSS. so much higher than they appear to 
have in England. I have sometimes thought that it would 
not be a bad speculation to turn the course of the market ; 
and purchase in London, Oriental MSS. for sale in India. 



208 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 



mystical an allegorical emblem of the spiritual 
love between the Creator and the created "just," 
says SALE, "as the Christians apply the Song of 
SOLOMON to the same mystical purpose." ch. 12. 
And he refers to D'HERBELOT, Bib. Or. art. Jou- 
SOUF. 

Like our Scripture the Sura or chapter of the 
Koran which contains the story of JOSEPH, is among 
the most admired. But as far as SALE'S translation 
gives it, it falls infinitely short, in every element of 
beauty, of our exquisite history. It is in the xnth 
chapter of the Koran, entitled JOSEPH " YUSUF," 
revealed at Mecca. The Mahommedan writers give 
the name of KITFER to the merchant who purchased 
JOSEPH. This is thought to be a corruption of 
POTIPHAR. The names written without points would 
not differ materially to the eye, yuo or yu3 or yu^o 
and in the running, broken hand, perhaps not at 
all. If variously pointed, many hundreds, perhaps 
thousands, of variations of sound, and of sense, 
might be produced. 

It has resulted from the recent researches into 
Egyptian lore, that JOSEPH married a daughter of 
PET-C-PHRE the Priest of PHRE, at On, or Helio- 
polis. By a vocalized expansion the Greeks made 
0OPE7 of PHRE. PETEPHRE and POTIPHAR may 
be nearly related ; but I have not the means of 
showing it. 

In a former page I have spoken in deserved praise 
of SALE'S Koran. Arabic scholars are, however, dis- 
posed to extend that praise not much beyond fidelity 
of translation, so far as resulted from a competent 



MAHOMMEDANS. 209 

acquaintance with the language of the original; 
and great industry in seeking the opinions of com- 
mentators, and judgment in selecting them. The 
beauties and sublimities of MAHOMMED are said to 
be not recognizable in SALE. The Prophet himself 
declared them unrivalled in any human composition ; 
and put forth such declaration with a tone of de- 
fiance, and in proof of the inspiration of the Koran. 

Comparisons have been sometimes made between 
the sublimities and poetical beauties of the Bible and 
Koran. The judgment, or opinion rather, of Europe 
is pretty general on one side. The point was, not 
long ago, made a theme of disputation at the Univer- 
sity of, I think, Ldpsic, and is said to have under- 
gone much discussion. One may fear that the 
feeling which so submitted the point had prede- 
termined it for the opinion is said to have been in 
favor of the Koran. 1 

The Mahommedans have added much in their 
Traditions and Commentaries, to the historical and 
biographical portions of the Bible. The Talmud and 
other Jewish books ; the true and spurious Gospels 
are known to have been circulated in Mahommedan 
countries, in, and before, the time of the Prophet. 

While on the subject of the Koran and its author, 
I will here, although I have much more to add 
hereafter on those subjects, offer a remark on the 

1 I have been enabled, through the kindness of a learned 
friend, a foreigner, to give a copy of the thesis : *' Notio 
DEI, quae Corano inest, sublimior est atque perfectior quain 
qua reperitur in Libris MOSAICIS?" 



210 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

prevalent error in writing and pronouncing the name 
of that extraordinary person. I have, indeed, on a 
former occasion, pointed out the impropriety of the 
final t. There is no authority whatever for it in 
Arabic, Persian, or any Eastern language. Whe- 
ther written or pronounced MAHOMED, or MAHO- 
MUD, or MAHOMMED, is of little consequence. In 
reference to its orthography in Arabic, the best 
spelling would perhaps be MA HA MM AD ; and giving 
the o, especially in the middle syllable, rather a 
hollow sound, and' dwelling on the medial m, would 
be very near the current pronunciation by natives. 
In the Arabic it is written with four letters, MHMD. 
A character * called teshdidj over the medial m, de- 
notes that sound to be prolonged or doubled ; thus, 



The sound of ma in our word ma-chine of 
hum and mud, as we usually use those words will 
give the uniform Eastern pronunciation of this im- 
portant name, as nearly perhaps as we can express 
it the authority of GIBBON, PRIDEAUX,GAGNIER, 
and a host of English, French, and other writers to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

Another Arabic letter we are apt to use equivo- 
cally, where there is no necessity for it. This is the 
,-. j. The French are rather badly off in their 

alphabet, touching the sound of this letter ; and we 
have adopted from them an orthography, in our 
early translation of the " Arabian Nights," and in 
other works, very unsightly, and which has led us 
into a vicious pronunciation. A recent learned au- 
thor writes thus " The Miradg, or the History of 



MARIA ZELL. 

the Ascension of MAHOMED " " Adgaib al Makh- 
lukat" " Tadg al Towarikh." I object to the 
dg, when ourj would give the correct pronunciation, 
and accord exactly with the original orthography. 
Taj al Towarikh, " the Diadem of Histories " 
Miraj Ajaib, are manifestly, to English organs, 
preferable to the mode of spelling with dg. 

The Mahommedan era is written and pronounced 
hejra. This, to my eye and ear, is plain and un- 
equivocal. But write it, as some have done, hedgra, 
or hegira and it is very vague. I have heard it 
pronounced in a curious variety of ways, by Euro- 
peans hed-gra, he-ghira, he-jira, &c. but by 
Orientals never otherways than hej-ra. Our g is a 
very unphilosophical letter, and leads us into divers 
anomalies. 

Nor is the name of the Mahommedan Scripture 
uniformly, or always, correctly expressed. The first 
syllable should be pronounced short the last long 
and open Koran, or Korahn. There is no aspirate 
in the original. Europeans write and pronounce it 
variously Coran, Quoran, Alcoran- -al is sometimes 
prefixed by natives. It is merely the particle the. 



Travellers, favored by opportunity, would do well 
to visit the famed shrine of the Virgin MARIA Zell, 
in Styria. It is the Loretto of Southern Germany. 
At Pentecost, and the feast of the Assumption, and 
of her Nativity the last two fall on the 15th of 
August and 8th of September great attraction 
exists thitherward. On these occasions, pilgrims 
flock from distances of hundreds of miles. It is ex- 



212 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

pected as in the case of Mahommedans to Mekka 
that every individual with any pretension to piety 
should at least once perform the pilgrimage. Rich 
and poor find their advantage in it spiritual and 
worldly. Vows made in sickness and distress, and 
relieved by prayer to the Virgin, render repetition 
necessary. Beggars also, of course, resort to the 
"Vale of Grace" and, as the human mind is 
softened by such journey ings, meet with more than 
ordinary pity and benevolence. 

Legends are not wanted in rivalry of the Ladies of 
other shrines. Those of Loretto, Walsinghame, Jiad- 
na, and others of that class, are about equalled by 
mythological prodigies of her of Zell. 

But, however apparently omnipotent in some mat- 
ters these Madonnas may seem, they cannot protect 
themselves, their shrines, their priests, or their 
wealth. All in their turn get plundered by the un- 
holy. JOSEPH borrowed ar* large sum from her 
treasury at Zell, for carrying on his wars ; and the 
French made free with that of Loretto and others. 

The inestimable chest of Cologne, (as the French 
write the name, but on the spot it is written Rolen, 
or Colen, or Coin) with the equally invaluable 
skulls of the Magi those, it is to be understood, 
who came to inquire and worship at Bethlehem 
would have shared the same fate from the sacrile- 
gious hands of republican France, but was saved by 
no miraculous removal northward. In safe times it 
was restored and I have passed hours in the fine 
cathedral of Kolen examining the beautiful gems on 
that chest. Gold is said to be the basest material 



COLOGNE. 213 

in its composition. From recollection, I should say 
that it is about as large as a chest of claret twelve 
dozen. The skulls of the three kings, or Magi, are 
milk-white ; looking, indeed, more like ivory than 
bone. Each is encircled with a brilliant crown of 
diamonds and really the spectacle of ghastly skulls 
so surmounted, affords " ample scope for medita- 
tion." The names are inscribed, if I recollect right, 
beneath their respective skulls CASPAR, MEL- 
cmoR, 1 and BALTHAZAR. 

I know not where else to find the names of those 

1 Many years had elapsed since I had seen the name of 
MELCHIOR, and it was then on a matter very different from 
skulls and Magi. An old friend of mine, a watchmaker of 
London, made some watches for the Spanish and Portuguese 
markets. The articles were approved, save on one point. 
The ingenious artist put his name MILES BROCKBANK on 
his wares but it was offensive. The patronymic did not 
signify but MILES! there was no such saint in the co- 
pious kalendar of Papacy ; and some piously objected to 
wearing on their person so unhallowed an article. My 
alarmed friend conned over the apotheotic muster-roll, and 
riot finding any name more like his own than MELCHIOR, 
adopted it in his subsequent handyworks, with the expected 
advantages. Surprised at seeing such a name on his watches, 
the above explanation was given me. 

While writing this article, I read in a respectable penny 
periodical the Saturday Magazine the names of these 
" three Kings of Colen," taken from SELDEN'S Table Talk, 
who are thus described " Of these Magi, or Sages, (vul- 
garly called the three Kings of Colen} the first, named MEL- 
CHIOR, an aged man with a long beard, offered gold; the 
second, JASPER, a beardless youth, offered frankincense ; 
the third, BALTASAR, a black, or Moor, with a large spread- 
ing beard, offered myrrh." No. 33. 






214 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

three kings who, guided by the star, came to Beth- 
lehem to do homage to the infant SAVIOUR. I may, 
perhaps, be in error in supposing the three Kings, 
and the Magi (on that occasion) and the Wise Men, 
to be the same. On the Rhine, Les trots Rois is 
not an infrequent sign or designation for a hotel 
and I think there is one in Cologne. 1 

Many conjectures have been entertained as to the 
station and country of these royal, or wise, or great, 
men. It is said that the Epiphanic ceremonies were 
instituted in their honor. GHOTIUS and others 
think that Arabia was their country. In the Scrip- 
tures, Arabia is occasionally designated by " the 
East." It is so situated in reference to Syria and 
Palestine. It is farther called, in conformity with 
the knowledge of those times, the country pro- 
ducing gold, frankincense, and myrrh ; of which 
those wise men brought offerinp's to the new-born 

O O 

King. The word Magi has been supposed denotive 
of men who pass their lives in study and contem- 
plation. 

Now, I will venture to hazard a conjecture to the 
effect, that those wise men were Brahrnans from 
India, or from Egypt. The word Magi is fairly 
derivable from the Greek but go a little higher, and 
it is derivable also from the Sanskrit. Maha-ji the 
termination I lay no great stress on is applicable to 

1 At Strasbourg we put up at one called we could not 
help feeling irreverently Saint Esprit. There was, 1 
think, no sign. Our Angel, in England, is rather misplaced. 
The more appropriate Devil of my younger days, near Tem- 
ple Bar, is, I believe, fallen. 



COLOGNE. 215 

great or wise men, as Brahmans would be described, 
and otherways as men who pass their time in study 
and contemplation. 1 Arabia produces no gold, 
frankincense, or myrrh. Such things pass west- 
ward through Arabia and Egypt, from India and 
regions farther east, On these points I have an 
article for a future page. Return we now, for a 
moment, to Cologne. 

Passing the fine cathedral early one summer 
morning by six, perhaps and observing a great 
stir, I entered, and found it fully occupied ; with 
singing, preaching, music, censing, &c. in process. 
With the usual courtesy of the continental people, 
way was made for me, a stranger, and I soon found 
a good place near the high altar and the chest. It 
is only on great occasions that this precious ark is 
exposed to view : on this, it was. The skulls, if I 
recollect right, seemed to be in a recess at one end 
of the chest. A door lifted, or a slip removed, ex- 
hibited them and their glittering circlets to the ad- 
miring audience. 

A good-looking respectably-dressed canonical was 
especially civil to me. He whispered the names and 
dignity of the preachers and some of the performers, 
and sundry small particulars and explained that the 
sacrament of confirmation was in progress. I ob- 
served perhaps a hundred young women about to 

1 I know not if the names given above, of the bearers of 
the offerings, be on any good authority. It may not, there- 
fore, be worth while to seek their source in the language of 
Brahmans. But Kasa-par or Cat-par, Mali-car, and Bal- 
txara, and other approximations, might soon be found. 



216 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

partake of that rite. They were very neatly, not 
showily, dressed and though not many of them 
handsome, it was a very interesting exhibition* 
Travellers on the Rhine, between Strasbourg and 
Cologne, must have remarked the very elegant style 
in which the women arrange their hair. Northward 
or westward from Cologne it declines. These young 
women had their heads beautifully dressed, in the 
style seen in some of the paintings of the Flemish 
school. I returned to the cathedral about ten ; and 
the ceremonies were still in progress. How tired, I 
thought, must these young creatures have been for 
some must have been stirring very early, if not up 
all night. A part of the office of my civil friend was 
to thrust or insinuate a little open-mouthed bag, at 
the end of a stick, among the auditory, where and 
when donations might be looked for. A little bell 
is appended to the bag, which, on a seasonable 
shake, reminds an inattentive spectator of his duty. 
I believe the franc that not, I hope, meaning to be 
ostentatious, but, it appears, visibly I dropped into 
the gaping bag, was thought somewhat magnificent, 
for it certainly caused increased attentions on the 
part of my civil friend. 

The interesting, imposing nature of the sacraments 
and other ceremonies of Papacy, all witnesses must 
feel. On this occasion the skulls, with their dia- 
mond diadems, the music, singing, incense, preach- 
ing, grandeur of the building, not to mention the 
hundred fine girls, might have disposed one to mo- 
ralize duly but I confess that, taking them alto- 
gether, I was less excited than I should have ex- 



MARIA OF ZELL. 217 

pected, and found my philosophy hang rather loosely 
about me. 

But Cologne and its treasures may have detained 
us too long. It has been observed that miracle- 
working relics, or images, do not always save them- 
selves or shrines from injury. Even MARIA of Zell 
could or did not avert the sad calamity of destruc- 
tion by fire, of her favorite church and town, and 
some of her priests, on the night of All-hallows, in 
1 827 ; but her picture and part of her treasures were 
saved. The latter were wisely and benevolently ap- 
plied to re-edification, and relief of the sufferers. 
The picture of the Virgin was painted like many 
others in Papal lands by St. LUKE. It was brought 
to Ze/lin 1157, and is still in fair preservation. A 
zealous priest brought it as is not very unusual 
touching such articles from among the barbarous 
Tartars ; his only relic, treasure, or care. Not ex- 
actly knowing what best to do with it, the Virgin 
herself condescended to appear in the clouds with 
the divine child in her arms. She directed the ecsta- 
tic priest to hang the picture on a tree, and to an- 
nounce that prayers addressed to her from that fa- 
vored spot should never remain unheard. While 
hanging on the tree, the picture wrought miracles. 
Of course a church soon arose, in the process de- 
scribed in a former page and, like those of Loretto, 
Radna, and others similarly favored, is, or was, 
hung over with vows, recording early and late mi- 
racles performed on the spot. One picture, offered 
in 181 1, represents a beautiful young woman adoring 
the Virgin and Child in a cloud. An inscription 



218 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

attests that the pious and faith-filled vower whose 
name, parentage, 8cc. are particularized was re- 
stored to speech on that spot, after six years of 
dumbness, the result of fervent prayer. 

The market-place of Zell abounds in rosaries, relic- 
cases, wax tapers, incense, amulets against sorcery, 
infection, &c. exposed in booths as at our fairs. Nor 
is brandy forgotten, to refresh exhausted penitents. 
Processions are endless. Groups of pilgrims are led 
into the town by a priest at their head, with music, 
incense, &c. : the same on exit, with bell-tolling. 
A fee is, of course, given to the priests. Masses 
and vows, at the times before mentioned, are pecu- 
liarly efficacious. 

The paintings and other vows here noticed in the 
churches of Zell, and in other churches in earlier 
pages, have been shown as in direct descent from 
ancient similar superstitions both of Rome and 
Greece. It may be said of the differences between 
those people in matters of mythology and supersti- 
tion, as a rustic said of those between the counties 
of Norfolk and Suffolk in matters of local lingual- 
isms, " one calls a snail a hodmandod, and t'other a 
dodman." In the temples of ESCULAPIUS we are 
taught, that " votive paintings covered the walls, 
representing human beings afflicted with every ail- 
ment and calamity that flesh is heir to. Hideous 
wounds that seemed to spout blood ; revolting sores, 
wasted cadaverous forms, stamped with the appa- 
rent impress of death, but writhing with the suffer- 
ings of life, glared in every direction the pious 
artists having aggravated to the utmost the mala- 



RELICS. 219 

dies of their respective patients, in order to enhance 
the miraculous merits of the divinity which had 
healed them." Romance of the Early Days. 

Reverence for relics may be traced very exten- 
sively. Mahommedans and Hindus are found to in- 
dulge in it, as much, perhaps, as Christians. A 
story is told by the early Portuguese voyagers, I 
think of ALBUQUERQUE'S day, of their possessing 
themselves of a relic of scandalous superstition, 
which they removed from Ceylon to Goa. This was 
a monkey's tooth believed by the Cingalese to 
have been the tooth of the conquering RAMA'S great 
simian heroic-demi-god HANUMAN. For the ran- 
som of this holy tooth the bereft owners are said to 
have offered an immense sum. Its amount I have 
forgotten, and have no immediate means of seeking 
authority. But the Portuguese disdained the lucre, 
unwilling to encourage such superstition. So the 
tooth was, I think, taken out to sea and sunk. 

So of Mahommedan feeling it is related (but I 
deem it scarcely respectful to bring such subjects 
into juxtaposition, having myself a little touch of 
superstition in such matters,) that the seamless 
vesture of The REDEEMER was believed to have 
been found in the reliquaries of Constantinople. The 
State of Venice, or some institution there, offered 
10,000 ducats for it; but the "unbelievers," as 
they were and are called, refused the offer. The 
Mahommedans are not, however, unbelievers, to the 
extent implied usually by that term. 



220 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

In the hope of the early conclusion of this Second 
Head or Chapter of our Fragments, I proceed to 
throw together a few somewhat miscellaneous pas- 
sages, connected, however, more or less therewith. 

I have touched on the delicate subject of nuns and 
nunneries: on that I have farther to observe that 
where polygamy is forbidden, and the clergy and 
monastic individuals numerous, nunneries, under 
some form or other, are almost a necessary conse- 
quence, of such unnatural celibacy. There is more 
than one woman for each connubial man, and nunne- 
ries are a safe, if not a happy, retreat for the super- 
fluous unsought maidens. I am not disposed to credit 
the scandal which prurient tongues and pens fling 
on those seminaries. Whoever will abuse priests or 
secluded institutions, will never want an auditory. 
Clerical celibacy has been too sarcastically de- 
scribed as a vow to be contented with other men's 
wives. Mrs. HEMANS beautifully asks, " Is not the 
life of woman all bound up in her affections ? What 
has she to do in this bleak world alone? It may be 
well for man, in his triumphal course, to move un- 
encumbered by soft bonds but she was born for 
love and grief." Let us hope not but rather for 
love and happiness, and that the feeling of this 
highly-gifted lady is too bitter that it is more a 
poetical than a real picture of life. It is better to 
contemplate woman as a flower if feeble not frail- - 
stealing sun-shine and yielding sweets. 

The ardent fanaticism of convents is of necessity 
often blended with unconscious sexuality, that would 
if recognised shock the virtuous aspirant. The still 



MONKERY. 221 

innocent inmates, vainly striving to smother the im- 
pulsations of nature, find as do indeed many in 
social life that she is not to be put out of her course 
with impunity. They endeavour to stifle their 
emotions by the fervors of religion : but instead of 
the feelings of devotion in the language of love, they 
breathe the ardors of love in the language of devo- 
tion. The VIRGIN, kind, loving, pure though ma- 
ternal, is the chosen idol of their hearts; broken by 
a chain of causes little suspected to exist. These 
innocent creatures 

" twine Religion's zeal 

So close with Love's they know not which they feel." 

In connexion with what has been said of spiritu- 
alities in Spain, that church is said now to " re^- 
joice in 58 archbishops, 684 bishops, 11,400 abbots, 
936 chapters, 7,000 hospitals, 1 23,000 fraternities, 
46,000 monasteries, 135,000 convents, 312,000 
secular priests, 200,000 inferior clergy, 400,000 
monks and nuns." Ed. Rev. If this be true, or 
nearly, but it is scarcely credible, what is to be in 
reason expected of that once enterprising and potent 
region ? 

Another passage or two may afford an answer to 
the question. " From a summary of facts it ap- 
pears that the Spanish Church in the reign of FER- 
DINAND the Sixth held 12,209,053 measures 2 of 

1 Not, I fear, to be taken in the sense of our English 
hospitals. 

1 This being taken from a, periodical, I am unable to say 
vvhat a measure may be but as the sum of secular land is 



ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

land, yielding in revenues 161,392,700 reals that 
the rental of houses, tithes, first-fruits, 8tc. amounted 
to 164,154,498 reals that the return from cattle 
was 2,933,277 from manufacture and commerce 
12,321,440 making a gross sum of 340,801,915 
reals" LARDNER'S Spain and Portugal. Estima- 
ting the real at sixpence of our money, it gives 
about 8J millions sterling, something under one- fifth 
of the gross revenues of the secular state. 

This then is a sort of general answer to my query 
as to the destinies of a state so priest-ridden. A 
more particular response is given in the following 
extract : 

" The church of the Escurial is one mass of 
marbles, gold, and precious stones, relieved by ad- 
mirable pictures, and rendered holy by the presence 
of some four or five hundred vases containing relics 
of every impossible kind, of every possible saint or 
saintly object. Unhappily the rapacity of the French 
has sadly disturbed the identity of these holy trea- 
sures : for while those ' Free-masons ' carried off too 
many of the golden vases, they scattered the unla- 
belled contents in unholy confusion on the ground. 
Thus, though the aggregate sanctity of the relics 
may remain the same, the individual virtue of each 
relic is rendered dubious even to the devotion of 
the most faithful. How long will men worship the 
offal of the charnel-house?" Ed. Rev. July, 1832, 
p. 450. A recent traveller in Spain gives it as his 

given as 61,200,000, it gives about one-fifth of the lands as 
spiritualities. 



SANCTUARY. 223 

opinion that VOLTAIRE is now more read in Spain 
and Portugal than in England and France. 

Another authority, speaking of the almost incredi- 
ble number of monks that existed in monkery's 
best day, asserts that in the 14th century a great 
plague, which spread almost over all Europe, and 
lasted more than three years, carried off upwards 
of 120,000 of one order only ! the Franciscan. 

A recent historian of Spain and 'Portugal, speak- 
ing of the friars as a body, says that " they have 
practised more knavery, and, by their example, have 
corrupted more morals, than all the world besides. 
Without principle or regularity of conduct, consist- 
ing of the dregs of society, assuming the habit mere- 
ly to escape a life of drudgery, suffered to prowl 
wherever they please, using the mask of religion to 
extort money from the weak, to seduce the wives 
and daughters of such as offer them hospitality 
they are, and ever have been, a curse to every na- 
tion which harbours them. Let us hope that these 
filthy gentry will soon be expelled from every Ro- 
man Catholic country." LARDNER'S Cab. Cyc. 
In speaking of Papacy, I never give it i. e. the 
Romish Church the title of Catholic. I fancy I 
have good reasons for this ; and intend to give them. 

Of sanctuary, mentioned in p. 176, 1 have recently 
read a passage showing how, under our Norman race 
of kings, the royal residence was esteemed such, 
and its significant and mysterious extent " Three 
miles, three furlongs, and three acres breadths; 
nine feet, nine palms, and three barley-corns, con- 
stituted the mystical radius of the verge, which was 



224 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

reckoned from the mansion where the king held his 
court ; and within this ambit the protection afforded 
by royalty was to remain unviolated." PALGRAVE'S 
Commonwealth. 

The privilege of sanctuary is said to have been 
greatly extended since Rome's ancient day. ROMU- 
LUS himself opened one asylum to fugitives of all 
nations. Even to the times of the Republic, no 
more such places have been noticed. Now, how- 
ever, saith MIDDLETON, there are some hundreds in 
the same city : and whereas the one was found to 
give so great encouragement to licentiousness, that 
free access to it was restricted, now the Popish 
sanctuaries stand perpetually open, not, as of old, to 
receive strangers, but to shelter villains. In the 
early days of Christianity, there were many limita- 
tions of the privilege murder, adultery, theft, found 
no sanctuary. But now, saith the indignant bi- 
shop, they scruple not to afford the privilege to the 
most detestable crimes. Churches are ever open 
and at hand to secure offenders from punishment. 
It is, without doubt, owing to this policy of holy 
Church that murders are so common in Italy on 
slight provocations. His lordship had several of- 
fenders pointed out to' him, " walking about at their 
ease, and in full security, within the bounds of the 
sanctuary." V. 157. 

What is hinted in pp. 58 and 170 preceding, of 
the Pagan MENACA having given a name to the 
Papal MONICA, and of NEPTUNE and S. ANTOON 
being nearly related, may have appeared extrava- 
gant. I am not disposed to deny it but any one of 



PAPACY AND PAGANISM. 225 

moderate reading or observation may adduce many 
acknowledged relationships of Pagan and Papal 
saints derived chiefly, if not entirely, from similarity 
of name. Of this some instances may be discerned 
in the earlier pages 95 to 100 and I will here ad- 
duce a few more, of similar relationships, and if not 
similar, of obscure and suspicious origin. 

The temple in Rome, now sacred to the MA- 
DONNA of the Sun y is the same as was dedicated to 
VESTA, and described by HORACE as being near the 
Tiber. That of FORTUNA viri/is is now devoted to 
MARY of Egypt. S. ADRIAN receives honors where 
SATURN did in earlier days. It was. the public 
treasury of the Romans. The worthy brethren, whom 
in p. 146 I have termed " saints of strange repute," 
COSMUS and DAMIANUS, 1 have succeeded to the 
shrine of ROMULUS and REMUS in the Via Sacra. 
The church of S. LAURENCE was a temple dedicated 
to ANTONINE the godly. A temple formerly sacred 
to the BON A DEA or good goddess of Paganism, is 
now happily changed to one to the Holy Virgin. 

The spot on which the infant ROMULUS was ex- 
posed and saved was, when he came to his mature 
honors, of course, covered with a temple and he 
was reasonably supposed to be favorable to infants. 
It is now the church of S. THEODORUS, because he 
too, in his infancy had, like ROMULUS, been exposed 
and found by chance ; and mothers and nurses still 

1 A letter is extant from Cardinal DAMIANO to Pope NICHO- 
LAS II., written in 1060 giving a curious account of mira- 
culous doings at Vesuvius, as the mouth of hell. 



226 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

bring their sickly children to the altar, in the hope 
of the salutary interference of the saint, exactly as 
they did to the fane of his predecessor. 

Similarity of name is found in the dedication of a 
temple of APOLLO, to the glory of S. APOLLINARIS, 
" that the profane name of that false deity might be 
converted into the glorious name of the martyr." 
So where stood a temple of MARS, now stands one 
of S. MARTINA the maiden martyr. 

Our old legends place a temple of DIANA where 
S. PAUL'S now is p. 98 preceding. So, on the 
site of Westminster Abbey they found, or fancied, one 
to the honor of APOLLO. Both legends are of a doubt- 
ful nature, and perhaps altogether unauthorized. 

It was ADDISON who first suspected that S. 
ORASTE Italians do not write Saint or St. as we 
do is neither more or less than the mountain seen 
from Rome, mentioned by both HORACE and VIR- 
GIL by the name of Soracte. S. ORASTE has a 
temple on the old hill, the name softened a little to 
suit the musical ear of modern Romans. 

Heathen monumental stones have, with altera- 
tion, been made to suit modern saints and martyrs, 
and others of the Papal church. But of this I shall 
adduce no specimens save this that on an appli- 
cation from Spain in behalf of S. VIAR, his holiness 
URBAN the 8th required some proof of extra desert 
ere he granted extra honor. Accordingly, an an- 
tique stone was produced, with SVIAR plainly in- 
scribed. How far this succeeded I know not but 
an antiquary suspecting the proof, saw at once that 



PAPACY AND PAGANISM. 227 

it was part of an ancient inscription to the memory 
of one who had been PrafectuSVlARum, or sur- 
veyor of the highways. 

Our good bishop and martyr and saint, ALB AN, 
when executed, had a rough shaggy cloak, which 
ecclesiastics of his day were accustomed to wear. 
In some obscure legends of this saint, an equivocal 
term derived from the Greek is used, intended to 
.describe the saint's cloak. The word is amphibolus. 
Bishop USHER has endeavoured to show that S. 
AMPHIBOLUS, the supposed disciple and fellow 
martyr with ALB AN, and, as our monkish historians 
describe him, bishop of the Isle of Man, owes his 
honors to this whimsical mistake. 

Again who is S. VERONICA ? the holy woman 
or saint to whom an altar and statue are erected in 
S. PETER'S at Rome. It is scarcely reverent to 
describe the fooleries connected with this lady's le- 
gends, respecting the handkerchiefs with which the 
REDEEMER wiped his face at the crucifixion. 
They indelibly retained the exact representation of 
his features and are still, it is believed, seasonably 
exhibited to the credulous. But the whole of the 
legends, miracles, fine altar with its inscription, 
statue, and lady saint included, have been shown to 
be, like S. AMP in BOLUS, a blunder. A handker- 
chief was found with a human face stamped on it, 
under which was written vera icon or true effigy or 
image. This was enough with your legend-and- 
saint-manufacturer. Hence arose S. VERONICA, in 
connexion with AGBARUS, prince of Edessa, &c., 
to whom one of the kerchiefs was given by the SA- 



228 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

VIOUR himself! It is not easy to disprove such al- 
leged facts. If the reader be desirous of seeing a 
detail of these grossnesses, he may consult Bishop 
MIDDLETON'S Misc. Works, V. 125. 

We have in our day heard of the political exhu- 
mation of unsaintly bones : a transatlantic experi- 
ment or speculation, not attended, I believe, with 
much success in England y where it was intended to 
work it. In Rome they manage these matters bet- 
ter. Some bones of a supposed saint, honored with 
an altar and adoration, were discovered, and proved 
to be the bones of a common thief. Ib. 155. 

But we must here pause on this immediate sub- 
ject of Papal imposition ; recollecting that a volume 
is not now at our disposal. One, as noticed in 
p. 94, might easily be so filled. Not only do the 
modern and ancient Romans, heathen and papal, as 
said and shown by MIDDLETON, offer worship in 
the same temples, at the same altars, to the same 
images, and with the same ceremonies but it may 
be said, and shown, so do the Hindus, as far as re- 
spects names, legends, and ceremonies in coinci- 
dence so extensive, as to be very striking and con- 
vincing to reasonable believers. Instances of this will, 
probably, occur incidentally in our future pages. 

Page 100 preceding Of PETER. The uses to 
which the Church of Home has turned this potent 
person, and his name, have induced its enemies to 
assert that the said Church is founded on a pun a 
petrific pun. 

" Et ego autem tibi dico, Quia tu es Petrus, et 
super hac petra sedificabo meam ecclesiam : et portae 



PETER. 229 

infer! non prsevalebunt ei. Et dabo tibi claves regni 
ccelorum : et quodcumque ligaveris super terram, 
erit ligatum in ccelis : et quodcumque solveris super 
terram, erit solutum in ccelis." Matt. xvi. 18, 19. 

" Tu es Simon, filius lona : tu vocaberis Cephas : 
quod interpretatur Petrus." Joannis i. 42. 

In our version, not soparonomasiac, thus : " And 
I say unto thee, That thou art PETER; and upon 
this rock I will build my church, and the gates of 
hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto 
thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven : and what- 
soever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound 
in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on 
earth shall be loosed in heaven." Matt. xvi. 18, 19. 

" Blessed art thou, SIMON bar !()NA." Ib. 17. 
" Thou art Simon, the son of ION A : thou shalt be 
called CEPHAS; which is, by interpretation, a stone." 
John i. 42. 

Peter and Cephas, or rather Kephas (/frjspa;), being 
severally a stone or rock, we see at once how Papacy 
makes so much of its patron saint. And we 
marvel not that the ambitious See of Rome should 
hence assume as an inheritance the boundless grasp 
of that spiritual sway, which bears, as it boasts, a 
sceptre that reaches up to heaven and down to 
hell. It takes PETER, by this pun, for its rock, or 
foundation, and exhibits him with the symbolic keys 
not in this instance of the mystical kingdom of 
heaven, but of the treasures of earth. 

" It is," as has been remarked in a periodical, Ed. 
Rev. Ap. 1832, p. 39, " even a dogma of the canon 

u 



230 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

law, that, as in the time of NOAH, all those excluded 
from the ark were overwhelmed by the deluge ; 
so, all those excluded from the bark of St. PETER 
are to be overwhelmed by the waters of eternal 
damnation." " Here," continues the reviewer, " is 
a very comfortable doctrine, illustrated by an excel- 
lent simile. But what is the advantage to be 
gained by such undisguised arrogance ? The origi- 
nal of the above eloquent and forcible simile, not in 
the eye of every one, may be edifying, Quinimo 
velut tempore NOE omnes extra arcam positi, diluvii 
vastitate consumpti sunt; sic extra PETRI navicu- 
latn constituti, seternse damnationis fluctibus obruen- 
tur." LANCELOTTJ Instit. Jar. Canon. 1. i. tit. v. 
ult. 

A very comfortable doctrine, no doubt, to the spi- 
ritual crew of the goodly bark PETER. Other sects, 
though not perhaps other churches, are almost 
equally arrogant and exclusive. But I have made a 
distinction which sectarists do not allow. Looking 
the other day into a Baptist Meeting-house, work- 
men were putting up a mural tablet to the memory 

of its deceased pastor. " years minister 

of this Church." " I thought," said I, " that you did 
not call your meetings Churches." " No," re- 
plied the mason, " we do not call the brick and 
mortar a Church, but the congregation." This was 
reasonable enough. Those not of that church call 
them, in disrespect, arising from their practice of 
adult baptism by submersion, dippers. The sect is 
extensive and I believe extending, in Suffolk. 



EXCLUSIVES. 231 

A satirist has indignantly alluded to those, 

" Who virtue and a church alike disown 

Think that but words, and this but brick and stone." 

I would say a word on the Exclusives not in fa- 
shion, but in divinity. The arrogance and self- 
sufficiency of those who limit the Infinite Mercy of 
the Deity to their few selves, and deal out his infinite, 
immitigable justice to the great mass of mankind, are 
not,, let us hope, too uncharitable to require any un- 
looked-for exercise of the first-named benign attri-^ 
bute. The narrow pale is a relic of Papacy a chip 
of PETER'S frail bark. It was the parasitic ivy that 
clung round and encumbered the sturdy oak of CAL- 
VIN'S rugged mind ; and as he could not untwine 
it, it still hugs too many of his followers in its illibe- 
ral, uncharitable, unchristian embrace. 

" Faith, Hope, Charity these three but the 
greatest of all is Charity." And what is Charity ? 
The Apostle tells us, that " it pufFeth not itself up, 
it hopeth all things, believeth all things, endureth all 
things." And when the diseased were brought to 
the Saviour, " He" did not inquire if they be- 
lieved in the " consubstantiality of the hypostases," 
but " He healed them all:' Nor did the good 
man of Samaria catechize his fellow man who had 
fallen among thieves, whatever the Levite did. He 
poured oil into his wounds. Are not these things 
intended for our edification and example ? 

But the Exclusives are (in the main amiable) 
folk who see nothing, or nothing but the church or 



232 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

conventicle who read nothing but (the Bible ?) 
the effusions of their own sect, and the Evangelical 
Magazine, where all who die in the odour of orthodoxy 
(their own doxy) are duly canonized while those 
who differ (and in all theological disputations the ex- 
cited rancour is in the inverse ratio of the impor- 
tance of the disputed point) are thrown overboard* 
There is no room for them in the exclusive skiff of 
PETER. It is thus that the Exclusives, continually 
shaken by the hot and cold fit of a spiritual ague, 
exhibit to many who do not understand them, the 
strange compound of the flesh and the spirit half 
vice, half repentance half fear, half hypocrisy 
half feeling, half cant half enthusiasm, halfsuper-* 
stition and, in the eye of the inconsiderate and lo- 
quacious, too often the contradictory exhibition of 
half saint, half sinner. 

And as touching the Hypostatic Union, our 
word Person is not perhaps the best our language 
would afford. It seems too familiar for the suitable 
expression of so important and mysterious a doctrine 
as that to which it refers. As a mere translation of 
Persona it may be unobjectionable ; but it does not 
in either language signify merely or strictly a man, 
nor is it limited to humanity. A less familiar, even 
if, in its own language, a more ambiguous, word 
might haply have been profitably adopted from the 
Greek. Would not the original word, or one 
grounded immediately on it, have answered ? If it 
convey, of itself, no distinct idea, it would not convey 
a wrong one. The Hindu murti, form, seems more 



233 

felicitous than person tri-murti, tri-form. " Three 
persons " has proved a stumbling-block to many, from 
its ambiguity, or difference between its ordinary and 
theological senses. Perhaps what I here mean to 
say is, chiefly, that in such matters it is probably 
safer not to be understood, than to be misunder- 
stood. 

Again, discriminating Papists deny being idolaters. 
They say, " we serve GOD only," (with latria,)" we 
allow adoration" (hyperdulia) " to the Virgin and " 
(dulia) "to other saints, images, and relics." If this 
be admitted, what signifies it ? Is religion only for 
logicians and sophists ? for those who try to con- 
found black with white? and not for those who 
humbly endeavour to distinguish one. from the other ? 
It is the part of sophistry to confound the distinc- 
tions between right and wrong the knave disregards 
them. 

But on all these psychological matters it is well 
to bear in mind that we should think better of 
our brethren than we commonly do, were we to re- 
flect that it is as much the nature of virtue and 
piety to avoid observation, as it is of folly and 
wickedness to attract it. Still what is morally wrong 
cannot be religiously right, and ought never to be 
deemed socially or politically expedient. 

A fair and powerful poet has substantially said 
The green trees and the tender shrubs have herein 
the advantage over proud humanity the flower 
withers and the leaves fall, but the fertilizing fluid 
lingers in their veins and brings again a spring of 



234 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

promise and a summer of beauty. But when onr 
leaves and flowers fall, they perish. We put forth no 
new promise we look for no return of beauty we 
dream no new dreams. L. E. L. 

If sometimes amazed at what I cannot but deem 
the sectarial madness of mankind, I, humbly hoping 
it is in a Christian spirit, extend this benevolent 
wish to all, that 

" So may we live until, like fruit, we drop 
Into our mother earth or be with ease 
Gather'd, not harshly pluck'd for death mature." 

What I have said in a former page (163) respect- 
ing the True Cross, was written and printed for the 
preceding part of this volume, as far as p. 180, has 
been long printed many months before I knew that 
Lord MAHON had composed a curious and copious 
article on that subject. I will here add a word on 
that of the two thieves. Of them, the co-victims of 
that atrocious act the Crucifixion, it has been re- 
corded, but I know not on what authority, in a note 
on an old Christmas carol, that their names were 
TITUS and DUMACHUS ; that in the flight to 
Egypt 9 JOSEPH and MARY were stopped by those 
two footpads, and were about to be robbed, but TI- 
TUS prevented his comrade from effecting it. It is 
added, that the Infant then foretold that those two 
men should, after a lapse of thirty years, be cruci- 
fied with him, and that TITUS should be saved. 
This savours very much of the style of Koranic 
legend and commentary. 



PRIESTS. 235 

The festival of the "Invention of the Cross," is 
still observed in our Kalendars, but I presume no 
where else by us. It may be thought rather an in- 
felicitous translation of the grand discovery by HE- 
LENA. Inventio Crucis is very well in Latin. In 
Hindostani, Persian, and other eastern languages, 
the same word, pa'tda or pyda, means not only, like 
the Latin, invention and discovery, but birth, or deve- 
topement. I recollect a young student of Hindu- 
stani inquiring, as well as he could, of a native, 
where he was born, was much diverted at the answer 
for, taking the verb in its first acceptation, he 
deemed it to be " I was invented at Surat." 

Prior to closing this HEAD, it has occurred, that 
in the bearing of some passages, disrespect may be 
imputed to me in an unbecoming degree that I 
have spoken of priests, and more especially of The 
Fathers, in a flippant and unseemly manner. But 
let me once for all declare, that for the priests of all 
religions I every where feel, and have ever felt and 
shown, every reasonable respect. While I assuredly 
do feel disgust at all craft tending to depress the 
intellect and debase the mind, and most of all per- 
haps at priestcraft, as the most potently possessing 
that tendency, I look upon an exemplary pious parish 
priest as one of the most useful and respectable cha- 
racters on earth. The well-meant remonstrances of 
a friend ought to be clearly distinguished from the 
rancorous assault of an enemy. They differ as 
widely as the salutary probe of the surgeon from the 
dagger of an assassin. Again while, as far as in 



236 ORIENTAL FRAGMENTS. 

my ignorance I may, I appreciate the heroism, the 
eloquence, and piety of the eminent individuals 
forming the venerable body of writers denominated 
" The Fathers," I am, when reading their marvel- 
lous relations, astounded at their credulity. 

It may, perhaps, savour of uncharitableness if one 
were to propound this query Can men, who really 
believed in such relations, have been themselves suffi- 
ciently enlightened to warrant us in looking to them 
for enlightenment ? And if they did not believe in 
them, are we warranted in looking to the relators for 
the developement of truth ? This, I say, may be un- 
charitable for, however difficult it may be now for 
us Protestants to think so, we ought perhaps to ad- 
mit that the utter impossibilities gravely related by 
many, or most, of those eminent individuals, were 
actually believed by them. We know that in their 
day, and in centuries antecedent, miracles had 
ceased ; but possibly they did not know it : for not 
only in the eye of the vulgar, but in the conviction of 
some of high station, witchcraft, and various necro- 
mantics, existed long posterior to the day of the last 
of " The Fathers.' 1 It was so late as 1664 that that 
upright and intelligent judge, Sir MATTHEW HALE, 
condemned to death, at the Suffolk Assizes, some 
women accused of witchcraft ! 

If, therefore, I have spoken disparagingly of 
priests, it is, I repeat, (see p. 115.) intended to 
apply only to bad priests and priestcraft. If I have 
borne hard on the Fathers, it is on their easy faith, 
and their marvellous relations. 



PRIESTS. 237 

" Crede quia impossibile," and the dogma laid 
down by TERTULLIAN, as given in p. 144, are what 
I cannot subscribe to. 

Let us now proceed to FRAGMENTS Third: 
though what that Head is to consist of, I as little 
know at this present writing as the reader. 



FRAGMENTS THIRD. 

NAMES OF PLACES, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, &C. 

IN DISTANT COUNTRIES APPARENTLY OF 

SANSKRIT ORIGIN: AND, FIRST, 

CHIEFLY IN GREECE. 

A CERTAIN class of lexicographers, or philolo- 
gists, or etymologists, have taken up certain conso- 
nantal roots ; whence, as they endeavour to make it 
appear, have sprung extensive families of words of 
cognate sound and meaning. Thus the root C P, 
the C being hard, is found to be the parent of 
many words conveying a sense of covering, such as 
cap, cope, cape. 

I know not if the Rev. Mr. WHITER, the modern 
leader of this innocent and respectable class of 
writers, or any of his followers, have dilated on the 
root K L, nor shall I inquire, until I have handled 
it after my own fashion. I avoid, where I con- 
veniently can, using C hard, especially as an initial, 
preferring K instead. 

K L, as a primitive sound, may manifestly be 
filled up variously ; the results I maintain are, in an 



SANSKRIT NAMES IN GREECE. 239 

extensive variety of instances, but offspring of the same 
parent, Kal, Kol, Kul, Kil; or slightly aspirated, 
Khal, Khol, 8cc. My notion is, that such root is in 
the idea of Time ; in this sense are many derivatives, 
as I shall attempt to show. Next, that a large 
family of sables are thence sprung; some of whom 
are traceable in various ramifications and branches 
over distant countries, and people, and languages, 
surprisingly cognate, if not identical, from ///- 
malaya to Calabria ; though, of course, unequally 
distributed. 

I shall proceed to endeavour to show that India, 
or some region far East, is the cradle of this 
race of words. And, finally, that the Hindu deity 
SIVA, in his dark character of Kala, or Time, is the 
ADAM of this black family. 

Without any pretension to being classed among 
those distinguished by the long names at the begin- 
ning of this article, I purpose to skim the surface of 
a certain line of literature ; or, rather, to give the 
result of such skimming. In this I may not be very 
methodical in the arrangement, nor logical in my 
deductions ; but shall take my assumed proofs as 
they rise miscellaneously and discursively. 

Not very many of my readers may, I fear, be dis- 
posed to consider this branch of literature conjec- 
tural etymology very attractive. But, saving their 
presence, it is not without its importance. In 
tracing language to its early day you so trace man. 
The investigation of his most universal and distin- 
guishing attribute of speech is, in fact, tracing him 



240 



SANSKRIT NAMES 



through all his geographical, and all his social, pro- 
gresses. 

In the Sanskrit language, the vocalized expansion 
of K L into Kaly or Kala, gives, as before hinted, 
the name of the changer of forms, SIVA, in his 
character of Time. The word means also, in several 
dialects derived both from Sanskrit and Arabic 
sources, blackness, as well as time. Kal is both yes- 
terday and to-morrow, the past and the future. The 
present cannot be said to exist. Does the past V 
Does the future? " No," say the metaphysicians, 
" not to man, and to the Deity the present only exists. 
To Him there can be no past, no future." Kala 
or Kolla extensively means black ; so extensively, I 
will here, prematurely, observe, that to England we 
shall endeavour to trace the root and sense in our 
words coal f collier, 8tc. 

In another place I have essayed to show that in 
such speculations as these, reasonable allowance 
must be made for non-efficiency or impotency, or 
non-importance of vowels. Consonants are the ver- 
tebrse of language. Without going the length of 
admitting what has been pleasantly said on this 
topic, that vowels are to stand for nothing and con- 
sonants for very little, I may fairly claim close kin- 
dred for K and C, and pronounce them co-efficients. 
B and P and V are often interchanged ; and, 
if wanted, are always interchangeable. Of this 
some striking instances will appear. Mutations in 
vowels are known to be so frequent in position and 
sound, as scarcely to stand in the way, in either rela- 



IN GREECE. 241 

tion, with etymological deductions, otherwise fairly 
allowable. Thus, for instance, if I have occasion, 
which I have not just now, to turn CLIO into San- 
skrit, I shall take the liberty of writing it KallO or 
Kalia; CLEOPATRA, perhaps, Kaliyapatra. 

Without farther preface, or general introductory 
remarks, I shall proceed to show what I deem curious 
coincidences in the names of places, rivers, hills of 
persons, historical and mythological of legends, &c. 
connected with them, in India, and in various parts 
of the world commencing with Greece and having 
their root in the all-pervading K L. 

In the Sanskrit, Kala means black; Kali, as 
in Greek, fair, beautiful. Contrary meanings are 
often found in the same, or nearly the same, sound ; 
a reason for which will perhaps appear. KALI is 
the name of SIVA'S consort PARVATI in her terrific 
character ; in another she is white, fair, beautiful. 
He also alone, of all the Hindu male deities, is de- 
picted white. 

The first work that in my Common-place Book I 
find skimmed for Grecian Kalicisms is WALPOLE'S 
Turkey. 

<l Calamata is a small but populous town, subject 
to the Pacha of the Morea. It stands on the banks 
of the rivulet that now bears its name. The ri- 
vulet has every character of a mountain torrent an 
inconsiderable stream in summer, and violent in the 
winter months. It falls into the sea about a mile 
from Calamata, and the same devastation marks its 
course through the plain. Ca/am<?> the village 



242 SANSKRIT NAMES 

mentioned by PA us AN IAS, lib. 4, still retains its 
ancient name, and is situated two miles from Cala- 
mata." P. 36. 

Calamafa, I will here note, is at the foot of Mount 
Parnassus. Mountains or hills, more especially if 
conical, as then being more probably of vulcanic 
origin, we shall by-and-by see are appurtenances of 
SIVA and PARVATI ; of him, he being destructive, 
devastating fire ; of her, as his consort, in all forms, 
but more especially under her name and charac- 
ter of PARVATI, which means mountain-born: for 
which name and parentage legends are not want- 
ing. 

The river Calamata reminds us that the Nile, and 
other rivers, have a like meaning of blackness or 
blueness. Kali is a river famed in Hindu epics. 
M/a means blue ; so does KRISHNA, or black. The 
poetical river Jumna, as we call it, is, with Hindus, 
" YAMUNA, the blue daughter of the Ocean." 

Kalian nddy, or more properly Kalinadi, is a San- 
skrit compound name of more than one river in India ; 
best translated by Black-river, or Black-water ; and 
the name of more than one in Britain. A Sanskrit 
scholar would find farther Kalic coincidences in 
the final mata of the just-noticed Stygian river, but 
I cannot satisfactorily trace them. Something far- 
ther of Black-water will occur. 

" Passing near the plain of Callidia, we descended 
by the steep precipices of Delphi. Our descent 
was difficult and dangerous ; our horses, though 
accustomed to mountainous tracts, were unable, from 



IN GREECE. 243 

the rocky nature of the road, to keep their feet. 
They fell frequently. We arrived in three hours, 
much fatigued, at the Convent of Delphi" WAL- 
POLE, p. 68. 

PAUSANIAS, lib. 4. c. 31. notices " a temple of 
the Syrian goddess " in the vicinity of Calamata ; 
and Mr. W. found ruins of ancient baths, &c. the 
remains of which are very considerable. P. 37 : 

" A temple of the Syrian goddess" (i. e. of As- 
TARTE, or VENUS, or DIANA, or PARVATI, or 
KALI) <( Callidia on Mount Parnassus" a suitable 
abode for KALI or KALIDEVI or DURGA, another 
of her names, meaning difficult of access, or of ascent, 
in reference to a mountain, as must be the " preci- 
pices of Delphi," just described. Delphi is a name so 
decidedly Greek, and having an immediate meaning 
in that language, that I shall not endeavour to 
connect the mountain of that name, by that name, 
with India : nor, in this place, the name of Parnas- 
sus. But I should expect to find such poetical re- 
gions strewn with remains of Kala-ic or Durga-ic 
allusions. Paranasa, in the Sanskrit, we may here- 
after endeavour to connect with Parnasus in the 
Greek and perhaps " the Syri an goddess/' with 
" SRI, the goddess," of India. Of them, something 
occurs in pp. 54, 97, 98 of this volume. 

" The ruins of Delphi , on a rising ground, are 
skreened by high cliffs to the north. The fountain 
of Cast alia, excavated in a rock of marble, still ex- 
ists, choked up with weeds and thorns. Behind it 
were the remains of an arched passage hollowed out 
in the rock. The cleft, on the east side of which 



244 SANSKRIT NAMES 

was the fountain, widened at its mouth, and rising 
to a considerable height, ended in two points." P. 37. 

This head of my Fragments is professedly intended 
to collect Kalicisms from distant countries. Imme- 
diately connected with every thing Kalic is a series of 
mysticisms comprehending what I find it convenient 
to call IO nicsy and to print it in this form. Oriental 
writers have generally spelled the word Yoni, which 
I shall prefer in this volume to write IO ni. It is 
the immediate type and symbol of PARVATI, the 
consort of SIVA, in her character of VENUS genera- 
trix the goddess so properly invoked by LUCRE- 
TIUS in his fine, though reprehensible, poem on 
Nature. She is NATURE passive, although, by 
a seeming contradiction, the active energy, or Sakti, 
as Hindus call it, of SIVA. She is not only the 
Sakti of the Reproducer SIVA, usually called the De- 
stroying deity of the Hindus ; but, in another cha- 
racter, is herself the omnific power the " father 
and mother both of men, and gods, and things." 
Androgynous characters, that is bisexual, were com- 
mon in Egypt and India, as well as in Greece. 
Such subjects are shown in PL xxiv. of the Hin. 
Pan., and Greek and Egyptic gems also exhibit 
them. Of this something more, perhaps, hereafter. 

As the Goddess, more emphatically than any other 
Hindu deity, of the IO ni, all natural clefts, and fis- 
sures, and caves, and hollows, and concavities, and 
profundities any thing, in fact, containing are 
fancied typicals of her as are wells, tanks, &c. 
Of such things this is the symbol, or O. Pyramids, 
obelisks, cones especially conical and furcated hills, 



IN GREECE. 245 

&c. are SIVA-ZC, and of such this is the character I. 
In Androgynic combination we have IO, or femininely, 
perhaps, lO/zt, as more immediately her vocalized 
attribute and Linga his. These subjects are illus- 
trated by PL v., and it is intended to discuss them 
under a distinct head. 

In the last quotation from WALPOLE may be 
seen several things that a mystical Hindu would 
contemplate as profundities. I was not prepared to 
look for so many, when I stated my expectation of 
rinding Delphos and Parnassus strewed with Kali- 
cisms. We have already had Callidia, and a foun- 
tain issuing from a cleft, furcated rock. A descrip- 
tion that would answer very well for the actual first 
visible issue of the Ganges poetically, from a cave's 
mouth, Gaomuki, otherwise called Gangotri, among 
the poetical mountains of Himala. 

" Some Caloyers" were noticed by WALPOLE 
" in the islands of Didascalo and Ambdia, in the 
sea of Corinth:' 70. 

Caloyers, priests ; Kaliya, priests of Kali. The 
habit of English and other travellers giving their 
own plural to foreign names of persons and things, 
tends to perplexity. It is not easy to avoid it. We 
shall hear more of Kaliya presently. In Didascalo 
may be recognized, not more disguised than it would 
be in common Indian parlance, Divadasakala, 
which would be currently written and pronounced 
Deodaskal meaning, in Sanskrit, as I believe, de- 
voted to KALA. It might be pronounced Diodas- 
kaly, very nearly the Greek compounded word. 
AMBA is a name of the ever-recurring PARVATI or 



246 SANSKRIT NAMES 

KALI. A beautiful cave, in which I have no doubt 
she is, or was, honored, is at Amboly on Salsette, 
near Bombay. On the islands of Didaskalo and 
Ambelia I should expect something unequivocally 
Kalic, or Linga-ic, or IO;z/c, either in their conical 
shape, or the form of some particular mount, or sin- 
gular clefts or caverns. 

" In the Greek village of Ipsara, the girls, as a 
relief to their sun-burnt faces, had stained their eye- 
lids. These village coquettes had used no more costly 
paint than lamp-black. This, mixed with oil, was 
drawn through their eye-lids on a small iron roller." 
77. Cited from SONNINI. 

Those who have not witnessed it can scarcely 
imagine the effect which this seemingly unimportant 
charm lends to the soul- piercing keenness of a pair 
of black eyes " black as the raven- tinted robe of 
night." These coquettes of Ipsara remind us of the 
nymphs, their namesakes, called Apsara, in Hindu 
aqueous legends ; who are among the most beautiful 
of the creations of poetic fancy. I must devote a 
page hereafter to these charming creatures, called, 
in the plural, Apsarasa fit attendants on the VENUS 
marina, or Aphrodite, of western heathens. By the 
way, something has been already said of those water- 
nymphs nereids or naiads in an earlier page 54 
to 58 of this volume. 

Just noticing that our Colly-ri-um (Kaliri, the ter- 
mination we throw overboard) or eye-wash may be 
traced to the black * pigment of Grecian and Indian 

1 A topic learnedly discussed by a lamented friend, Dr. 
HENLEY, in his notes to BECKFORD'S VATHEK. 



IN GREECE. 247 

black eyes, black lids, and black lashes " quivers 
full of CUPID'S arrows" we return to our accom- 
plished traveller, who in p. 117 speaks of " CALLI- 
PHM, one of the IO/-an nymphs." The typogra- 
phic appearance of the last -marked word is mine ; 
otherwise, if the nymph's name were written KALLI- 
pttM f it would, as far as I see or indeed written like 
the traveller answer for a Hindu as well as for a 
Greek fable. I know but few of the names of the 
Hindu nereids, (see p. 57) ; and none other of the 
lOwz-an nymphs of Greece but the above CALLIPH^E 
possibly she belongs to both : I will inquire some- 
thing farther about them. 

" The convent of the miraculous image of the 
Virgin, six miles from Calavrita." p 221. 

In one of her characters the polymorphic KALI is 
all that is immaculate, notwithstanding her mater- 
nity in others. Kalavrita I take to be as correct a 
Sanskrit compound as can be put together. 

" Calavrita is supposed by some to be the ancient 
Nonacris.* A learned Danish traveller visited the 
Styx near this place, and found that it was called 
Mavro-nero, black-water." Ib. 

The black Styx, or black-water, may be expected 
in connexion with the Sanskrit and Greek word 
Kalavrita, as well as with the Calamata of a recent 
page. KRISNA had desperate adventures with a 
black serpent, KALANAGA or KALIYA, in a river 
sometimes said to be the Yamuna. But India has 
several Stygian rivers ; the Krisna among them. 

3 A town in Achaia is called Calavrita. 



248 SANSKRIT NAMES 

Some translation or transposition may have produced 
the name of Nonacris, or No na kris. But I am not 
prepared to hint that, although some early Greeks 
sometimes wrote in what was called boustrophedonic, 
or backward-and-forward,/Mrroa>-///i:e, style Dipuc, 
or CUPID, for instance I am not, I say, disposed to 
hint that in Na-kris, Kris-na may be found. 

In the Hin. Pan. a good many pages are of ne- 
cessity devoted to Krishnaiana more than we can 
now spare lines for and many plates. One short 
quotation from that poor work we will venture on 
here, showing how Greek and Hindu legends co- 
alesce. 

"The comparison between KRISHNA and APOLLO 
runs parallel in a great many instances " (many 
are earlier given). " The destruction of PYTHON 
by APOLLO, the commentators tell us, means the 
purification of the atmosphere by the sun from the 
mephitic exhalations consequent to the deluge ; and 
KRISHNA'S victory over the noxious Kaliya-naga 
may, by those who, allegorizing all poetical extra- 
vagance, deprive poetry of half its beauties, be ex- 
plained in the same manner. In honor of KRISH- 
NA'S triumph, games and sports are annually heltf 
in India, as the Pythic games were at stated times 
exhibited in Greece. Like the Pythian serpent in 
the temples of APOLLO, Kaliyanaga enjoys also 
his apotheosis in those dedicated to the worship of 
KRISHNA. Nor are arguments wanted toward iden- 
tifying Serpentarius on our sphere with his formida- 
ble foe; and the theatre of the warfare, the river 
Yamuna, with the Via Lactea. So, the variety of 



IN GREECE. 249 

demons sent to annoy KRISHNA are perhaps the 
allegorical monsters of the sky, attempting in vain 
to obstruct his apparent progress through the hea- 
vens ; where other constellations are fabled as so 
many beautiful nymphs ready to receive him, and 
have given rise to allegories of his inconstancy. The 
well-known story of NAREDA'S visit to the nume- 
rous chambers of KRISHNA'S seraglio, and finding 
the ardent deity in them all, may refer to the uni- 
versality of the sun's presence at the Equinoxes. 
APOLLO and KRISHNA are both inventors of the 
flute. One was disappointed by DAPHNE, who 
was turned into the Laurus ; hence sacred to 
APOLLO : KRISHNA'S coy nymph was transformed 
into the Tulasi, alike sacred to him." HP. 20.1. 
Of the nymph TULASI mention is made in pp. 86, 
7, 8, preceding. 

To return to WALPOLE. " Six miles from Chi- 
liantari we came to the ruins of a castle called 
Callitze." 224. The Italianized pronunciation of 
the first name would be Kiliantari permute the 
first i to o, and we have Kalian, the name of an 
Indian as well as of a Grecian town. Kalian, some- 
times written Calian, is a fort near Bombay. But I 
know of no Kalitze in that neighbourhood. Kaliche 
is, however, an Indian word. The termination tari 
of the first-named place is also Hindi. It means, in 
some dialects, a stage or tier. Tmtari, or Teentaly, 
is the name of a triple-tiered, or triple-staged series 
of caves at El lor a. 

" The fountain called Enneacrunos, which THU- 
CYDIDES identifies with Calliroe, a name which, 



250 SANSKRIT NAMES 

after the lapse of two thousand years, it still retains. 
STUART is the first who notices this very remark- 
able fact ; and he speaks of Calliroe as a copious 
and beautiful spring, flowing into the channel of the 
Ilissus." 479. 

I have not, I believe, before remarked, that in 
geographical nomenclature it is mountains, rivers, 
fountains, that retain their original or early names 
the longest cities and towns, and castles, next. Of 
this poetical fount, Calliroe, much occurs in the 
pages of travellers and historians. 

The public fountain which formerly, when the 
springs were open, bore the name of Calliroe, was 
perfumed. And even now, in compliance with an- 
cient custom, they think it necessary to make use of 
this water previous to connubial rites, and on other 
religious occasions. 

" We were now/' observes CHANDLER, in. 23, 
" on the side of the Ilissus hence we descended 
to a copious and beautiful spring at present called 
Calliroe, flowing into the channel of the river." 
WALPOLE, 310. 

" The source of this stream " the Ilissus " is 
probably the original Calliroe." Ib. 515. 

If ancient rites connubial or religious on the 
banks of these poetical rivers and springs could be 
now traced, we should probably find that the point 
of their junction, or union, was emphatically se- 
lected. Such junctions or unions are very myste- 
rious and poetical among Hindus. They are called 
sangam as indeed are other junctions or meetings, 
as well as of rivers. I have, in another work HP. 



IN GREECE. 251 

p. 429. said something of such junctions. That of 
three rivers is supereminently mysterious and poeti- 
cal. I know of only two such one in India, and 
one in Ireland; countries equally of mysticisms and 
poetry and, what may appear rather extravagant 
to say, almost equally of Kalic or Sanskrit mysti- 
cism and poetry. In India the meeting of the three 
sacred rivers the Ganges, Yamuna, and Sarasvati, at 
Allahabad, is called Triveni, or the three-plaited 
locks. In Ireland the loving rivers are the Barrow. 

c? f 

Nore, and Suir the " three-plaited locks " of Hi- 
bernia, there called " The Three Sisters of Ireland," 
who unite near " fair Kilkenny" A volume would 
scarce suffice to recite the poetics of these Triveni 
and here I can afford them only half a page. But I 
must contrive, hereafter, to devote at least one to 
them. 

We must quit Mr. WALPOLE for a time, that I 
may add something from another source about the 
poetical Caltiroe. " The fountain Calliroe, the only 
spring of pure water which the neighbourhood of the 
Acropolis supplied" WILKINS' Athenesia, p. 43 
and therefore the more likely to be named after the 
pure protectress of Athens MINERVA; the CALI 
of the Greeks, who, under her name of SATI, is a 
personification of purity. 

The following Kali-ruhic legend partakes strongly 
of the savour of Hindu romance : 

" It was an ancient custom for the Trojan dam- 
sels, when on the brink of matrimony, to repair to 
the banks of the consecrated stream Scamander, and 



252 SANSKRIT NAMES 

invoke the patron god with the following unequivo- 
cal petition 

Aotfis jtxou, 5*xjxvSps, TYJV notpQeviotv. 

" A betrothed damsel of surpassing beauty, named 
CALLIRHOE, was ardently beloved by an Athenian 
roue named CIMON ; who, in despair of success by 
any usual artifice, ingeniously thought of perso- 
nating the river-god on the expected invitation of 
the blushing inamorata. Having provided himself 
with a suitable undress, his head crowned with reeds 
and appropriate decorations, he concealed himself in 
the luxuriant sedges ; and, on hearing the verse in- 
viting his prototype to anticipate the bridal rites, he 
stepped forth and literally complied with the prayer 
of the petition/' Letters from Palestine, p. 363. 

In this extract we not only find a Puranic fable, 
but some Hindu names. Skamander of no meaning 
in Greek, 1 and, although sufficiently poetical and 
legendary, having in that language no immediate 
derivation fabulous or historical seems to be Saka- 
mandar. And although these names of a Hindu 
deity and a mythological mountain, or, in combina- 
tion, that name be not immediately applicable by 
me to the regent of the classical river, it is still no 
great stretch to fancy it of no difficult application. 

1 Gushing is so common to many rivers, especially to 
mountain-torrents like this, that a Greek word, something 
like the first syllable, may be forced on it as a name, while 
it in reality cannot in strictness be deemed more than an 
attribute. 



IN GREECE. 253 

Xaka-mandar, or Sukya-mandar, and Kali-ruhi, 
pronounced the same as Calliroc and CALLIRHOE, 
are directly Sanskrit. Of the rake CIMON it may 
be noted, that if written Sehmund, or Seh-mo of 
nearly the same pronunciation we have a six- 
headed, or six-faced, hero. Greece supplies none 
such, but India does. And it would not be difficult 
to find a Puranic legend, bearing directly on a river- 
side amour, where KALI-RUHI, or the fair-faced, 
and the six-faced KARTIKYA, act principal parts.- 
One of the names of the last-mentioned hero is 
SKANDA. If, as has been noted, the Skamander of 
the Troad has proved a topic redundantly poetical, 
so has the six-faced SKANDA of Hindu Furanics. 
He is intimately connected with the six (or seven?) 
Pleiades, and the seven stars in Ursa Major : they 
having been his wet nurses. 

But the Hin. Pan. is a more fit place than this 
for the discussion of such endless poetical (and astro- 
nomical) legends ; and thither the reader, desirous 
of such information, is referred. See KARTIKYA 
and Kritika in the Index to that book. I shall say 
nothing of Sehmuni and CYMON. Let us make an 
end of what we have to observe on the engaging 
subject of Calirhue, by another quotation from the 
same " Letters," connecting that sweet fount with 
its kindred stream of Castaly, and its poetical source 
Parnassus. 

" If the founders of oracular imposture wished 
to select a spot whose wild and desolate seclusion 
would deter such an influx of visitors as might en- 
danger a detection of its mechanism, they could not 



254 SANSKRIT NAMES* 

have chosen a happier situation. Parnassus is for 
the most part a savage moss, with scarcely any 
vegetation to relieve the rugged surface. The foun- 
tain of Castalia, stripped of its fanciful embellish- 
ments, is a small spring issuing from the chasm 
which rends the cliff from its base to its summit." 
Lett, from Pal. 356. 

Here are all the elements of a site of Hindu su- 
perstition. I will not say that superstition and im- 
posture are synonimous but both are prone to take 
refuge among the blindest of its votaries ; to fly 
from the neighbourhood of rival superstitions ; and 
still more from the scrutiny of civilization and in- 
quiry. Thus, JoANNA-SouTHCOTisM could not 
long exist in the philosophical neighbourhood of 
inquisitive, bustling London. It flies to the nervous, 
sedentary occupier of the monotonous loom ; and 
takes refuge among the melancholy mechanics of 
Manchester. 

A savage, rugged-surfaced moss ; a conical mount 
like Parnassus; and above all, a stream issuing, 
Ganges like, from a cavernous chasm rending a cleft 
from base to summit, are, as is above said, the very 
elements of Hindu fable. Such a site will, in all its 
particulars, be soon allocated to appropriate deities, 
and suitably peopled by mythological inhabitants. 

Castalia, or Castaly, may be traced to a Hindu 
source. Cas or Kas means pre-eminent hence 
Kasi, the first of cities Benares, or Varanasi. Tali 
we have noticed in a preceding page. In Indian 
dialects tal means also head, or source. The source 
of the Kaveri, the river which surrounds Seringapa- 



IN GREECE. 255 

tarn, is named Tal-kavery, situated in the hills to 
the westward of Mysore. 

Kastaly may therefore mean a choice, or sacred 
mount, or stage; or the most revered elevation, or 
perhaps, pinnacle of such a hill and such is appli- 
cable to Parnassus* This name may be also traced 
to a Sanskrit source Paranasa ; the trifling altera- 
tion being merely to suit the common Greek termi- 
nation. 

Paramisa, like Helikonda, will in Sanskrit con- 
nect itself with solar holiness as Parnasian and 
Heliconian legends do in Greek. Parnassus l is of 
course consecrated to the Sun, or APOLLO ; and " to 
BACCHUS, because it produced excellent grapes 

Mons Phoebo, Bromioque sacer." 

Luc AN. Phar. v. 73. 

The natural fountains of Parnassus, Castaly, He- 
licon, dgaiiippe, &c. furnish the Greek and Latin 
poets with endless fables as do those of Mem, 
Kailasa, and others, to the poets of India. 

The reader will please to bear in mind that clefts, 
fissures, caverns, chasms, wells, &c. (fonds) are espe- 
cially dedicated to PARVATI one of whose names, 
by the way, is PARA so are hills and mounts. 
Another of her names is DURGA ; meaning, accord- 
ing to Sir W. JONES, " difficult of access" appli- 
cable to the " mountain-born " PARVATI, in her 
relation to inaccessible peaks of hills, &c. 

We will now proceed to notice some more Hindu- 

1 Dr. CLARKE'S Travels, iv. 704. 



256 SANSKRIT NAMES 

isms ; connected, more or less, with Parnassus and 
its neighbourhood. 

" The little village of Castri stands partly on the 
site of Delphi. Along the path of the mountain 
from Chryso are the remains of sepulchres, hewn in 
and from the rock. A little above Castri is a cave, 
supposed the Pythian, of immense depth. On the 
other side of Castri stands a Greek monastery : some 
way above is the cleft in the rock, with a range of 
caverns of difficult ascent, and apparently leading to 
the Corycian cavern mentioned by PA us AN IAS. 
From this part descend the fountain and the l dews 
of Castalie: " Note 1 to Canto i. of CHILDE 
HAROLD. 

The 60th and other stanzas, Lord B, tells us, 
"were written in Castri (Delphos) at the foot of Par- 
nassus, now called Aixxvpct, Liakura." Ib. note 13. 

" The Curtian lake, and the Ruminal fig-tree in 
the forum, having been touched by lightning, were 
held sacred ; and the memory of the accident was 
preserved by a pitteal, or altar, resembling the 
mouth of a well, with a little chapel covering the 
cavity supposed to be made by the thunderbolt/' 
Ib. note 41 to Canto iv. 

Mouths of wells we have shown to be mysterious, 
on account of their form. One made by a (real or 
supposititious) stroke of lightning or a thunderbolt, 
or a tree scathed (by INDRA they would say), 
would have been peculiarly venerated by Hindus in 
their best days and perhaps now, for they are non- 
mutant. Such mythi have been viewed and treated, 
at Benares, pretty much as they are described to 



IN GREECE. 257 

have been at the " Eternal City." The circular ori- 
fice or cavity of the thunder-born well, has been 
perhaps covered with the " little chapel " by the 
mystics of a more modern religion. It ought to be, 
and perhaps was, dedicated to " Our Lady of the 
O." 1 At Benares the Rome, the "eternal city" 
of Hinduism it would have been dedicated to her 
Panathenaic sister, PARVATI of the \Oni. It is 
really surprising how, in hundreds of instances, the 
superstitions of ancient and modern Rome and of 
Benares go hand in hand proving that man is in- 
deed the same animal every where, merely modified 
by position and education 

*' Coelum, non animum, mutant qui trans mare currunt." 

We will return to WALPOLE for a few more ex- 
tracts : 

" Near the point of Scyllaum, where the Sarouic 
gulf enters the Mgean sea, is a small island called 
Calaurea? where DEMOSTHENES ended his life by 
poison." Travels, 552. 

At such a point, such a sangam, or junction, which 
would naturally be sacred to the terrific or black 
god KALA, or to his consort KALI, and be probably 
called Kalaurea, a Hindu would commit " merito- 

1 On this, not very familiar, distinction of the Virgin, I 
have a little article, which I hope to find room for. 

2 " On classic ground, also, is the Calaurea of APOLL. 
RHOD." ELTON'S Specimens, i. 327. 

" Libynthus vanish'd distant to their right 
Honied Cafynne faded from their flight." 

OVID'S ICARUS, Ib. n. 327. 



258 SANSKRIT NAMES 

rious suicide" as, indeed, I have too frequently 
seen. 

" A gently swelling hill, probably Callicolonej* 
seen from Athens." Ib. 561. " This stream is 
called in Dr. HUNT'S Journal, Kamara Sou." 
" The modern castle of Koum Kale." 570. 

Here are numerous Kalicisms. The reader will 
recollect the interchangeability of letters. Callico- 
lone I should write Kali-kaloni or if Kali~kal-\Oni, 
it would be ultra- Kalic. KAMARA is a name of 
KALI and so are KAMALA, KOMARI or Kou- 
MARI, and SUKALI all referring to her beauty or 
virginity ; and all of which are closely cognate in 
sound with the Greek names in the preceding ex- 
tracts : which conclude what I purposed taking from 
WALPOLE'S Travels. 

" It is well known," says Lord BYRON note 88 
to Canto iv. of C. H. " that the sacred images of 
the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by 
time or accident; but were put into certain under- 
ground depositories, called favisste." I have scores 
of Hindu images that appear to have been long 
buried, and mutilated by time or accident. Several 
images have been given to me by Brahmans ; but 
never, I think, a perfect one. Thus superstition 
works every where alike from the true cross and 
reliquary trumpery of the Papists, to the ape and 
onion-arians of -Egypt and India. 

But Dr. CLARKE'S vast volumes, where they de- 

1 This name occurs, with the epithet steep prefixed, in 
ELTON'S translation of HOMER'S Battle of the Gods. Sp. 
l. 35. 



IN GREECE. 259 

scribe Greece) almost describe India, as far as relates 
to names, legends, and usages. I have run my eye 
rapidly over them ; and, as briefly as may be, have 
interpolated, parenthetically as it were, observable 
coincidences. 

In his preface, p. viii., the Hindu trisula W, is 
ingeniously made to appear the origin of the \Onic 
volute ; or to be intimately connected with it. N os 
24, 25, 26 of PL 2. of the Hin. Pan. will show the 
Sanskrit identity of the symbol. See also line B. of 
PL v. of this little book, for the same symbol on 
which, with the subjects of that Plate, it is intended 
to say something in a future page. Dr. CLARKE 
adduced it in proof of the frequent resemblances 
between ancient heathen superstitions and modern 
usages. His speculations hereon, although appa- 
rently without any acquaintance with the fact, argue 
strongly for their coincidences with Hindu fables 
and romances. In page ix., describing MINERVA, 
he describes a Hindu goddess ; as she certainly is. 
Spitting into one's own bosom I. 7. ; " votive gifts, 
dotia votiva, of human hair" ceremonies attending 
sneezing 8. ; as mentioned by LUCIAN, PAUSA- 
NIAS, and others, will find their parallels in the 
usages of India. 

" Between Marathon and Athens is Mount Pen- 
deli.' 1 11. Pendeli is Hinduish. " The mountain 
KalingL" 12, 38. This word is eminently so re- 
minding us of the linga of KAL. " An ancient 
paved way, now called Shuli." 27. SIVA'S suli, or 
trisula, is often called Shuli. It is precisely the 
figure given above, as the \Oni c volute. The linga, 



260 SANSKRIT NAMES 

suli, and IOi of SIVA and his consort, are all- 
pervading. It has just been called trhula descrip- 
tive of its tridental form : being strictly as Neptu- 
nian as any thing in or about Athens. 

" The ancient Tricorynthus, on the road from 
Marathon to Rhamnus." Ib. Tricor, Mara, and 
liham, are Hindu sounds -not so the Greek termi- 
nations. " Plain of Tanagra." 39. " Bridge of 
Yakindi "~~" village of Skemata " " village of Na- 
cra." 43. These are Hindi terminations and all. 
" The Albanians, like the ancient Greeks, will nei- 
ther eat a hare, nor touch it after it is killed, nor 
remain in the house with it." 75, 358. This feeling 
is paralleled in India, but I am not sure if fully 
among Hindus. The hare is, however, with them, 
a mythological and poetical animal. See HP. 293, 
294. I have a note on superstitions connected with 
the hare, raven, 8cc. which I hope to append. 

" An eagle devouring a serpent is an invariable 
type of the medals of Chalets " " of Bceolta, a tri- 
dent." 87. These passages are strikingly redolent 
of Hindi allusion. Between the man-eagle GA- 
RUDA the vehicle of VISHNU, the Indian JOVE 
and the tribe of naga, or serpents, is a perpetual 
enmity and conflict. One of GARUDA'S names is 
Devoitrer of Serpents. Chalcis I am disposed to 
spell Kalki rejecting, where practicable, c hard, arid 
not much regarding local terminations. These words 
will recur. The trident (or trisula of the western 
and eastern NEPTUNES) is on the Boeotian medals. 
Why? Bhu is the earth, in Sanskrit. NEPTUNE, 
in his celebrated contest with MINERVA at Athens, 



IN GREECE. 261 

smote the earth with his trident. I cannot parallel 
the upspringing horse in Hindu fable ; but my igno- 
rance is no proof of its non-existence. 

Returning to Dr. C. " approaching Mount He/i- 
con, the names Panaja and Sagara occur." iv. 94. 
Sugar a again in 109, " or Sacra, whence the moun- 
tain (Helicon} receives its modern appellation" 
" The deep valley in which Sagara is situated be- 
ing entirely surrounded by high rocks and by the 
summits of Helicon." Ib. 

In Sanskrit, Sagara is the sea HP. 337, 8. as 
well as the name of an important mythological per- 
sonage and historical, perhaps ; but the legends 
connected with that name are outrageously extrava- 
gant. Sakra, Sekra, and Sukra, are also Sanskrit 
names and words. SAKHA is a name of INDRA, 
the Hindu JUPITER pluvialis. Sekra, among other 
things, means crowned with or bearing similar to 
dhara. CHANDRA-SEKRA, or moon-crowned, is a 
name of Si v A, and of some lunar mountains. GAN- 
GA DHARA, Ganges-bearing, another that river, or, 
personified, the goddess GANG A, being seen in, or 
flowing from, the folds of his hair a fable dwelt 
upon in the pages and plates of the HP. : meaning 
(I may have said so before) the Himalic or snowy 
origin and wanderings of that " blessing of Bengal ," 
before she issues from the cleft rock at the Cow's- 
mouth gaomuki in Nepal. SUKRA is a name of 
the Hindu VENUS not of VENUS marina, as before 
observed, but rather of VENUS Urania. Generally 
VENUS is masculine in India, and was, and is, 
sometimes in Europe. When a morning star, she 



262 SANSKRIT NAMES 

was LUCIFER and PHOSPHORUS names derived 
from her brilliancy. Hence, perhaps, the bearded 
VENUS of the Greeks. When " the star of eve," 
she is VESPER. 

Asiatics, Mahomedans as well as Hindus, call 
any very large piece of water the sea : such as the 
Ganges, or Indus, or Brahmaputra, where widely 
spread or a great lake. Now, the size of " the 
deep valley in which Sagara is situated entirely 
surrounded by high rocks and by the summits of 
Helicon," I am ignorant of: but it is exactly de- 
scriptive of some Indian valleys, which yield strong 
indications of having formerly been great waters. 
Such as that, 'now Kashmir,' 1 " that garden in per- 
petual spring ;" and that of Nepal, called, after the 
capital, the valley of Khatmandu. May not the 
" deep valley," bounded by the " summits of Htli- 
con" have formerly been a lake, or sea, or saga? a V 
It may be here noted that the cavity, or cavern, or 
hollow of the ocean, is called the sea sagara or sa- 
mudra by Hindu sacred writers, independently of 
its waters : as appears to be the case likewise in 
our Scripture " as the waters cover the sea." 

Such deep concavity is, of course, received by 
Hindu mystics as a mighty argha, or \Oni typical 
of PARVATJ ; with her sectaries the medhra* or 
womb of nature. In her virgin character she cor- 

1 Or Cashmeer, as some write it. Our little English lakes 
are pretty extensively, I believe, called meer : in Suffolk, 
generally. 

2 Qu. Is sa-mudra, the sea, connected with medhra, the 
womb ? 



IN GREECE. 263 

responds, as we have seen, with DIANA and MI- 
NERVA and she is also consorted with the tridented 
deity of the waters. 

In the next page, 111, of Dr. C., occurs " Pmi- 
aja, or the all-holy virgin " and " Ascra, believed 
to be the origin of Sacra or Sagfira, the modern 
name of Helicon." 114. Ascra is the supposed 
birth-place of HESIOD suited for him who wrote 
the Theogony ; amidst all the subjects of his fa- 
bulous poetry. " Here," continues Dr. C., " we 
found the true hellebore." 1 Ib. " It is now called 

1 This black vegetable, rather new to England, is exten- 
sively connected with the classical or poetical, as well as the 
medical, legends of Greece and Italy I know not if also of 
India. Our present line of inquiry has reference mainly to 
the black or terrific deities of India KAL and KALI " the 
gods of tears and lamentations/' as they are there called. 
Jn the idle or busy visions of poets, they associate all sort 
of simulative objects. The name hellebore in Greek is de- 
rived from lAelV, to kill. It is associated witli mania as well 
as with mortality. SIVA is sometimes a maniac. It abounds 
chiefly on mountains Helicon, Athos, (Eta, Olympus, Par- 
nassus. It is among the most poisonous as well as the most 
beautiful of shrubs. The black deity KAL, or SIVA, is more 
especially connected with poison than any of the Hindu 
Pantheon. He swallowed poison. The roots of the h. niger 
partake of its black character. Some of its botanical charac- 
ters would be profitably noticed by Hindu poets " flowers, 
cup-shaped" here is the patra or black-blood-receiving cup 
of KALI : " anthers, erect" therefore, like all erect, as- 
piring, obeliscal things, referrible to SIVA. It is trifoliate 
and triflorescent (I hope this word is not of my coining) 
and by one botanist has been called tnphyllux. SIVA is 
three-eyed and as such, one of his (Sanskrit) names is 
TRILOKAN ; exactly equivalent to the nameTiuopHTHALMOs, 



264 SANSKRIT NAMES 

by the Turks Zagara, from the great quantity of 
hares found on it." Ib. from WHEELER'S Journey 
into Greece in 1682. 

An allowable transposition will give Sacra from 
Ascra and in the changeableness of sound in lan- 
guages, Sagara and Zagara may easily succeed. 

" From the summit of Helicon is a view," says 
Dr. CLARKE, " which, in the grandeur of its ob- 
jects, and in all the affecting circumstances of his- 
tory thereby suggested, cannot be equalled in the 
whole world. " 115. 

This glorious mount ought to bear a solar name. 
In Sanskrit, Heliconda means hill of the sun. It is 
nearly the same in Greek arid is surrounded with 
places and things bearing Sanskrit names and allu- 
sions, as numerous, nearly, as if it were near Be- 
nares or Unjein. 

Dr. CLARKE notes " Kotumala, near Helicon 
most beautiful." 116. This is a Sanskrit compound 
mala is a garland but I cannot place it exactly 
on Kotu : on Kuta I can : of which something pre- 
sently. " Panori omne video." 1J7. True but 
it has also a very Hinduish sound. " Parnassus 

given, for the like reason, according to PAUSANIAS, to an 
image of Ziius. He has several other names indicative of 
his, and his sakti's, three-fold nature : of which a note here- 
after. Here I shall only farther remark, that the name of 
the black, beautiful, poisonous, fetid herb, might be (forci- 
bly ?) derived from heli, the sun in Greek and Sanskrit 
and b/iu, the earth it flourishing most in very elevated re- 
gions ; between, as it were, both. Other coincidences might 
be pointed out but I fear being set down as having (etymo- 
logically) " a head no hellebore can cure." 



IN GREECE. 265 

universally bears at present the name of Lakura." 
138. In a preceding page, spelled by Lord BYRON 
Liakura (Aia). And by Dr. CLARKE, in another 
place p. 211 Lugari. All are Sanskrit-sounding. 
In that page he writes the name of the poetical 
mountain Parnassu approaching near to my ideal 
Paranasa. PARA is a name of PARVATI, the 
mountain-goddess and some orientalists write the 
Sanskrit termination su as well as sa. 

Near Parnasus or Parnasu we find the " moun- 
tain Tricala" and " the village Kallidea." Dr. C., 
p. 203. In pages 242. 3. 5. preceding, this village 
and plain last named is written Callidia, on the au- 
thority of W ALP OLE. The pronunciation will be 
the same. This I note to show that in Grecian 
names having the initial hard C, the K may be 
indifferently, I think profitably, substituted. 

As to the " mount Tricala/' it is pure Sanskrit 
and a name or word of frequent recurrence. .It is 
not only a name of SIVA, and with the feminine ter- 
mination of PARVATI but is given also to an in- 
spired person. It then refers to Time seeing, alike, 
the past, present^ and future a mystical chronic 
triad. 1 

PARVATI, like her double, JUNO (IQNo) or 
DIANA, or the " triple HECATE/' has many names 
derived from her triple energy. TRI-KUTA, trifur- 
cated, three-peaked, I should expect, if it be my 



1 An illustrative note or two, on these Tri-kal-ic points, is 
intended. 



266 SANSKRIT NAMES 

good fortune to visit the poetical regions of Par- 
nassus, to find it, or Olympus, the tri, rather than 
the " fo-forked hill." It savours more of poetry and 
mysticism. 

Another of the names of the " mountain-born 
PARVATI" is TRIKALIDEVIKUMARI the triple- 
maid or the triform-maiden, KALI-DEVI. That of 
TRIN ETRI she shares with her Triophthalmic spouse. 

" Arracovia," 204 near Parnassus, may be fan- 
cied Haracubya. HARA is a name of SIVA and 
cubya in Sanskrit means crooked and may have 
other meanings more applicable. A striking in- 
stance of the exchangeability of v and b is on a 
Thessalonian coin or medal of THEODOSIUS, which 
bears Orvis for Oibis : of which I may have occasion 
to take farther note. K and G are also of frequent 
substitution. 

Hereabout Dr. C. observed " the plant Gala- 
corta." 204. Admitting this word to be Greek, it 
may be added to the number coincident nearly in 
both languages with the allowable alteration to 
Kala curia. In p. 206, " Helicon, Parnassus, and 
Tricala," occur but not, perhaps (for I have not 
so noted it) in combined triplicity. I have no im- 
mediate access to Dr. CLARKE'S most instructive 
Travels. 

" At the enormous elevation of Parnassus the 
shells etitrochi are found ; and all over the moun- 
tain." 207. These mysterious remains ar6 alone 
sufficient to mark and arrest admiration and wonder- 
ment. Their conchological legends and fables are 



IN GREECE. 267 

endless. A book the size of this would ill suffice to 
contain them. Chatik is the generic Sanskrit name, 
hardened into conch by westerns. The species en- 
trochus is deeply mystical. It has been a question 
whether such zoophitic remains were mineral, ani- 
mal, or vegetable ; a question which science may 
now answer but it has been a question ; and the E. 
ramosus has been called the "the rock-plant." The 
E. pyramidalis is of very mystical form. Shells are 
more connected with Vaishnava than with Sivaic le- 
gends. A great hero of the first line, immediately 
connected with the fables of RAMA, had twenty 
arms ; the E. ramosus has as many rays its body 
is pentagonal, and has five rays ; a mystic number 
divaricated, the number of heads of the j ust-men- 
tioned hero, and these half the number of his hands. 
This will seem trifling, but it is Ra ma ically mystical. 
Entrochi have also a stellar cavity, some a sacred 
one in the centre. This savours of the salagrama, of 
which slight mention is made in p. 88. preceding. 

" Priests called Caloyers, a name," says Dr. C., 
" probably known in Greece long before the introduc- 
tion of Christianity." p. 212. Very probable; and 
in India likewise. These Grecian priests still exhi- 
bit Hindu mummery, as described by the accom- 
plished traveller, in p. 1 13. In p. 245 preceding 
these Co layer are mentioned. I have called them 
KALI Y A, priests of KALI ; Kalaya, ofKALA, would 
do as well. In p. 245 some mention is made of 
KALIYA, and the word demands no more at present. 
. " Thiva or Thebes, where the Cacha/es falls 
into the, " &c. " The river Cachales is still 



268 SANSKRIT NAMES 

called Cacha-rami, and Cachale. Cachi-rami signifies 
evil-torrentj so named because it destroyed THIVA." 
p. 215. In the first name the indifferent use of v 
and b may be again noted, and its being a spot 
where two rivers join. Such junctions we have seen 
are especially mystic and Sivaic. THIVA is so like 
SIVA, particularly when we recollect how extensively 
Th is shibboleth, that a passing notice of it will suf- 
fice. The equivocal pronunciation ofc and ch, as well 
as the usage, before mentioned, of travellers to give 
their own plurals to foreign names, is vague and em- 
barrassing. I conjecture that the river Cachales or 
Cachale may be allowably written Kakali : it is con- 
jecture ; but, if allowed, the pronunciation is similar 
and unequivocal. It may then be taken either as 
of Kalic or Ramaic allusion. Kaha, in Sanskrit, is 
a crow. RAMA, from a fashion he had not much 
unlike some less heroic folk of this day of wearing 
his hair bunching or flying out over his ears has 
an epithet or name meaning Crow-wing-bearer* 
KAKA-PAKSHA-DHARA. But I know not if this 
have any thing to do with the Greek. Names of 
Cornaic origin are not absent from the local mytholo- 
gies of both races. APOLLO is named CRINITUS, 
and his twin brother KRISHNA, KESAVA, from the 
beauty and fashion of their hair. 

One word more on the river Cachale. If pro- 
nounced soft Calch-ale, we have a Sanskrit word and 
story corresponding. Katch, in Sanskrit, or Katcha, 
or Katchwa, is a tortoise, still appertaining to Ramaic 
and Vaishnava legends, as does the Cacha-rami of 
Dr. Clarke ; write it, or pronounce it, how you 



IN GREECE. 269 

will. The legend of the destruction of THIVA by 
this last-named river, I have not met with. It 
sounds sufficiently Hinduish. But we must be de- 
tained no longer by this tortoise-like, slow-moving 
discussion. 

that eminence of the mountain which 

bore the appellation of Callidromos, probably from 
the astonishing beauty and grandeur of the pro- 
spect." p. 230. That Calli has a meaning of beauti- 
ful in Greek is no bar to my speculations. It had 
the like, probably, long before in Sanskrit, as 
well as the more common reference to KALI and 
KALA. 

" Heraclea is now called Platamonos." p. 301. 
" The plain near it is called Kal/idea or Kallithea, 
but to what circumstance of beauty it owes its 
appellation it is difficult to conjecture." p. 306. 
Just so. This is the same plain as was, in an ear- 
lier page, written, as quoted, Callidia. Kali and 
Calli are of course the same ; and dia, dea, thea, of 
the Greek, are equally godlike with the deva, devi, 
or deo, of the Sanskrit. 

" Hereabouts we crossed the Malatri river by a 
bridge." ib. Malatri, or Trimala, would refer, in 
Sanskrit, to a triple necklace or garland, or some- 
thing embracing, encircling, or convolving. A river 
very tortuous might be so named. Of Heraclea, 
which I conjecture to be HARAKALA, or HERCULES, 
something occurs in another place. 

" Where are the remains of Dium situated, near 
to the Haliacmon?" "Dium, D'ANVILLE says, 
is now known by the name of Stan-dia, in which a 



270 SANSKRIT NAMES 

preposition of place precedes the proper name, ac- 
cording to the usage which, in later times, had 
become prevalent in this part of the Roman empire." 
p. 309. 

Thus Dr. C. connects Dium and Stan-dia. I 
notice this to show an authorized stretch of etymo- 
logical deduction, far exceeding, I think, any licence 
that I have occasion to ask indulgence for. Stan 
is an Eastern termination ; rarely, if ever, a prece- 
dent in a place's name. l Dium, dia, deo, deva, 
are fair substitutions, one for another. 

" A very elevated, snow-clad mountain, called 
MalasfuTO." ib. Or Malasiva, perhaps, in days of 
yore ; which, in Sanskrit, would mean the garland 
or wreath of SIVA. This deity is, however, in India 
extensively called SHIVA. "A Khan, called Ku- 
narga." p. 403. The hill of the Argha ? 

In p. 413 Dr. C. indulges in some speculation on 
the derivation of Bucephalus. May Bucephala, or as 
it would be better spelled, Bhu-seh-phala, be ad- 
mitted ? It means in Indian languages * earth-of- six- 
flowers,' but I do not see how to apply it to the 
poetical horse. The modern name of Sepoy, now of 
a foot-soldier, has been seriously derived from seh- 
pat, six-footed ; for it is said to have formerly been 
the designation of a mounted man. Until lately, 
indeed, foot-soldiery have been scarcely taken into 
the estimate of the strength of Eastern armies. 
Nor were they in Europe generally much thought of 
two or three centuries ago. But I confess I have 

2 STANU, or ST'HANU, is a name of SIVA. 



IN GREECE. 271 

deemed this rather a forced derivation. I may have 
occasion to say another word or two on it in a future 
page. 

In p. 419 Dr. C. resumes his speculation on the 
word in question ; and a town named Cavullo, which 
other writers have attempted to derive from Buke- 
phalus, is said to have been also called Chalastra. 
Kalastra brings us again to words of Sanskrit sound 
and meaning. As-wa, a horse, I shall lay no stress 
on. 

" The termination bria, so common in this coun- 
try/' (between Thessalonica and Constantinople) 
"answered, in the Thracian language, to the Celtic 
dunum" p. 476. In my ignorance of Sanskrit I 
know not if bria or bri, in that language, has a 
meaning connected with hills or mountains, as 
dunum or dun appears to have, extensively. The 
termination is confessedly of no value. Hence per- 
haps Cala-bria, Caledonia. But I will first finish 
what I have to extract from, and observe on, Dr. 
CLARKE, and then endeavour to show how exten- 
sively dun, in the name of places, is connected with 
hill from the Ganges to the Po, the Thames, and 
the Frith of Forth. 

" Denuded mountains, called Karowlan. The 
rivers Kuru-tchi, Mycena, Kalis, and Aksee. The 
villages Kallia-Gedari t Achooria; Gallipoli, the 
ancient Callipolis ; Malgara, a village, thence five 
hours further to a place called Devili or Develi." 
pp. 429. 30. 31. 39. 56. 62. Who would not sup- 
pose this to be taken from an itinerary of India ? 

" A fountain still held sacred by the Greeks, and 



272 SANSKRIT NAMES 

called Balculi, which marks the spot formerly occu- 
pied by the church of the Virgin MARY." p. 518. 
The Virgin, with probably her divine infant; who 
in Sanskrit would be, as the infant KRISHNA is, 
called Bala ; or, in composition, Bal. Bahuli, or 
Bal-kuli, is a very probable name for an Indian vil- 
lage ; although I do not immediately recollect one 
so named combinedly : either word, separately, is not 
uncommon. 

" We visited the site of Chalcedon, and the rock 
where the light-house is situated, called the tower 
of LEANDER. The Turks call it Kez Kalasi." 
p. 519. " A village called Hericler" near " Kannara, 
another village." p. 548. Chalcedon may be Kal-se- 
dun or Kalkidun, for the substitution of the hard C 
or K 9 for the C soft, is found to be very common in 
many regions. So is the interchange of the sounds 
produced by c, ch, sh, and k. On which a word, 
perhaps, hereafter. Heri-cler reminds us of Heri- 
cala, a combined name of VISHNU and SIVA. If 
Harikula, of PARVATI and SIVA. Karmara, is the 
name of several well-known mythological caverns, 
and of existing places in Western India : and Kalasi 
weaves easily into the same web of nomenclature. 
Near Persepolis is a cave called Kanarah by KER 
PORTER. I. 571. 

In Dr. CLARKE'S third volume ; or in what he in- 
conveniently calls Part second, Section second, some 
names occur, which invite remark : " Tricala, an 
ancient town and temple of Thessaly" In a late 
page, 265, we have seen the classical name of Trikala 



IN GREECE. 273 

applied to a mountain near Parnassus. The remarks 
there offered may suffice at present on this, and cog- 
nate Sanskrit, and Greek names and legends, 

" Three leagues eastward of Alexandria, on the 
sea-shore, are the ruins of very superb and extensive 
buildings. It is imagined these formed part of the 
city of Taposiris. Here are also, cut out of the 
solid rock, a number of places which have the ap- 
pearance of baths/ 7 304 Taposiri, or, as I should 
prefer writing it, Tapusri, is a Sanskrit compound, 
applicable to a sacred place, to which such baths or 
cells would be a probable, not to say a necessary, 
adjunct. Tapusri, or Tapasri, means, I think, a 
place of pilgrimage ; the sacred pilgrimage, or rather, 
perhaps, of penance or austerity. 

In p. 426 we are told of the " town of Syra, 
built upon the summit of a lofty hill, so remarkable 
for its conical form that it may be compared to a 
vast sugar-loaf covered with houses." Such a hill is 
never viewed by a Saiva unmoved by such a noble 
type of the object of his adoration. The hill itself 
would indeed be such, as a Linga ; and Sri, or holy, 
would be the appellation which he would bestow on 
it. Syra is but a trifling alteration in sound or 
spelling. " This town was anciently called Syros." 
The Hindu goddess SRI is in one case called SRIS ; 
hence CERES, Tapo-siris, Syros. Here (at Syra or 
Syros) grows, and here almost exclusively in Greece, 
ihe pre-eminently beautiful and aspiring Dianthus 
ArboreuSj surnamed AI02 ANTHO2. It is, how- 
ever, found elsewhere. Where ? In Seriphos. The 
special locality of a sacred or beautiful flower would 



274 SANSKRIT NAMES 

suffice for the affixture of a name by a Hindu. He 
would call such a place Sri-phoL This word is, to 
our ear, as euphonic as Sriphos to mine, hating sibi- 
lants, more so ; and I should have thought likewise 
so to the fastidious organs of the ancient Greeks. 

" The Eleusinian women practised a dance about 
a well which was called Callichorus, and their 
dance was accompanied by songs in honor of CERES. 
These songs of the well are still sung in other parts 
of Greece as well as in Syra." p. 430. 

It was my intention to incorporate with this Head 
of my Fragments, or to interpolate, an article on 
" Cones, Clef is, Fissures, Wells, IO, &c. Hindu mythi," 
as well as the other before mentioned on Dun ; and, 
perhaps, some others not altogether irrelevant or 
unconnected with the various Kali-cisms of this 
Head. But waving-them for the present proceed 
we to a continuation of our remarks on Dr. 
CLARKE'S Travels. 

" In the Saronic Gulf, among the islands, is that 
of Calaurea." p. 454. Here are described remains 
of temples in which we may fancy KALA to have 
been propitiated. It is to him, or to his terrific con- 
sort KALI, that human sacrifices were offered, and 
to whom self-immolation was acceptable. A temple 
of NEPTUNE is known to have existed at Calaurea, 
for DEMOSTHENES, as mentioned in p. 257, fled 
thither and swallowed poison. SIVA, or KALA, is the 
Hindu tridented, but the Greeks did not bestow on 
their more modern NEPTUNE all the Sivai&n attri- 
butes. Among them is poison. See p. 263. 

Calaurea is a very ancient name. CHANDLER 



IN GREECE. 275 

found among the ruins of the city and temple an in- 
scription " To the god and to the Calaureans," Tra- 
vels in Greece, p. 212. Oxford, 1776. If Hindus 
wrote that inscription, it would probably run " To 
MAHADEVA and to the Sairas." 

" The tortoise, or testudo, is a common mytholo- 
gical symbol. Among the ruins of Mgina, the most 
ancient of Grecian ruins, are still found rude medals 
marked with the tortoise. These are the earliest of 
known coins." CLARKE, p. 605. 

The tortoise is a very common mythological animal, 
or symbol, among Hindus. The second of VISHNU'S 
a-vatara, or descents, was in that form ; of which 
abundance may be found in the pages and plates of 
the Hin. Pan. See also p. 268 preceding. 

"In Greece the Arbutus Andrachne is called Ko- 
maros in some places Cuckoomari : at Constanti- 
nople it is called Koomaria." 613. These names seem 
to be the same with the Kitmari of Sanskrit legend. 
It is a name of PARVATI in her virgin character, 
as has been already noticed. 

The inhabitants of Peloponnesus still retain the 
tender aversion from killing serpents, like the Hin- 
dus. 628. 

In p. 647 mention is made of those " offerings to 
all the gods which were made by the ancient 
Greeks upon the summits of high mountains." A 
spot still the most appropriate to similar offerings by 
the Brahmans to Visivadeva, " all the gods/' 

In India all gigantic works whose origin is lost 
in antiquity, are usually ascribed to the Pandava, 
or the Pandus ; as we usually, giving our own plural 



276 SANSKRIT NAMES 

termination, style the five brothers, sons of PANDU. 
In Greece such works are similarly ascribed to the 
Cyclops. This similarity is brought to mind by Dr. 
C.'s remarks in p. 649. He thinks the taste for that 
kind of architecture, called by the Greeks Cyclopean, 
was cradled in the caves of India. And he combines 
Stonehenge, Elephanta, Memphis, the Pyramids, 
Persepolis, &c. in our minds, while discussing this 
point. 

The propylaa of Mycence, given as the vignette 
to ch. xvi. surmounted by a triangular aperture, 
is very similar to the trilithal doorways so often 
seen to temples in Western India. The lions or 
tigers denote the Grecian work to be of the Siva-i&n 
class ; as does the column, or stele. A lion is 
appropriate to PARVATI or DEVI. In one of her 
characters she is seen, full armed, in vigorous as- 
sault of a demon, mounted on a lion or tiger. One 
name applies to both animals, in several languages 
of India. In this character she is called VYAGRA- 
SAHI, meaning tiger or lion mounted. Her consort, 
KALA, like his brother HERCULES, is often seen 
clothed in, or sitting on, a lion's or a tiger's skin. 
" Near the mountain containing the cave of the 
Nemsean lion in Peloponnesus, is a town called Cala- 
verti" 764. It is in Attica and \Onia that I expect, 
more especially, to find relics of Hinduism. 

Terra cotta vases and implements, dug up in the 
neighbourhood of Argos, are described by Dr. C. p. 
661. " Fig. 1. of his plate is evidently a patera; but for 
what particular use this vessel was designed by the 
Greeks, is not so conspicuous. Pateras are some- 



IN GREECE. 277 

times represented in the hands of female Bacchan- 
tes.'' So likewise in India ; there called patra. 

" The blood of victims was received in such ves- 
sels ; and it is highly probable that their form was 
originally derived from the top part of the human 
skull, used by the Celtic tribes in drinking the blood 
of their enemies, and as a drinking- vessel. A bum- 
per 1 in Norway is still called a skoal. Upon the sub- 
ject of pateraSj GALE in his Court of the Gentiles 
has the following observations : ' The Levite having 
killed the victirne, received the blood in a vessel, 
which MOSES, Exod. xxiv. 6, calls Aganath, 9 661. 
This is found to be the same which the Latins called 
patera, used in a similar ceremony." Now AGA- 
NATH, or classically expanded ARGHANATHA, is a 
name of SIVA, the Hindu deity especially con- 
nected with the ceremonies in which the sacrificial 
utensils argha and patra are used ; and to whom in- 
deed the name of ARGHANATHA, or 'lord of the boat- 
shaped vessel,' is especially applicable. Few points, 
it is believed, would be found more strikingly similar 
in the Hindu, Greek, Keltic, and Latin names, usages, 
legends, 8cc. than those which are traceable in rela- 
tionship with the patra and argha. In p. 263 pre- 
ceding, without any advertence to the coincidences 
of this, mention is made in the note of ' the patra , or 
black blood-receiving-cup of KALI.' In PL v. of this 
book,l. F. Nos. 17. 18. Hindu. patra are represented, in 
common with divers mystical things, taken from PL 2, 
and 86. of the Hin. Pan. : and in p. 393. 2 of that book 

1 Au bon plre ? 2 And in pp. 387 to 390. 

2 A 



278 SANSKRIT NAMES 

will be found, more appropriately than here, where 
such matters can be only glanced at, some specula- 
tions ; sufficient, perhaps, on the ' boat-shaped ' pa- 
tra, and on the ' Lord of the boat-shaped vessel ' 
ARGHA-NATHA so similar in sound and legends to 
the heroes of the golden fleece. 

" The Lectisternum, or the custom of giving a 
supper in a temple to the gods, may have originated 
in the funeral feasts at tombs." 665. This was com- 
monly monthly among the ancient Greeks ; as the 
similar custom of Sradha, or observance of funereal 
obsequies, still is among the feeders of Brahmans. 
In the H.P. much is said on the copious subject of 
Sradha. Its ceremonies are highly important, in a 
priestly view feasting being essential. For al- 
though the clergy, with whom we westerns associate 
in these intellectual days, care as little about the 
vulgar operations of eating and drinking as their 
neighbours ; the creature-comforts were conspicu- 
ously prominent in the sacerdotal doings of early 
days, throughout the uncivilized world : and, indeed, 
are still too much so in a less restricted purview. 
An allusion to the Hindu ceremony of Sradha oc- 
curs in p. 179 preceding. This custom of feasting at 
funerals existed in the days of HOMER, and still 
exists in nations descended from the Kelts includ- 
ing Ireland, Scotland, England, &c. ; and, like the 
Hindu months'-minds, &c. are not out of usage. 
Dr. CLARKE decides the custom to be of much 
earlier date than any thing purely Grecian ; and 
asks, "whence the custom originated?" May we 
not answer, from India where it still exists in all 
its masticatory vigour ; under, as far as I can com- 



IN GREECE. 279 

pare them, the same ceremonials which the learned 
traveller describes to have been in old times so ex- 
tensively existing elsewhere. 

" PLUTARCH believed (THEMIST. 87) that the 
fabled contest between NEPTUNE and MINERVA 
for Attica, was an allusion to the efforts made by the 
ancient kings of the country to withdraw their sub- 
jects from a seafaring life towards agricultural occu- 
pations.'' 765 " the fables transmitted from one 
generation to another concerning the contests be- 
tween NEPTUNE and JUNO for the country, as be- 
tween NEPTUNE and MINERVA for the name, of 
Jttica, may be regarded as so many records of 
those physical revolutions which gave birth to those 
fertile regions ; when the waters of the sea slowly 
retired from the land ; or, according to the language 
of poetry and fable, were said to have reluctantly 
abandoned the plains of Greece." 1 684. 

" Near Eleusis are two streams of salt water, 
called Rheti by PAUSANIAS." 779. A Hindu poet 
would have called these Rheti-khond bitter tears 
flowing from the faithful RHETI, mourning her seve- 
rance from her KAMA. Several Koonda or pools 
in India have such origin, of which something may 
be said hereafter. Possibly something of the same 
sort might be traced in the fables of Greece ; for 

1 These passages are extracted here, as being in regular 
continuation of what we have to take from Dr. CLARKE. It 
is intended, in a future page, to refer to them, and to oifer 
parallel poetical legends, and geographical facts, in Hindu 
regions. This applies partly also to the next passage, and 
to several following pages. 



280 SANSKRIT NAMES 

there is a good deal of mysticism connected with the 
spot and its history, beyond its mere contiguity to 
that grand magazine, Eleusis. But it is curious that 
CUPID, the same with the Hindu KAMA, is not 
once mentioned by HOMER, though so many oc- 
casions invited it. Nor and this is curious too is 
his twin-brother KAMA mentioned in the older of 
the Hindu sacred or poetical authors. The popular 
CUPID and KAMA seem creations of a later day. 
Neither does HESIOD mention CUPID. A few re- 
marks on these, and other important omissions, may 
occupy a future page. 

In continuation of what I have to offer from 
Dr. CLARKE'S instructive volumes, and on such 
passages, we turn to the famed obelisk of ON at 
Heliopolis " the only great work of antiquity now 
remaining in all the land ofGoshen." On this pillar 
are seen many hieroglyphics ; unknown, as regards 
Egyptian and Grecian research, but which are still in 
current repute and usage in India, where their 
meanings or allusions are pretended to be under- 
stood. Among such are these <3> y S, A 
and perhaps *. These figures are given, to suit a 
future, as well as the present, purpose, in PL v. of 
this Vol. wherein they are thus distinguished 
Nos. 5. 6. 10. 14. of the marginal line F 1 of line 
G, and 12 of line A. 1 

1 Please to observe, that, where not otherwise indicated, 
PI. v. is to be understood as referred to in these pages, 
though, in avoidance of repetition, not expressed. Where 
the line A, or B, or C, &c. are not expressed, the line last 



IN GREECE. 28l 

I will first touch, and afterwards descant more 
largely, on that last given and referred to A. 12. 
This, I must confess, I do not at this moment recog- 
nize so pointedly as a Hindu symbol, as, from its 
extensive prevalence among other ancient people, I 
had expected. Besides the above, the obelisk of ON 
bears other things, such as circles, crescents, ser- 
pents, a goose, 8cc Hinduisms that I shall not stop 
to notice farther. 

The first of the above <> F. 5, 6. is common in 
several forms and positions, on both Egyptian and 
Hindu monuments and subjects. Among the several 
scores of " Sectarial marks or symbols" given in the 
2d PI. of the Hin. Pan. is this, variously diversified 
as it is also in 4 to 8 of line F of PL v. before 
us. It marks perhaps lunar phases, and other mat- 
ters referring to the sol-lunar pair KALA and KALI, 
whose emblems or symbols cross our eye and path, 
turn them whithersoever we may. 

Of triple hieroglyphics there is no end. *f on the 
obelisk of ON, F 10, may in Egypt be supposed the 
triple leaf of the lotos ; as it may also in India : for 
that lovely and triple-tinted 1 plant is equally the 

expressed is to be understood. Reference to the lines A, B, 
C, &c. is in upright capitals to figures A,B,C, &c. in 
sloping capitals. 

1 In India, loti are white, blue, and red ; for which mys- 
tical variety many beautifully poetical legends exist ; some 
of them, like the origin of the crimson rose of VENUS, not 
to be explained 

" Trickling from that delicious wound, 
Three crimson drops bedew'd the ground." 

JOH. SEC. Bast 



282 SANSKRIT NAMES 

subject of poets and mythologians of either country. 
With both, one in three, and three in one, are alike 

KAMA is fabled to have been first seen floating down the 
Ganges, on a lotos leaf. The Kamalata is a delicious flower, by 
whose rosy blossoms the heaven of INDRA is perfumed. It is 
the Ipomaa. It means the " granter of desire" " the con- 
summator of wishes' 7 and is trivially called " Love's- 
creeper." 

The fable of the white lotos of the N. of India having been 
dyed red (the red lotos is not seen in the S.) by a drop of 
SIVA'S blood, which fell from heaven when that ardent, an- 
gry deity was wounded by KAMA, is another of the Puranic 
legends alluded to. SIVA, by a scintillation from his central 
eye, reduced to ashes, or rather to an incorporeal essence, the 
mischievous archer : referring, as is said, to the progressive 
purification of the passion ; from grossness to refinement. 
KAMA, a name implying passion or desire, is hence called 
ANANGA, the bodyless or incorporeal. SHAKSPEARE could 
not have heard of these KAMA-JC fables; and yet we read of 
them in his incomparable extravaganza the Midsummer-Night's 
Dream OBERON'S beautiful speech to PUCK so complimen- 
tary to " the fair vestal throned by the west/' at whom the 
western KAMA took his aim, 

*' And loosed his love-shaft smartly from his bow, 

As it should pierce a hundred thousand hearts" 
is too long to quote ; 

" Yet mark'd I where the bolt of CUPID fell: 

It fell upon a little western flower, 

Before milk-white, now purple with love's wound. 

Fetch me that flower 

and be thoti here again, 

Ere the Leviathan can swim a league. 

But who comes here? I am invisible." 
What a pretty little volume one might fill with Kamaiana ! 
the sayings and doings, the aims and ends, of "Him of the 
flowery bow who lovest RETI who springs from the heart 
of him, by whom BRAHMA, VISHNU, SIVA, INDRA, are filled 



IN GREECE. 283 

favorite mysticisms. In India it is moreover a mys- 
tical compound, of which is the fount, or unity, 
and is the \Oni. See fig. A not line A of PL v. 
The triune type is in Sanskrit styled tr\Oni a mys- 
tical triunity (read the i as in Italian) of which, 
and its fount, and the pedma, or lotos, and the god- 
dess PEUMA, legends and fables, and mysteries, so 
abound, that a volume like this might soon be filled 
therewith. KAMA LA and PEDMA are goddesses 
named after the gem of beauty, the lotos ; and in a 
hundred ways bear allusion to it. Possibly the 
" triple leaf" of the poetical shamrock, and other 
trifolia of Britain (in Sanskrit trifola) may be 
hither, or hence, traced. If I have space to allow 
of much dilatation, this topic must be resumed here 
just noting that St. PATRICK, in his conversion 
of the Emeralders, illustrated his doctrine by 
exhibiting the one-stalked-triple-leafed shamrock. 
With that lively people such an illustration was more 
likely to make an impression, than more recondite 
logic. 

Of the next, 14 of line F, from the OJV-ian obelisk, 
I may almost say the same, as to Brahmanic copious- 
ness a volume might be filled with its details. 
It is a Linga Q in an Argha ^=* surmounted by 
sol lunarian, or Kalic, or bisexual symbols W O 
or vo>. To show its immediate Hinduism, its 

with rapture" as is at some length detailed in the con- 
clusion of the Hin. Pan. It is in India that 

" Every flower has some romantic tale 
Linked with its sweetness/' 



284 SANSKRIT NAMES 

next No., 15 of F, is a rude representation or type of 
the rudely shaped JAG ANATH, taken from VoL vm. 
of Asiatic Researches, p. 62, 8vo ed. I have several 
plaster figures now before me of JAG ANATH, made 
on the spot, at Puri, which in their outline exhibit 
at a little distance a form like 15 of F. 

This Q obeliscal form is, equally with the pyra- 
midal A, SIVA or KALA. Every thing obeliscal 
or pyramidal, or spiracular, or erect, as I too often 
have occasion to repeat, are his emblems or is HE, 
or NAT'H. NAT'HA in an Argha, or boat-shaped 
vessel, form a combination of vast profundity. As 
given above from the obelisk of ON, and in PI. v. 
14, 15 of F, the component parts, or elementals, are 
*=? Q w O deep, in their separate potencies 
wonderful in their combination. Ill would one vo- 
lume serve to develope and explain them. One hint 
here may suffice. In this ARGHANAT'HA, or " Lord 
of the boat-shaped vessel" NAT'HA is a generic 
name for lord or deity have been recognized the 
name and origin of all that has been said and sung 
of the Arga-naiit-\c, expedition to Colchis (that is, 
say some, Kalki) and all that thereon hinge, of 
mythology, chronology, history, fable, and fact. 
To these a page or two is devoted in the /////. 
Pan. A simple type of the Hindu ARGANAT'HA 
may be thus given J^ a linga in an argha 
the one a boat ; the linga the mast inverted "p 
varied ^f the trisula of KALA, the Hindu NEP- 
TUNE combined ft the caduceus of MERCURY or 
TAUT, whose symbol or initial is T, little else than 
another form of T? the inverted argha- linga. The 



IN GREECE. 285 

eye cast over the low and high numbers of line A, 
and along line B, will discern into what a variety of 
compounds each fertile in historical allusions such 
elementals branch. Farther including, among others, 
several of lines E and F if not, in fact, every sub- 
ject of our copious Plate v. so intermingled and 
comprehensive are mythological mysteria. 

This beautiful monolithal obelisk of ON or, as 
some may think, of OM rears itself, about 65 feet, 
out of a vast sheet of water. " So stood the column 
which adorns the world" when Dr. CLARKE saw 
it. His plate in Vol. v. p. 143, 8vo edit. is the 
only one before me of this fine subject. NORDEN, 
and SHAW, have engraved it, but inaccurately. 
Now SIVA obeliscal SIVA, being Fire, and VISHNU 
Water here is another copious volume-filling source 
and series of allusion and profundity here are the 
elementals of all that your Plutonists and Vulcanists 
have written or fancied. The sea or any expanse 
of water, is an argha and NAT' HA erect in it, 
is J,. Or here is pj/r-amidal fire A it always 
assumes that ascending form and the descending 
aqueous element ^7, or VISHNU in combination, 
or union, or junction, X- Union, or junction, or 
sangam, are with Hindus most mysterious : of these 
lingi, profoundly so : and so widely, as to have 
reached, through Egypt, G reece, and Rome, to Eng- 
land; where this, among our sapient Freemasons, 
& is "the Light shining in darkness and the 
darkness comprehendeth it not." 

What I offer here is intended as introductory to 
my proposed explanations of Plate v. Meanwhile I 



286 SANSKRIT NAMES 

cannot help interpolating the remark, that if almost 
every one of the hundred, and upwards, of subjects 
therein crowded, would, in itself, furnish matter for 
half a volume of, not I think unprofitable, discussion, 
is it not (or is it ?) to be regretted that such subjects 
should not be elucidated while yet they may, by 
examination and exact copies of what still remain of 
antiquity in Egypt and India? Such things must be 
historical. They carry us back to the time, not 
merely of the Arghanat'h-\c expedition, but to the 
times and places of the PHARAOHS, the predecessors 
of SOLOMON to the days of JOSEPH, of MOSES, 
and ABRAHAM to the sayings and doings, and 
thoughts and feelings, of those who 

" hob-a-nob'd with PHARAOH glass to glass 

Or dropp'd a half-penny in HOMER'S hat 
Or doffd their own, to let Queen DIDO pass." 

Such "imperishable types of evanescence " should 
not be allowed any longer to " play dummy." The 
necessity is ceasing, if it have not ceased. 

If, happily, the munificent and really noble 1 Lord 
who has lately and laudably devoted so much time, 
talent, and wealth, to the illustration of Mexican an- 
tiquities, had directed them to the developement of 
those of India and Egypt, what a rich return might 
they have yielded ! Can the things of Mexico yield 
much ? Whatever one may wish, one may allowably 
fear not. And it may also be feared that no other 
such laudable direction of the abundance of those 
" who stand high," may be witnessed in our time. 

1 KINGSBOROUGH, it is understood albeit his name is 
not given in his magnificent work. 



IN GREECE. , 287 

If comparatively barren, Mexico hath yielded matter 
for some hundreds of plates and seven volumes 
" Kraken folio," what may be done with the 
truly fertile regions of Egypt and India? Cer- 
tainly much beyond the reach of individuals to 
collect or produce. National efforts would be well 
directed to the conservation by the pencil, graver, 
and pen, of what yet remain. What masses have 
perished ! If France and England would unite in 
such an amicable exploration of those inviting fields; 
or separately send the successors of their DEMONS, 
CHAMPOLLJONS, YOUNGS, CLARKES, and other 
lost worthies; what rich harvests might yet be reaped! 
We have already discovered a key ^, at least, to 
the hieroglyphics of Egypt and therefore, if not to 
all, to much of '' the learning of the Egyptians;" 
and possess still more of the means for the exhibi- 
tion of all that India has in reserve. 

To return, briefly, to the beautiful obelisk of ON, 
or O'M, or of the Sun or of t( that still greater 
LIGHT" as its pious authors probably intended : It 
is said there were formerly three, and that two 
of them were removed to Rome. They stood before 
the vestibule of the grand temple, called in Scripture 
" Bethshemesh, that is in the land of Egypt," JER. 
xliii. 13 ; rendered by the LXXII 'HAiouTroXswj, the 
city of the Sun, as is also the name of OJY. " And 
PHARAOH gave JOSEPH to wife ASENATH, the 
daughter of POTIPHERAH, priest of ON." Gen. xli. 
45. Asi-nath is Sanskrit as well as Hebrew. Of 

POTIPHERA, 1 Or POTIPHAR, Or PHRE, Or <POPEI, 

1 In Sanskrit Pati-phera ? 



288 SANSKRIT NAMES 

slight mention is made in a recent page, 208. 
And, as touching Beth-shemes, it is rather the house 
or temph, than the city of the Sun ttfDttf/V3, in the 

original text so in Arabic ^viJ) ^H^ or o*v^ 
Some travellers write this solar termination schemps 
and shemps : but whether it be ^^ or (j~>*& shemsh 
or shems, there is no authority in either Hebrew or 
Arabic for the p; and with us the c is worse than 
useless. 

Hereabout also was the famed well of 

Matarea, with which history and superstition have 
been closely connected. The latter relates, in the 
Hindu style, how, in the flight to Egypt, the Virgin 
here thirsted and rested ; and out sprung the grate- 
ful fluid. The modern Egyptians call it, as of old, 
"the fountain of the Sun" of " that greater 
LIGHT," perhaps ain shems ^j^^ \^uf-^ They 
gather much, even now, from the resort hither 
of pious Christian pilgrims. The water of this 
healing fount is described as miraculously delicious 
as well as salubrious. " Faith dear faith" will 
alter the operation even of the senses. Here is still 
shown a sycamore tree, which opened to receive and 
secrete the holy fugitives from the persecution of 
HEROD. 

I have prepared an article a Fragment on 
Holy Wells, Cleft Trees, and similar superstitions, 
still extant, and of old existing, in India and Eng- 
land, and hope to find room for it ; and that it will 
be somewhat curious. It could easily be expanded 
to a volume. But let us return to the 1-ON-I-an 
obelisk. 



IN GREECE. 289 

This figure -f we have seen is on it. A circle, in 
every mythological language, is a symbol of eternity 
and hence of The ETERNAL having equally no 
beginning nor end, See profundities. And the 
cross, in various forms, was a mystical figure long 
anterior to Christianity, in many and distant parts of 
the world ; of which some instances will be given : 
see, meanwhile, jig. D (not line D) of PL v. We 
may hence see why a monogram, comprehending 
both, should be venerated by many and distant 
inythologers and polytheists. 

The speculations on the crux ansata connect 
themselves closely with this compound ; whether 
in the form of ^ or of ^, or s f, or perhaps of J or 
^. Kind reader, please to open the doubled 
Plate v. and cast your eye along the upper line A. 
It contains a variety of those forms, deduced from 
their supposed elements in the early Nos. of that 
line. In an earlier page, 133, we have seen No. 8. 
J, the globe and cross of our Coronation ceremo- 
nies, in which the A Linga, also 3 of G has been 
recognized, though less pointedly. 

Isis has declared that she " is all that was, or is, 
or will be and that her veil no mortal had been 
able to remove." She is not so positively prophetic. 
The inquisitive ingenuity of our day threatens her 
with exposure. The farther light that may be 
thrown on her darkened mysteries by the (smoking, 
but scarcely) living torch of Hindu mythology, pro- 
mises much. This conceit is dimly prefigured in 
our Frontispiece. 

In Volume V. 8vo. ed. of that most accomplished 
2 B 



290 SANSKRIT NAMES 

of travellers, Dr. CLARKE, are many ingenious spe- 
culations on the obelisk of ON his own and com- 
piled. A few of them, as bearing on what I have 
here and elsewhere to offer on some of its charac- 
ters, I will now notice, as briefly as I may. 

JAMBLICHUS thinks the crux ansatavtas the name 
of the Divine Being. J SOZOMEN, and other Chris- 
tian writers, conceive the whole figure, or at least 
the cross, to be expressive of (< the life to come " 
deriving this opinion from the explanation given of 
it by heathen converts who understood the hierogly- 
phics. Sometimes it is represented by a cross 
fastened to a circle J sometimes with the letter T 
surmounted by a circle *j*. By the circle, says 
KIRCHER, is to be understood the Creator and Pre- 
server of the world ; as the wisdom derived from 
Him which directs and governs it, is signified by the 
+ T, the monogram, as he farther considers, of MER- 
CURY, TROTH, or <>T, Ptha. " It is very extraordi- 
nary," says SHAW, who has collected almost every 
information on this subject, " that this crux ansata 
should be so often seen in their symbolical writings, 
either alone or held in the hands, or suspended over 
the necks, of their deities. Beetles, and such other 
sacred animals and symbols, as were bored through, 
and intended for amulets, had this figure impressed 
on them.'' SHAW farther considers it to be the 
same with the " Ineffable image of Eternity" men- 
tioned by SUIDAS. 

JABLONSKI deemed this figure, the cr. an. "nihil 

1 I do not refer to the passages in avoidance of the appa- 
rent affectation of unpossessed erudition an appearance not 
always avoidable. 



IN GREECE. 291 

aliud esse quam phallum," &c. The women of 
Naples wear an ear-pendant of an equivocal shape 
and name, 1 bearing allusion to a key. And the 
original of this much-discussed type is supposed to 
have been a key in the shape of a cross or T. But 
why should such equivocal allusions be attached to 
it? ATHENJEUS has an observation where the T is 
deemed obscene. A key of this shape, fastened, or 
appended conveniently, to a ring ^ and such is 
found on ancient and modern subjects might seem 
to form a reasonable origin. The more simple form 

might be still more convenient for a key ; and it 
does appear oftenest in the hands of Egyptian sta- 
tues, and among their hieroglyphics. 

Dr. C. reasonably considers that every Egyptian 
monogram had its archetype in some animal, or in- 
strument in common use, 2 and that the original of 
the crux ansata was a key. Hence, he thinks, the 

1 The shape may pass the name chi-avare is a metaphori- 
cal verb in their language. The initial hard gives our hey. 
The commonest name in India of a key is chavg, the initial 
sound soft. 

2 Thus the Bishop of CLOGHER : " As to the crux ansata, 
which hath so puzzled the learned world, &c., it is no more 
than a setting-stick for planting roots and large seeds. " Or. of 
Hierogl. And thus was I, while pondering on these matters, 
amused by seeing in the hands of the conservators of the c ity 
of London, vulgarly called Turncocks, an implement almost 
exactly resembling this classical concern of antiquity. It is 
the most convenient form that the tool can assume in the 
hand of that class of men, in their round of daily exercise, on 
the banks of the Thames, of their useful occupation. And so 



292 SANSKRIT NAMES 

allegorical allusions to a key in our Scriptures : 
referring to a future state of existence. 

But if a key be in itself a plain useful thing, as is 
hinted in the last note, it may, in its variety of forms, 
and in the vagueness and figurativeness of language, 
and in the proneness of unassisted man to find mys- 
teries and admire them as profundities, easily be- 
come a mythos : and if it assume the form of a cross, 
such is almost a necessary sequence. It is well 
known that the supposed mystery of the Cross is not 
merely modem. Its frequent recurrence among the 
hieroglyphics of Egypt excited the early curiosity of 
Christians. Converted heathens explained, as has 
been hinted, that it signified " the Life to come/' 
In connexion with the O itself a profundity 
among both heathens and Christians (see p. 257. 
preceding) we find it the crux ansata, ^. This, 
as we have seen, KIR CHER says is a monogram of 
4>T, PTHA, or MERCURY, "the conductor of souls" 
referring immediately to " a state of existence after 
death," or "the life to come." 

We have seen in an earlier page 229 what use a 
superstitious race can make of texts of Scripture, in 



it was, probably, in the hand of an equally useful class, who 
had charge of the N Hornet ers, and other matters connected 
with the rise and distribution of the waters of Egypt- Our 
turncocks call their tool a key ; and so, perhaps, did the turn- 
cocks of the banks of the Nile,kc. One of ours lost, and dug 
up finely incrustated, two hundred years hence, may sadly 
puzzle the antiquarians of the day of discovery. 



IN GREECE. 293 

the explication of a figurative key. That of ISAIAH, 
xxii. 22, " The key of the house of DAVID will I lay 
upon his shoulder," admits also of perversion. In 
Rev. xx. I. an angel bears the "key of the bottom- 
less pit," which the perverters of MATT. xvi. 19. 
give to their pontifical PETER. In the sublime 
prophecy of the second Advent of the MESSIAH "the 
keys of hell and death" are displayed, Rev. i. 18. 

" From the time of RUFFIUS, of SOCRATES, and 
of SOZOMEN," Dr. C. continues, "this triple hie- 
roglyphic, the crux ansata, has occasionally exercised 
the ingenuity of the most learned scholars. The 
jewel of the Royal Arch among Freemasons, is ex- 
pressed in this manner j a sign consisting of 
three ta us joined by their feet at right angles, thus 
completing the monogram of THOTH, or TAAUT, the 
symbolical and mystical name of hidden wisdom, and 
of the Supreme Being, among the ancient Egyp- 
tians ; the &EOS of the Greeks. ' Numen illud '- 
says JABLONSKI (Pan. Mgypt. iii. 170) ' erat ipse 
PHTHAS, VULCAN us ^Egyptiorum, Spiritus Infini- 
tus, Rerum OMNIUM CREATOR et CONSERVATOR, 
ipsorumque Deorum pater ac princeps.' " It is 
amusing," Dr. C. continues, "to trace the various 
modifications in which this type of hidden wisdom 
is expressed. Sometimes as the sun in the lower 
hemisphere (see JABL. i. 235.) it appears in hiero- 
glyphics under this sign V. At other times it 
was written thus : and hence we plainly 1 see 

1 It may be allowed to Dr. C., in his just confidence in his* 
own powers, to write thus in this passage and in that quoted 



294 SANSKRIT NAMES 

what is meant by an ancient patera with a knob in 
the bottom of it. The other principal varieties were 
*f- T + fj< A. Upon Greek medals we find 
the last monogram written thus, "p." 

As bearing on the subject of some preceding, and 
probably on some future, pages of this book, I must 
indulge here in another extract from Dr. CLARKE'S 
instructive Travels. In the Appendix to his 3rd Vol. 
4to ed., remarking on the discovery by Colonel 
CAPPER of the existence of ancient pagan super- 
stitions on Mount Libanus, he notices " the numerous 
instances of popular pagan superstitions retained in 
the Greek and Roman churches; and as in our re- 
formed religion a part of the Liturgy of the Romish 
Church has been preserved, so it may be said that 
certain external forms, and even of the prayers in 
use among the heathen, are still retained. 7 ' 808. u A 
Roman Catholic prostrating himself before a wooden 
crucifix, or a member of the Greek Church making 
the sign of the cross, will not readily admit that the 
figure of a cross was used as a symbol of resurrection 
from the dead long before the sufferings of our 
SAVIOUR." Ib. Dr. C. quotes and refers to autho- 
rities in respect to the vilifying comparison of the 
"death and resurrection of our SAVIOUR with the 
annual lamentations for the loss, and joy for the 

in another page ; but it would be unbecoming in me. In truth, 
although such cryptic matters may seem plain in the zeal of 
inquiry and investigation, cooler readers may be disposed to 
doubt of their plainness and clearness. Even after all the 
pains bestowed on their elucidation, I fear the meed of 
plainness may be still withheld; 



IN GREECE. 295 

supposed resuscitation, of ADONIS: which latter, 
although afterwards the foundation of detestable and 
degrading superstition, originally typified nothing 
more than the vicissitude of winter and summer 
(MACROB. Saturn, lib. i. c. 21.) the seeming death 
and revival of nature ; whence a doubtful hope was 
occasionally excited of the soul's existence in a future 
state." 

" This expectation so naturally results from the 
contemplation of such phenomena, that traces of it 
may be discovered among the most barbarous nations. 
Some glimmering therefore of a brighter Light, which 
was afterwards fully manifested by the GOSPEL, 
must naturally have occasioned indistinct traces of 
similitude between the heathen mythology and the 
Christian dispensation. It was owing to such coin- 
cidence that St. PAUL proclaimed to the Athenians, 
" That GOD, whom ye ignorantly worship, HIM de- 
clare I unto you." In viewing these occasional re- 
semblances, whether or not we be permitted to in- 
vestigate their causes, the fact of their existence is 
indisputable. No one duly considering the solemni- 
ties observed at Easter by the ancient Saxons prior 
to the introduction of Christianity, or viewing at this 
day the ceremony of the Greek Church, particularly 
that of Moscow, when the priests, as described in 
Vol. i. of the author's Travels, are occupied in 
searching for the body of the MESSIAH, previous to 
a declaration which ushers in the festivities of a 
whole empire, but must call to mind the circumstance 
related by GREGORY NAZIANZEN, of the manner 
in which pagan rites were made subservient to the 



296 SANSKRIT NAMES 

advancement of the Christian faith (Orat. de Vit& 
GREG. THAUM. in. 574.) as well as the remarka- 
ble fact (vid. JUL. FIRM ic. de Err. Prof. Relig.) 
that on a certain night in the same season of the 
year the heathens similarly laid an image in their 
temples; and after numbering their lamentations ac- 
cording to the beads upon a string, thus ended the ap- 
pointed days of privation and sorrow ; that then light 
was brought in, and the high-priest delivered an expres- 
sion, similar in its import, of resuscitation, and de- 
liverance from grief. In tracing such resemblances, 
the celebrated MIDDLETON, writing from Rome, 
observes, "We see the people worshipping at this 
day, in the same temples, at the same altars some- 
times the same images, and always with the same 
ceremonies as the old Romans." 1 810. 



1 In connexion with the preceding extract, it may be noted 
that our Candlemas has much puzzled western antiquaries 
Our Church is, indeed, happily purified of such superstitions 
as have been just mentioned: tracing them back, we stumble 
on Popes blessing the candles with which the pious illume 
certain ceremonies, adverting, they say, to " a Light to 
lighten the Gentiles:" we find certain similar lustrations, 
and other points in common with them and their predecessors, 
that may be compared without irreverence. Farther back we 
arrive at striking coincidences in the seekings of PROSER- 
PINE for her lost daughter CERES, and in those mysteries 
may fancy the source of such modern observances. But we 
may go still farther from Greece, as usual, to Egypt and 
India. Hindus have ceremonial lights, and losses and seek- 
ings, though I cannot describe them particularly, marking a 
community of legend. Lights were, indeed, and are, com- 
mon to many ancient and existing ceremonies of people, 



IN GREECE. 297 

In page 97, 98 preceding, are a quotation and 
some remarks and references connected with As- 
TAROTH, ASTARTE, EOSTRE Easter, See., with 
which the following is immediately connected, and 
from which it seems to have been disjoined. 

" Nothing," continues Dr. C., " tends more to 
elucidate and simplify heathen mythology than con- 
stantly bearing in recollection the identity of all 
those pagan idols which were distinguished by the 
several names of ASTARTE, ASTAROTH, ASHTA- 

ROTH, ASTHOREH, AsTARA, ^EsTAR. To which 

may be added other less familiar appellations of the 
same Phoenician goddess, viz. : ATERGATIS, JUNO, 
Isis, HECATE, PROSERPINE, CERES, DIANA, 
EUROPA (Cic. de Nat. Deor. lib. iii.) VENUS, 
URANIA, DERCETIS (OviD, Met. lib. iv.) and 
LUNA. The Arabians call her ALILAT, and still 
preserve their Aliluia. Among the Chaldeans she 
was called MILITTA. It was from the Phoenicians 
and Canaanites that the Israelites learned this wor- 
ship. " The children gathered wood, and the fa- 
thers kindled the fire, and the women their dough, 
to make cakes to the queen of heaven." JEREMIAH, 

whose religion was, or is, chiefly ceremonial. Such are still 
found in considerable variety in India. The Chinese burn 
holy tapers before, and on, several of their deities and altars ; 
and one of their great festivals is that of Lanthorns. 

BRAND (Pop. Ant. pref.) says that " Papal Rome has bor- 
rowed her rites, notions and ceremonies from ancient Home 
the greater number of the flaunting externals which Infalli- 
bility has adopted as feathers to adorn the triple cap, have 
been stolen out of the wings of the dying eagle." 



298 SANSKRIT NAMES 

vii. 8. The Canaanites and Phoenicians called the 

moon ASHTEROTH, ASTARTE, BAALTIS. LuCIAN 

expressly says that ASTARTE, that is to say the 
VENUS of Libanus, or queen of heaven, was the 
Moon : and HERODOTUS, lib. v., calls ASTARTE, 
ASTROARKI, 'AvrgoagxYi ; as it is said by HERO- 
DIAN that the Carthaginians did ; who affirmed her 
to be the same with the Moon. This deity was wor- 
shipped by the Philistines in the shape of a fish. 
LUCIAN (Dea Syria) saw the image in Phoenicia, 
the upper part resembling a woman, the lower a 
fish. And to this HORACE has been supposed to 
allude in the following line : 

*' Desinit in piscem mulier formosa superne." 

A comment on the preceding extract would lead 
us into the depths of Hindu mythology. PARVATI, 
under her various names and characters, might be 
traced throughout. But I will here add only one 
coincident observation that as in a corresponding 
tripartite character we find the same many-named 
Grecian goddess, DIANA on earth, LUNA in heaven, 
and PROSERPINE in hell, so we find the same 
myrionomous goddess of India, in those several re- 
gions, appropriately named BHUDEVI, SWER-DEVJ, 
and PAT ALA-DEVI goddess of Earth, of Heaven, 
of Hell. HECATE or DIANA triformis, is own sister 
to a Hindu trimurti of exactly the same triple, 
tergeminaic, meaning. EUSEBIUS makes HECATE 
gpeak thus : " I am called three-fold in my nature 
my symbols are three I bear three similitudes 
Earth, Air, Fire." A Brahman would make, and 



IN GREECE. 299 

many have made, DEVI speak exactly so the 
mysterious trisyllabic vocable, Bhur-bhuva-swer , 
may be called identical with the similitudes of the 
triple HECATE of EUSEBIUS. 

I shall here take occasion to notice that the re- 
verential appellative of deva, in Southern India pro- 
nounced deOj in strictness meaning a deity or divine 
person, is not always so restricted. In another 
place (Asiatic Researches, \u.art.\4.) I have shown 
how that appellation is given to a living person. 
He, it is true, is called " the hereditary living 
deity ;" and is considered such, as being an incar- 
nation of GANESA. When I visited him in 1800, in 
company with my noble friends, Marshal Lord BE- 
RESFORD and Lord GEORGE BERESFORD, the 
incarnation was in the person of GABAJI deva (or 
deo, as the Mahrattas currently and vulgarly call 
him) but all his sons bore also the final patro- 
nymic. So on Greek monuments the equivalent 
AIO2 is given to mere mortals ; and DIVVS on 
Roman. 

How closely cognate therefore seem the Sanskrit, 
Greek, and Roman terms, in sound and sense Deva, 
Deo, Dea, Aio$, 6505, Divus, Devi, Deus, &c. I sus- 
pect that a scholar might discover mysteries in the 
form of and 0, as well as in the and T and fl, 
among the wildnesses of Hindu fable of which some- 
thing is intended to be offered explanatory of PL v. 
The is the junction of two cones, or Lingi : se* 
parately an emblem of SIVA, the deity of death; 
joined, the hieroglyphic of his dark consort (j the 
\Oni. With the Greeks the is seen singly where a 



300 SANSKRIT NAMES 

sense of death is meant to be indicated : the initial 
of 0#vci/. 

If Dr. CLARKE 1 were to turn his well-stored 
mind to a consideration of Hindu literature, in- 
cluding, of course, their mythology for in that 
cumbrous garb half their literature is disguised, and 
to which more than half their poetical allusions tend 
including also the mythi fancied to exist in the 
Sanskrit alphabet, and in numbers comparing them 
with similar mysticisms that would occur to him 
among the Hebrews, ancient Greeks, and Chris- 
tians, he would elicit many striking coincidences 
curious and interesting to those who amuse them- 
selves in such innocent, and not useless, recreations. 

We may be assured that not one Egyptian or 
Hindu hieroglyphic, or sectarial mark or symbol 
be it ever so complicated or monstrous was without 
its meaning or allusion historical, mythological, 
religious or in some bearing or other. Not even 
a line or a dot simple or compound straight or 
wavy was meaningless. The position was also of 
import. And if any important truths or matters be 
cut or written, in such wise, on such stones, metals, 
papyri and, who would laboriously so cut subjects 
of no moment ? they surely deserve developement. 

1 This passage, and most of what precedes and follows on 
this immediate topic, was written soon after the appearance 
of the volumes of this amiable and accomplished traveller. 
It does not, alas! now apply to him. I esteemed his loss 
to his University and not, of course, so restricted the 
greatest it has sustained within niy knowlege and recol- 
lection. 



IN GREECE. 301 

The meanings, if dead in Egypt, live in India. 
May we not hence marvel at the indifference shown 
at the attempts to unravel the tangled clue of 
Hindu mythology ? the mythology, or religion mo- 
dified, of half, or more, of the whole world. 

I have a few I hope but a few lines to add on 
another subject, that will, I think, on investigation, 
prove common to Egyptian and Hindu hieroglyphics 
the Hieralpha. It assumes this form ^ : and 
appears to be compounded of the mysterious Greek 
letters A A A. This curious monogram PLUTARCH, 
KIR CHER, and others, think alludes to the initials 
of Agatho~D<zmort. (They do not include the A). 
An Ibis, in a particular attitude, is fancied to be re- 
presented by them. An Ibis-like bird is equally 
sacred with Hindus. As all things pyramidal are, 
with that symbolizing race, emblems of the phle- 
grean SIVA, those letters, probably before they be- 
came Greek on the shores of the Mediterranean, 
were so symbolical on the banks of the Ganges and 
the Nile in the depths and deserts of India and 
Egypt. 

The monogram in question is seen on Egyptian 
monuments held by gods or men, demigods or 
kings. Considering it as Sivaic or Lingaic, a trifling 
elongation of one limb^be it accidental or myste- 
rious will produce it from the ordinary Lingaic 
form. Kind reader, open again the double Plate v, 
and cast your eye along lines D and E, and you 
will see the elements of this monogram, as well as 
the figure itself, in its elongation, and inverted : on 
which, as a Lingaic subject, I will here say no more. 
2c 



302 SANSKRIT NAMES 

But taking it out of that very comprehensive line, 
it may refer to another classification of Hindu le- 
gends. One of the three RAM AS holds a plow, 
shaped like the symbol in question. KIRCHER has 
been ridiculed by some antiquaries for suggesting 
that the subject seen in the hands of Egyptian idols, 
may have been intended for a plow ; while they ad- 
mit the first Greek letter to be in form like the 
Theban plow. It is not unreasonable to consider 
this useful implement an object of high respect by 
the earliest of cultivators. The introducers of it, in 
the simplicity of their ready devotions, may have 
been deemed gods or demigods ; and to have had it 
dedicated to them, and placed in their hands as a 
suitable sceptre or attribute. We are told that the 
Emperor of China still holds the plow. 

" Ye generous Britons ! venerate the plow !" 

sings THOMSON ; but I fear me that, in this parti- 
cular, your looms, and your keels, and your steam- 
ings, have materially abated such generosity and 
veneration. 

One of the three RAM AS was, it seems, eminently 
agricultural and the plow is his attribute or sceptre. 
In some cases he holds also a domestic implement, 
called musal. It is merely a large pestle for beating 
rice out of its husks. He is hence named MUSALI : 
and HALADHARA, or plow-bearer, and HALAYU- 
DHA, plow-armed. This was BALA-RAMA. See 
PL 51. and p. 194 of HP. for many particulars of 
the three RAM AS. The important implement, hala, 
the plow, borne by the classical figure there repre- 



IN GREECE; 303 

sented and described, is given in miniature, 4 of D. 
I confess it does not much resemble its neighbour the 
Hieralpha. A Linga A, with a limb elongated, will 
assume this form ,/[ : and, slightly varied, these ^V 
in connexion with some of the figures in lines D 
and E -and perhaps it may be thought, if not stri- 
kingly like, not much unlike, the Ramaic plow. 

Orientalists are sufficiently aware of the mighty 
truths hidden in the extravaganzas of the mythologi- 
cal fictions called the Avataras of VISHNU. From 
the Noeic * deluge they regularly trace the progress 
of man to his social and moral re-establishment and 
destiny. Allusions to these descents of the Preser- 
ver, are in perpetual flow from every poetical pen 
and mouth. Their names are " household words." 
Among the Mahrattas they are thus, vulgarly 
enough, pronounced Mutch Kutch Var Nar- 
sing Waman Ram Bud Kal. To assist the 
memory, as it would appear, in the arrangement, 
succession, and character, of these ten uvatara 7 they 
have been metrically strung together in this form 
and the stanzas have been attributed to an Orien- 
talist, the earliest and most eminent of his distin- 
guished class : 

1. The Fish denotes the fatal day 
When earth beneath the waters lay. 

2 The amphibious Turtle marks the time 
When it again the shores could elimb. 

1 In the older printing of our Scriptures, NOAH is called 
NOE. The Hindus have Nu, and MENU, in their arkite 
legends. 



304 SANSKRIT NAMES 

3. The Boar 's an emblem of the god 
Who raised again the mighty clod. 

4. The Lion-King and savage trains 

Now roam the woods or graze the plains., 

5. Next Little Man begins his reign 
O'er earth and sky and watery main. 

6. RAM with the axe, then takes his stand 
Fells the thick forest clears the land ; 

7. RAM with the bow, 'gainst tyrants fights, 
And thus defends the people's rights ; 

8. RAM with the plow, turns up the soil, 
And teaches men for food to toil : 

9. BUDHA for reformation came, 

And formed a sect, well known to fame. 

10. When KALKI mount his milk-white steed, 

Heaven, Earth, and All 1 will then recede. 

The beads of Papacy are also a remnant of 

ancient times. In p. 65 we have seen a Mahomme- 
dan " teller of beads " emphatically pointed at. 
Hindus, and other elders, also used, and use, rosa- 
ries in their devotions ; reminding us of the Aves and 
droppings of the modern Romans. See a very an- 
cient rosary and cross -fig. D of PL v. A sub- 
ject very similar is a Phoanician medal found at Cz- 
tium in Cyprus, given as the vignette in the 4th vol. 
of Dr. CLARKE, 8vo edition. He mentions another 
of Sidon, whereon " a cross 1 is carried by Mi- 

1 Immediately after having been torn from the witch- 
eries of Bahia, of which mention has been made in an earlier 
page 121 we plunged through the great deep into far 
Southern latitudes. I had then read of the enthusiastic 
vision of the companions of VASCO DE GAMA, when he and 
they first saw the glorious constellation of the Southern Cross 
the Crux Australis. I think I had also then read of it in 



IN GREECE. 305 

NERVA in a boat." This would be at once re- 
cognized by a learned Brahman as a specimen of 
Argha-nath ics. 

the beautiful Lnsiad of Mi c RLE. My recollections, and 
feelings recently excited, were still vivid kept so by a 
rosary with an appended cross, given me by the damsel with 
the black eyes at the attractive grates of Bahia. This I idly 
wore next my heart for a long while perhaps years until 
laughed out of it as another piece of torn-foolery. I note 
this to gain an opportunity of saying, that on the first burst 
of that constellation I can recollect that I myself felt a por- 
tion of that enthusiasm ; and was more affected than by any 
other astral spectacle, before or since. Several times in 
after years, gaining and losing sight of that " victorious 
sign " as those years called me again and again round the 
Cabo da Tormentados, as the baffled navigators christened the 
bold promontory more felicitously re-named de Bonne Espt- 
ranee those earlier feelings were less and less vividly awa- 
kened. In those after years, having delighted in such super- 
ficial readings of astronomy as a soldier may indulge in j 
and, in the currency of long voyages, having become an 
amateur in the manipulations of nautical astronomy, one's 
feelings were of course sobered down, and less childish than 
those of very early date. But I can assure you, kind reader, 
that altogether losing sight of the Great Bear and other bo- 
real signs, whose risings and settings have for years been 
the objects of your nightly admiration, shining as they inter- 
tropically shine with a lustre unknown to those fixed far 
North losing these, one by one, as you wend your Southern 
way, and nightly seeing other new,' or half-forgotten, glo- 
rious constellations rise out of old Ocean, are sights almost 
worth wandering so far for. Then turning again round the 
vexed, weather-beaten Cape f northward, your old firmamen- 
tal friends returning to your ravished eye and mind " re- 
visiting the glimpses of your moon " excite deeply enf ia- 
ble, and I think profitable, feelings and reflections. 



306 SANSKRIT NAMES 



I here most respectfully take my leave of 

Dr. CLARKE'S instructive volumes. But one lingers 
in Greece ancient Greece, I mean and I cannot 
yet tear myself from a farther protracted glance over 
the Hindi- Hellenics of that interesting land. I pro- 
ceed to skim my notes on HOBHOUSE'S Journey 
through Albama 9 &c. as farther confirmatory of 
the prevalence of Sanskritisms in those classical 
regions. 

I find so much materiel for the article, " Sanskrit 
Names of Places" in Greece, Africa, Ireland, &c. 
and indeed almost all the world over including 
what I, for want of better, term Kalicisms, Lfttgoi&, 
\Qnics, Sivaics, &c. that I scarcely know how to 
arrange them. Do what I can, I fear my article or 
articles, or Heads of my Fragments, on those topics, 
will not be found very methodical, either in arrange- 
ment or mode of handling. But the poetical nature 
of the extracts from the classical travellers before us 
will, in some measure, I trust, relieve apprehended 
deficiency on my part. Proceed we, then, without 
farther preface, toHoBHOUSE: 

" MalacasiTricala."p. 62. The first name is 
a Sanskrit compound mala, a garland, casi, pure, 
prime, pre-eminent ; a name of Benares. Of Tricala, 
something is said in a former page. " \OaN\na 
Lingon ancient names of mountains, now called 
Sagori; the name also of the city." 160. 161. Here 
are indeed lONI-c and Linga-ic sounds. " Para- 
mithi, a district," in which are places named Aidoni, 
Sulli, Art a, Loru, Fanari, and " Laka, on the top of 
a conical mountain." Sulli is also called Mega and 



IN GREECE. 307 

Kako Sulli. " Below Sulli is Tripa, the cavity." 
Suit or Sula, a tooth or spike, is a name of SIVA 
and TRISULA, from his character of the tridentated 
NEPTUNE. Cavities are sacred to his consort 
TRISULI types of her as goddess of the IO/?t. 
" Ktysaura."I7l. Qu. Kalisura ? a fair Sanskrit 
compound. " There are other villages/' says HOB- 
HOUSE ; " all of them on the top of formidable moun- 
tains." 172. It is in such regions that Siva-ian 
names abound, all the world over. Almost all the 
names given above and almost all, with little or 
no alteration are of that description i. e. Siva-ic, 
Linga-ic or lOm'-c. To continue " Makala, a vil- 
lage on a hill." 199. This, strictly Mahakala, is 
one of the names of SIVA maha meaning the Great. 
" The mountains of Tricala" ib. " Gouria, a village 
near a fruitful region, formerly called Paracheloites." 
201. GOURI and PARA are names of the mountain- 
loving goddess of the \Oni. " Connected with which 
is a mythological allegory of its having been torn 
from the Achelous by HERCULES, and presented by 
him as a nuptial gift to the daughter of O EN BUS." 
202 savouring of the poetical extravaganza of a 
region farther East. " At the mouth of the Aspro is 
port Petala. Port Candeli is in a deep bay to the 
South of the Gulf of Arta." 206. A deep bay 
would, in its form, be deemed a vast Argha; a 
mystical union of the Linga and \Otii. The other 
names I shall not comment on. They are Indianic. 
" The extremities of the mountains of Chalets 
near these was the village of Lycirna, from which 
to Calydon is," &c. " Next to the hills of Chalcis 



308 SANSKRIT NAMES 

were those called Tappiasus. One of these presents 
a very singular appearance. It is a large red rock, 
and is rent from top to bottom with a huge chasm 
into the bowels of the mountain." 210,. Reading 
such passages, one is almost disposed to fancy that 
Mr. HOBHOUSE was traversing the mountains of Ne- 
pal, rather than among those of Albania. The coun- 
try and chasm just described, " a large red rock" 
a Linga type of the only Hindu deity with red 
hair " rent from top to bottom with a huge chasm 
into the bowels of the mountain " a \Oni type of 
his consort are combinations, or unions, precisely 
adapted for Hindu contemplation and enthusiasm. 
On such a red rock, so rent, would such a character 
perform tapas, or austere devotion ; and be called 
not perhaps Tappiasus, as above, but Tapaswi : 
such penance there would be highly efficacious. 
Of Cha/cis and Calydon, or Ka/idun, something 
occurs in an earlier, arid something farther must be 
offered in a future, page. 

" Maina. Mountains of Maina."232. " The 
Mainotes continued the worship of pagan divinities 
500 years after the rest of the Roman Empire had 
embraced Christianity. They were a very savage, 
robbing race. BUONAPARTE is surmised to be a 
descendant of a family of that race, named, like him, 
Katomeros, that early emigrated from Maina to 
Corsica." 231. 233. In India, MEN A or MA HI N A 
is a goddess particularly connected with mountainous 
regions. She is, indeed, the mortal mother of 
PAR VAT i, " the mountain-born." 

The beautiful view given by Mr. (now Sir J. C.) 



IN GREECE. 309 

HOBHOUSE, at p. 246. of "the village of Castri, 
and the Castalian summits of Parnassus," would 
inflame a Sawa of taste and feeling. It is com- 
posed of elevated cones ; exactly in keeping with his 
enthusiastic rage for types. Chasms and rents, too, 
abound cones and caverns Linga and IO/. Par- 
nassus, as it is, I believe, before hinted, may be traced 
to Paranasi and Castalia, to Castali or Casitali 
talj the head or source like Talkaveri, the source 
of the Mysorean river Kaveri. Kasi denotes pre- 
eminence and is thence the name of Benares, 
" first of cities." " The vast range of hills named 
Parnassus for it is not confined to one mountain 
is dedicated to BACCHUS" 251 the Siva of 
Greece: one of SIVA'S names is BAGISA. 

About Thebes, and in other parts of Bceotia, the 
following names occur. But I will first note that in 
p. 267. preceding, it is shown that " Thebes ov Thiva" 
occurs and how easily Thiva may be from SIVA 
and may not Bo-\Otia forcibly, I admit be trace- 
able to Bhu, pronounced exactly like Bo, the earth 
and the oft-recurring vowelic diphthong? If so, here 
is again a conjunction of Linga-ics and \Oni-cs. Bhu- 
tiya, or Bhu'itiya, sounds very Sanskritish ; and is 
likely to be a terrene compound. These are some of 
the names of places about Thebes. " Tanagra " 
Tana, means a town in Southern India ; sometimes 
the garrison or soldiery of a town, or a garrisoned 
town. Graha are the (nine) planetary spheres. 
One sees no reason for such a name but here are 
Sanskrit or Indian words of meaning. Has the 
name of the town a meaning in any other language ? 



310 SANSKRIT NAMES 

It "is situated under a hill called Cerysius." 277. 
Cery is nearly the same as Sri holy, revered ; as 
has been before said. " Aganippe," 1 if written 
Argha-napi, would furnish scope for ingenious con- 
jecture, which I am not able to pursue. " Haliar- 
tiis," I should judge to be of the same parentage as 
Helicon, before mentioned, meaning hill of the sun. 
" Mount Tilphosium " Til and tal with final vow- 
els, are common in Indian names. " Kamari on a 
hill." 282. KAUMARI or KOMARI is a Hindu 
goddess ; immediately of SIVA'S mountain-ranging 
family the wife of his son KARTIKYA. KAUMARI, 
like JUNO, rides a peacock. 

" Tfidouni." Hearing that name, or Triduni, in 
India, I should expect of course to find a triforked, or 
three-peaked, hill. Is the Hellenic Tridouni so ? 
" Carababa Talandios Kanavari Seripoo " 
these names occur of places in the mythological 
region of Bceotia, p. 283, and remind one of Indian 
names of similar sound ; and are significant ; but I 
shall pass them by. Sri-poo is strictly Indianic. 

At Athens we read of a custom still prevalent with 
both Turks and Christians, that reminds us strongly 
of Hindu prejudice and practice. " Towards the 
Areopagus" says HOB HO USE, " is a smooth de- 
scent, which has been worn even and slippery by the 
effect of a singular persuasion among the females of 
Athens of both religions. The married women con- 
ceive that by sliding uncovered down this stone they 



1 I am not sure if this name be correctly placed here, as 
from HOBHOUSE and I have no ready means of examining. 



IN GREECE. 311 

increase the chance of bringing forth male children. 
I myself saw one of them at this exercise, which 
appeared to me not only disagreeable, but rather 
perilous." 315. This is the same feeling and hope, 
and nearly, though not exactly, the same practice, 
that dictates, and is seen in, the Hindu ceremony 
of pradakshna the circumambulation of a conical 
stone Linga or of a tree of a peculiar species and 
character, or of an image, &c. ; and of the transit 
through a cleft rock, on which I purpose an article 
hereafter, of, as I think, and as indeed I have said, 
a curious nature. 

Again A custom still * exists among the Athe- 
nian maidens, desirous to learn their hymeneal fate, 
that reminds us of one similar in India ; but I am 
not sure if from the same desire. On the eve of the 
new moon, Athenian and Hindu girls expose on a 
plate or patera in Athens, patra in India some 
honey, salt, and a cake. The cake, in the shape 
nearly of a ball, is called pinda in India what in 
Greece I know not. It is on a particular spot on the 
banks of the Ili-sus, near the stadium, that this 
ceremony is most efficacious. Query Is it at a 
junction or sangam, or union ? The Greek girls are 
said to mutter some ancient jargon. I should like to 
know the exact words or sounds. They may possi- 
bly be like the jargonics on the uplifted Eleusinian 
veil of the Frontispiece to this volume. Fate or 
destiny is thus propitiated, and a good husband may 

1 1 have neglected to mark whence I have taken this 
Athenian custom. 



312 SANSKRIT NAMES 

result. On that very spot, or the banks of the ILI- 
sus, it is ascertained there once stood a statue of 
VENUS. Thus has a religious observance been 
continued from antiquity, until, as in many other 
instances, it has degenerated into a superstition : 
in this case, perhaps, harmlessly. 

I have in the preceding par. marked the initial 
of the poetical river. ILI is the name of a Hindu 
goddess, with whom are connected various obser- 
vances and superstitions referring to maidenhood. 
In another page I shall endeavour to trace several 
such to ILI-OC sources. 

te This spring still preserves its ancient name of 
Callirhoe." 323. I shall here offer nothing farther 
on this poetical fount, in addition to what has been 
before said. On the above passage in HOBHOUSE'S 
Travels, I find the following note : " The frontis- 
piece to this interesting work described, though 
not referred to, in its 331st page representing 
Grecian subjects would answer nearly as well for 
SIVA and PARVATI, and their attributes. We see 
a serpent, balls, and pyramidal cakes. These a 
Brahman would at once call naga-linga-pinda : of 
which several may be seen in plates 83-4-5-6. of the 
HP. The paterae in the hands of the figures are 
also in character, both in India and Greece, under 
the same name, patera or patra." 

" The Erechtheum was sacred in the eyes of the 
ancient Athenians, and may be still regarded with 
veneration by the modern traveller, as being the spot 
where MINERVA contended with NEPTUNE; and the 
triple building must appear, even to us, in some degree 



IN GREECE. 313 

sanctified by the superstition which believed that 
each portion of the Temple retained some undoubted 
evidence of that memorable event. The heaven- 
descended statue of the protectress of the city was 
religiously preserved in her own fane ; the mark of 
the trident, and the salt fountain from the cleft 
whence the horse issued from the earth, and where 
the murmur of the sea was often to be heard, were 
long pointed out near the altar of NEPTUNE." 
HOB. 347. 

I have fancied that of the current mythological 
fables of Greece, there are few in which so little 
Indian relationship is found as in that of the Nep- 
tunian terraqueous horse. The tridental stroke, and 
the salt-fount-producing-cleft, are sufficiently in uni- 
son with Linga and lOwz-isms. I do not recollect 
any equestrian legend connected with VARUNA, the 
Hindu NEPTUNE; nor with SIVA, who, in some 
other points as well as the tridental, corresponds 
with the Grecian ruler of the waters. A horse is 
never, I think, an attribute of either. A horse's 
bust is, indeed, a common " figure head " on boats. 
The ferry-boat at Poona and at Panderpoor are so 
suited ; and a horse's head is sometimes seen peeping 
over the crowns of the ten-headed tyrant RAVEN A, 
of Ceylon. Why, I do not know. 

The contest for the Protectorate of Athens may be 
variously explained. The wise Athenians are said 
to have determined that the gift or introduction of 
the olive not only so useful but also an emblem of 
peace was preferable to that of the warlike horse. 
For neither in those days, nor in these, was or is that 
2 D 



314 SANSKRIT NAMES 

noble animal made very useful in Eastern regions, 
Neither in Greece nor in India is he yet applied to 
the purposes of agriculture, and rarely to draught 
of any sort. 

A swamp skilfully drained any aqueous diffi- 
culty overcome may have been the prosaic origin 
of these mythological contests. The erection of 
Strasburg Cathedral, in earlier times, might well 
have been so poetically commemorated. It is built 
in water, and its foundations and crypts are still 
submerged. The same may be nearly said of West- 
minster Abbey. Its site was formerly a swamp. 
But the days ofNeptunism, as well as of chivalry, 
are past. To return to HOBHOUSE : 

In p. 356, we read of Kervishia, the ancient 
Ccphisctj at the foot of Mount Pente/icus, and Cat- 
(andri, in the same quarter near Athens. The first 
two are Sanskrit-sounding. Pende/e, as the famed 
marble-producing mount is otherways called, is a 
Sanskrit name ; so is Kalandri. Sepolia and Pa- 
tisia, in the next page, are thither traceable Se-pa/a 
and Patisa, or Vatisa. 

The port of Munichia the Munychian promon- 
tory the villages of Menithi and Keratea, are 
named in p. 364. Deep bays and bold promontories 
are profundities in India concavities and projec- 
tions are Argha and Linga. Thither pious Muni 
resort, as favorable to contemplation ; and such 
places would probably be called Munika or Mumki. 
The other names I shall not notice farther. 

" Two or three brackish rivulets, oozing through 
the sand, which WHEELER and CHANDLER call 



IN GREECE. 315 

the Rheti, or salt streams, consecrated to CERES 
and PROSERPINE, are supposed by PAUSANIAS to 
find a subterraneous passage through Bosotia and 
Attica, as far as from the Buriptu of Chalcis." In 
this passage great scope is afforded for Hindu com- 
parisons. " CERES and PROSERPINE," or SRI 
and PARASAPANA. Baotia, from Bhu, as before 
hinted, or from Bhuli, or Bhutiya Chalcis, or 
Kalki. Many names beginning with EU, I hypo- 
thetically, when I have a choice, write IO, of similar 
sound the initial of lO/iz* on which I have much, 
perhaps too much, to say hereafter. Attica has 
often occurred, and I have made no remark on it. 
Tij or tee, and tik, and tika, and antika, are Sanskrit 
words of many meanings and A is privative, as in 
Greek. Atika, a scholar would make much of. 

But, passing these, it is the consecrated salt 
streams of Rheti that a Hindu enthusiast would revel 
in. Two of these joining, is a dear union, or sail- 
gam and these, with a third subterraneously, is the 
mythos of mythi ! Ablution here is triply purify- 
ing suicide is ecstatic and meritorious. Hither 
resorts the youthful widowed Sati 9 or Pure, rejoicing 
in her approaching liberation from the trammels of 
the flesh and the aged to sigh their last, in the 
way of nature, or by hastening their arrival in the 
world of spirits. The Hindu poets call such tripo- 
tamic union Triveni, or the three plaited locks. 
The geographical fact of the divine GANG A and 
YAMUNA joining visibly near the site of the modern 
city of Allahabad in Bengal modern as to name 
and, as they assert, subterraneously with their holy 



316 , SANSKRIT NAMES 

sister SARASWATI (the meandering consorts respec- 
tively of SIVA, VISHNU, and BRAHMA) is meta- 
morphosed by the most poetical and amorous sect, 
and admired and sung by all, into KRISHNA, braid- 
ing the musky tresses of his delightful RHADA. The 
Greek stream is called Rheti. The rapt Hindu 
would say that it flowed from the tears of RHETI, 
the PSYCHE of the Hindu Pantheon the goddess 
of pleasure, consort of its CUPID, KAMA. Her 
tears, when widowed by a flash of fire from SIVA'S 
central eye, which, reducing to ashes KAMA'S mor- 
tality, rendered him an incorporeal essence (a pretty 
origin of the divine EPOS of the Greeks) in punish- 
ment for his audacity in wounding SIVA by one of 
his impassioned flower-tipped arrows her tears on 
that sad occasion flowed most copiously ; and her 
tender lamentations fill a book in a delightful poem 
by KALIDAS, called Kumara Sambhava, or the 
Birth of KUMAR A. We must not here indulge too 
much in these tempting topics of mythological 
fiction ; but be content with observing that RHA- 
DA'S lamentations, when severed temporarily from 
KRISHNA, were also very lachrymose. Her weep- 
ings, as well as those of the bereft SIT A, spouse of 
RAMA, gave origin and names to lakes and pools. 
Such are named ~R.HAnA-Khoond, or SiTA-Khoond, 
or RETi-KAoowd, according to the personality of 
the fables. 

The saltness of the streams, like those of the 
Rheti of Greece, would not be lost on the Hindu 
fabulist. The musings and " oozings" of that class 
of writers are not always repeatable. 



IN GREECE. 317 

" The sacred way leading from the Thriasian 
gate across the Rheti, and the Thriasian plain to 
E/eusis." HOB. 374. Triasi is Hindui. I have 
used the word a thousand times as the number 83. 
It is not unusual in India so to name places. Chou- 
rasi is a district about Surat, meaning 84 from 
having, or having had, as it is said, that number of 
villages or towns. Sahette, as we call the fine island 
close to Bombay, the natives called Se-ashter 86- 
because, they say, it has or had so many villages. 
I know not if this line of naming obtained in 
Greece or if the names of places there are at all so 
traceable. 

" Not only Athens but Attica," says HOBHOUSE, 
after HEGESIAS, t( was the handy-work of the gods 
and ancient heroes." 359. So are Kashi and Vara- 
nasi Benares, city and province : the Athens and 
Attica of India which, like Naples (and Calabria ?) 
are said to be "a piece of earth which tumbled from 
heaven." Athens and Attica seem to abound in 
Hindu names almost as much as the city and dis- 
trict of Benares or Kashi. 

" A path branches off from the main road by the 
sacred way to Athens, a little nearer to Eleusis than 
the Rheti, or salt streams, and leads to Caliva, a vil- 
lage ; and to Casha, through the opening of the 
hills/' 375. 

Kaliva, Kasha, as well as Rheti, I should rather 
have expected about Benares than Athens. 

" The mountains of Kerata " occur in the same 
page and Megaris, Corydallus, Salamis, Phanna- 
, Megala, and Micrakira names of more East- 



318 SANSKRIT NAMES 

ern sound, and significance. Some of them are also 
significant on the spot. " Mount Pent elicits is now 
called Pendele, and sometimes Mendeli." 391. 
These sound more like the ancient and Eastern 
name, than the softened and probably more mo- 
dern Pentelicus. This mount and that of Hymettus, 
'T(J,STTO$, ( haima, snowy ) are the sites of end- 
less mythological legends. "The latter had on its 
summit an image of JUPITER ; and has now fifty 
chapels, or consecrated caves." Ib. This is strongly 
Oriental SIVA, the Indian JUPITER, reigns para- 
mount in Haima- lay a so is the account of the 
cave of VENUS, Colias. One could fancy it on 5W- 
sette that island of cavernous mountains bating 
the Greek inscriptions. Nor is the Nympholeptic 
foolery unmatched in India. " The credulity of the 
religionist, adorned by the fancy of the poet" is 
sufficiently conspicuous in both regions. 

t( Kalivia Kouvara, a small village." 409. 
" Vrisaki, Thascalio, Kake, Thalasa, small fishing 
harbours between ports Therico and Raphti." 423. 
The last is the ancient port of Prasite "one of the 
PandlOMs ; well known as the place whence the 
mysteries of the hyperborean APOLLO were annually 
carried by the Athenians to Delos." 424. These 
names, some of them slightly altered, are mostly 
pure mythological Hinduisms, combinable with the 
Oriental, as well as with the hyperborean, APOLLO. 
On some of them earlier remarks have occurred. 
Kaliva, Kuvera, Vrisaki, Daska/a, Kaku, Talasa, 
Parasi, Panda would be the method of writing 
the names of such places or persons in India, 



IN GREECE. 319 

according to the excellent system laid down based 
on Italian pronunciation by Sir W. JONES, in the 
As. Res., and generally followed by me in the HP. 
in which most of the above names occur, as Indian. 

By Rhamnus, in a valley, is " the village of Vra- 
ona, celebrated for the worship of DIANA." 429. 
Query, VARUNA? for in the next page it is con- 
nected with water, as are the rites of the Indian 
DIANA, in her characters of DURGA and others 
" An island formed by the torrent which flows from 
the valley of Vraona." 430. VARUNA is the 
Hindu regent of water. "Here," continues HOB- 
HOUSE, " is a square marble, looking like a pedes- 
tal; and in a pool of water in the same island, is the 
headless statue of a female, sedent, of fine white 
marble, and exquisitely wrought." Ib. 

" Near Stamati is the village of Cervishia." 437 
and near it is CfrarvOtika." 440. " the mountain 
anciently called Rrilesus, in the region of Diacria, 
to the north of the high mountain of Parries to 
Casha to Calamus an. hour to the S. of Oropo 
the powerful city of Tanagra." 442. " The vil- 
lage of Scimitari, near a spot called G rente t ha ; 
answering tolerably to the site of Tanagra ; and the 
hill above may be that once called Cerysius." 460. 
" A spot named Castri on a height above, we saw 
Mavromati through that part of Baeotia called 
Parasopia." 461. 

Of the preceding names much of Greco- Hindi con- 
nexion might be traced by a competent writer. I 
pass them ; though I could trace some. 

" There is among the ranges of Mezzovo or Pin- 



320 SANSKRIT NAMES 

duSj at no great distance from a ban called Kokoulio- 
tiko, the supposed site of Gornphi, a high rock with 
nine summits, called Meteor a. It lies in the road 
leading from \OaN\na to Tricala and Larisa." 465. 
From this page we are referred to p. 62. where we 
find the road leads over a river that flows to A ft a, 
then over a mountain to Malacaxi, a village ; then 
crosses a stream that falls into the Salembria, or 
river Peneus." We then read as;ain of Tricala or 

O 

Tricca, of CasslOpe, the hills of Sagori, Mount 
Tomarus : the districts of Paramitkia, Parga, and 
Sulli." 62. 

An Orientalist may conceive with what reverence 
a Hindu would approach a hill with nine peaks, 
containing, or environed by, places distinguished by 
the names just quoted. The most poetical of Hindu 
mythological mountains, Meru, has usually three 
peaks I cannot speak to the fact of nine or its 
absence and has places on or near it, distinguished 
by some of the above names. Such a hill as the 
Greek Meteora, would in India be the resort of 
pilgrims and ascetics Saniasi and Tapaswi as 
well as of divinities. See PI. 31. of HP. for exactly 
such a hill so peopled. And approaching it, most 
persons, with any poetry in their composition, would 
feel some Parnassian emotions. Let us see what 
HOB HO USE says and saw hereon. 

He first chides his predecessor POUQUEVILLE, for 
being too poetical on a similar occasion. " But 
though the license granted to the fancy of his nation 
may suffer him to wander through the Elysian fields, 
and sport with the Grecian muses on their favorite 



IN GREECE. 321 

hill, still he cannot be permitted to profane with 
conjecture the venerable shades of Dodona. At a 
village four leagues to the N.E. of \OanMna begin 
the hills of Sagori and the forests of Dodona. But 
these groves are not to be distinguished from a thou- 
sand woody recesses that shade the mountains of 
Albania : and the prose of the traveller is less sober 
than the poetry of his harmonious countryman : 

" Ce sont passes ces temps des reves poetiques 
Ou 1'homme interrogeoit des forets prophetiques, 
Ou la fable, creant des fails prodigieux, 
Peuploit d'etres vivants des bois religieux. 
Dndone inconsultee a perdu ses oracles, 
Les vergers sont sans dieux, les forets sans miracles/' 
DELISLE Tr. Reg. de la Nat. 

HOBHOUSE tells us, p. 465 " That on each of 
the nine summits of Meteora, which are in a cluster 
together, is a monastery. The monks of these aerial 
habitations have contrived to secure themselves from 
all surprizes or unwelcome visitants, by cutting down 
those ridges of the rocks by which they first 
ascended them ; and all the monasteries are now 
inaccessible, otherways than by baskets let down 
from the summits of the mountains to the highest 
landing-place, perhaps a hundred feet below. The 
monks thus leave and return to their habitations for 
the occasional purchase of provisions," &c. 

" One," continues Sir J. H., " may surely be at a 
loss to guess what charms life can have for a Caloyer 
of Meteora 1 a prisoner on the ridge of a bare rock. 

1 In India, " a Kaliya of Miti-ora" may be expected to be 
heard or read of. Of Kaliya something occurs in pp. '245, 7, 8. 



322 



SANSKRIT NAMES 



Security is not acceptable on such conditions. Yet 
from amongst the Varieties of human conduct we 
may collect other instances of voluntary privations, 
equally unanswerable, and produced, independent of 
habit or control, by original eccentricity of mind. 
A monk confessed to me, that he had never in his 
life felt an inclination to change his place ; and, 
having from his childhood belonged to his monas- 
tery, had seldom wandered beyond its precincts. For 
four years he had not passed beyond the grotto in 
the grove, and might not, perhaps, in the next four. 
' Some of us,' he said, ' prefer travelling. HADJI/ 
there, has been to Jerusalem. For myself, I do not 
wish to remove from this spot.' One of these monks 
passed his whole time with the oxen of the monas- 
tery, and would suffer none else to look after them. 
He never spoke to any one." 2 446. 

1 " HADJI" somewhat strange to see such a name so ap- 
plied. Had the wanderer been to Mecca, he would, in Ma- 
hommedan countries and company, have been of course so 
distinguished and addressed. But I should not have expected 
it in a Christian monastery, in Christendom. 

2 The masterly author of the book of Ecclesiasticus had pro- 
bably such a man in the eye of his deep-searching mind, when 
he penned these passages : 

" How can he get wisdom that holdeth the plow, and that 
glorieth in the goad that driveth oxen, and is occupied in 
their labours, and whose talk is of bullocks ? He giveth his 
mind to make furrows, and is diligent to give his kine 
fodder." 

The above was happily applied at the period of high debate 
on Lord JOHN RUSSELL'S motion for Reform referring to 
an apprehended undue preponderance* of the agricultural 
interest not much flattered by the son of SIRACH. 



IN GREECE. 323 

The reflections of Sir J. H. on the follies and mad- 
nesses of men, especially of rnen associated on 
principles contrary to common sense, and regulated 
according to a system in strict opposition to the 
general habits and nature of mankind, apply as well 
to the Boskoi, or grazing saints, of Mesopotamia, as 
to the ascetic Brahmans, and others of the Hindus ; 
and not better. 

I may note, as connected with this subject, that 
in a retired, shady vale, on that beautiful part of the 
beautiful island of Bombay, called by the English 
Malabar Hill I know not by what name by na- 
tives is a fine tank, surrounded by temples and 
terraces, and trees and buildings, constituting a vil- 
lage : if I ever knew its name, I have forgotten it. 
There resided, in my earlier day, Brahmans and 
contemplative Hindus, many of whom had never in 
their lives been in the city or fort of Bombay, though 
only three or four miles distant. And many more of 
the English living there, had never, I dare say, 
visited or heard of this cool, quiet, happy tf Brahman 
village" its usual designation when spoken of. 
It was a favorite resort of mine ; and I became tole- 
rably well known to some of its sober philosophers 
and I have sometimes, when tired of the heat and 
turmoil, and vexations and excesses of business and 
society, been more than half disposed to envy the 
peaceful inhabitants of " that shady blest retreat,' 7 
the life they there led, and seemed to love. 

Since the time of which I speak, this village, 
then unapproachable except on foot, is probably no 
longer secluded, or inhabited by the same description 



324 SANSKRIT NAMES 

of people. The Hill has become studded with vil- 
las the Point, a bold sea-chafed promontory, 
where the fine temple once stood, from the blasted 
and ruined foundations of which I dug out and 
brought to England, the ponderous triune bust re- 
presented in the cubic pedestal of my mystical 
Frontispiece that Point has become the marine 
residence of the Governor roads for horses and 
carriages intersect the Hi/I and ere as many more 
years elapse as have passed into the ocean of eter- 
nity since I first wandered, and chased the hooded 
snake, over it, steam coaches may, for aught I 

know, traverse it on iron roads. But to return to 

Greece: 

In Attica we find the village of Cockli. In India 
it would be called Cokli ; or, as I should write it, 
Kokli, or Kukli. I think I recollect a village of 
that name in India. In Greece "it is near the plain 
of the Calivia of Kaundouri." 468. Attica itself, 
as well as the other names in this par. would, with 
little or no alteration, come into the list of Sanskrit 
sounds and names. 

"A spring is shown in this valley of Eleusis: 
this is the flowery well where CERES reposed ; and 
the valley is the Rharian plain the path to Athens 
then strikes off over the Thriasian plain."' 486. 
I LI and I LA are names of a Hindu goddess but 
not Eleit, nor Eleusi. Of CERES and SRI and 
Triasi, something has been said in a recent page. 
On the foregoing passage I have therefore only to 
add, that Rhari, or Raree, is the name of places in 
Western India. 



IN GREECE. 325 

" The country inhabited by the Southern Valachi 
comprehends Edessa, Kastoria, and Larissa." 491. 
These words are Indian; and the people inhabiting 
those places in Greece are avowedly " of remote, 
obscure, and ambiguous origin." 

" The ceremonies of the Athenian Greeks at 
childbirth, where the attendant is always a woman, 1 
are very mystical. A lamp burns before the picture 
of the VIRGIN * during labour, and the candle 3 is 
adorned with embroidered handkerchiefs, jewels, and 
coins, as presents to the four fairies who preside 
over the infant. When born, it is immediately laid 
in the cradle, and loaded with amulets. A small bit 
of soft mud, well steeped in a jar of water, properly 
prepared by previous charms, is stuck upon its fore- 
head, to obviate the effects of the evil eye : a noxious 
fascination, proceeding from the aspect of a personi- 
fied, though invisible, demon, and consequent upon 



1 A HMW-midwife is a thing unheard of in India in Asia 
probably. Such a thing cannot enter into the imagination of 
a Hindu. And as to a Mahommedan ! let such of my 
readers as are acquainted with Mahommedan gentlemen 
fancy, if they can, the effect of such a proposition. A Hindu 
would receive it probably with mingled astonishment and 
meekness. The feelings of the Mussulman I can scarcely 
analyze. I should not volunteer the suggestion of such an 
attendant in any case, however urgent, within reach of his 
scimitar. (Qu. Smiter ?) 

2 A relique of the reverence to DIANA, under her name of 
LUCINA the protectress of suffering females in this interest- 
ing predicament. Her double, PARVATI, assumes the like 
character in India. 

3 A consecrated bougie, most likely. 

2 E 



326 SANSKRIT NAMES 

the admission of an incautious spectator. The evil 
eye is feared at all times, and supposed to affect 
people of all ages, who, by their prosperity, may be 
objects of envy. Not only a Greek, but a Turkish 
woman, on seeing a stranger look eagerly at her 
child, will spit in its face ; and sometimes, if at her- 
self, in her own bosom. But the use of garlic, or even 
the word which signifies that herb, <rxo'go8ov, is consi- 
dered a sovereign preventive. New-built houses, and 
the ornamented sterns of Greek vessels, have long 
branches of it depending from them, to intercept the 
fatal envy of every ill-disposed beholder. The ships 
of the Turks have the same appendages. In fact, 
there is a great uniformity of practice between the 
two nations." 507. 

Had I read the preceding a few words altered 
as descriptive of births in India, I should have made 
no remark. The evil eye is equally feared in India, 
by Mahommedans, Hindus, and Christians. It does 
not occur to me that I ever made any memoranda on 
that stibject ; and I shall not trust my memory now 
to record any particulars farther than to note the 
recollected prevalence of the fear. A nurse of my 
own an aged papist used to be very angry at 
encomia on my children ; and I think I have a re- 
collection of her spitting, in cases of apprehended 
emergency. 

In HOBHOUSE'S map of the western part of Hel- 
lespontine Phrygia, we see " the ruins and river 
of Callifatli, probably of Ilium"" Karantik"- 
" Mavromati" which is said to mean "black 
eyes." Most of these names are applicable toKALA. 



IN GREECE. 327 

One of his names is KALANTIKA, or Time-destroy- 
ing. I/i-um might, by a stretch of etymological con- 
jecture, be traced to the same sounding ILI O'M 
and Mahavromati sounds more like Sanskrit than 
Greek. 

The mountain of Ptirne, or Parries, has been before 
mentioned as a name of Pindus; and PANDU has 
been hung upon it. The Greek town of Keratea is 
near it. The mountain contains excavations and 
profundities, natural and artificial, that would delight 
a mystical Hindu. There are clefts and holes in 
rocks that a \Ox\jah would delight in. If this 
mountain were examined by one reasonably read in 
the mythology of India, it would, I am disposed to 
think, yield testimony to the identity ofthemythi 
of both regions. I expect that Linga-ic and IONi-zc 
vestiges would, without any stretch of imagination 
or credulity, be discovered in some abundance. 

The mountains of Kerata and of Keratea have also 
been mentioned. In the HP. p. 448. it is related 
how PARVATI, the mountain goddess, having parted 
in anger from her spouse they had quarrelled at 
gambling assumed the alluring semblance qf a Cz- 
rati, a daughter of a mountaineer, to win back the 
lost affection of her wrathful consort. I know not the 
correct initial sound of the last-marked word pro- 
bably soft : but soft and hard C's and K's are for 
ever interchanging. Cirati I take to be feminine 
and that Cirata, or, as the reader may discern my 
drift, Kirata, or Kerala, seem alike in sound, and all 
connected with mountains. 

The Marathon Mycale Salamis of Greece, 
sound Hinduish. 



328 SANSKRIT NAMES 

A Sanskrit scholar a distinction to which I have 
no pretension whatever should such peruse my 
humble lucubrations, may fancy me tripping in some 
of the Greek words, or names, or sounds, which I 
select, as being, or like, Sanskrit. But it does not 
follow that the Greeks, though they borrowed so 
much of the more ancient and more Eastern lan- 
guage, borrowed from the most classical sources. 
Like me, they had, perhaps, access only to the vul- 
gar tongues. If such Sanskrit scholar were to wend 
southward from the Ganges to the Krishna say from 
Benares to Mysore his classical ear would be in- 
vaded by, what he would call, vulgarisms. He 
would hear, and perhaps read, of M AH DEO Deodar 
GUNGADER, &c. instead of what his fastidious 
organs have been Gangetically gratified by MA- 
HADEVA Devudara GANGADHARA, &c. 

By the way, Sir W. JONES, in his pretty, lively 
little poem, " The Enchanted Fruit, or the Hindu 
Wife," partly sanctions the use of the colloquial deo. 
This is, however, merely a metrical conveniency : 

" And there no sight, young maids, for you 
A temple rose to MAHADEO." 

But he in his chaste mind, and all the pure 
young maidens of his acquaintance might have 
visited, as I have, five hundred such temples, and 
have seen nothing to sully the purity of their minds 
or thoughts. In fact, nothing objectionable meets 
the eye. The inquisitive may draw forth explanations 
which will require the veil of charity such as is 
kindly flung over them by the same amiable writer 
in this passage extracted from the HP. p. 155. 



IN GREECE. 32D 

In the character of BHAVANI, Sir W. J. sup- 
poses the wife of MAHADEVA to be, as well the 
Juno Cinxia or LUCINA of the Romans (called also 
by them DIANA Solvizorta, and by the Greeks ILI- 
THYIA) as VENUS herself: not the Italian queen 
of laughter and jollity, who, with her Nymphs and 
Graces, was the beautiful child of poetical imagina- 
tion, and answers to the Indian RHEMBA, with her 
train of Apsaras, or damsels of Paradise ; but VENUS 
Urania, so luxuriously painted by LUCRETIUS, and 
so properly invoked by him at the opening of a 
poem on Nature : " VENUS presiding over genera- 
tion, and on that account exhibited sometimes of 
both sexes (an union very common in the Indian 
sculptures) as in her bearded statue at Rome ; and, 
perhaps, in the images called Hermalhena, and in 
those figures of her which had a conical form ' for 
the reason of which figure we are left/ says TACI- 
TUS, ' in the dark/ " " The reason," continues Sir 
W. "appears too clearly in the temples and paint- 
ings of Hindustan, where it never seems to have 
entered the heads of the legislators or the people, 
that any thing natural could be offensively obscene : 
a singularity which pervades all their writings and 
conversation, but is no proof of depravity in their 
morals." As. Res. i. 254. 

I cannot but wish that the last member of the 
above passage had been somewhat qualified. The 
word all is, I presume to think, too comprehensive. 

Mountains and rivers, I have before observed, 
retain their original or ancient names the longest of 
any objects. In them we may best hope to discover 



330 SANSKRIT NAMES 

the remains of ancient nomenclature and language. 
They are the stable and ever current vertebrae and 
arteries of the earth. In this view it is much to be 
lamented that discoverers of regions and their early 
and late followers, have not noted, and do not care- 
fully note, where practicable, such names from the 
mouths of natives. The philosophy of language 
might hence derive important aids. In the vast 
spread of Australia, for instance, we might expect to 
find, as in Java have been unexpectedly found, traces 
and remains of Sanskrit, and temples and images, 
and various Hinduisms evincing, indeed, the exist- 
ence there, at no very distant period, of a magnificent 
Hindu empire. And I expect results something simi- 
lar in the currency of exploration among the vast 
and numerous islands farther North and East such 
as Borneo, Luconia, Papua, &c. Sec. 

While the names of mountains and rivers are 
transmitted unchanged, or but little changed, from 
generation to generation, those of towns are easily 
altered by the caprices of conquerors or rulers. Na- 
tives, of themselves, rarely, perhaps never, change 
the name of their towns. Mahommedans bestow 
Arabic names whithersoever they go paramount! y. 
In the Spanish peninsula including Portugal their 
remains may still be traced. Alhambra, Alguazil, 
Alcaid, Guadalquiver, Trafalgar, perhaps, and many 
others easily recognizable. 

In America what fine names might probably have 
been found and left of the vast lakes and streams, 
and hills, which ennoble, beautify, and enrich those 
extended regions. How poor and uninstructive are 



IN GREECE. 331 

the Hudson, the St. Lawrence, in comparison with 
Niagara pure Sanskrit I suspect Powtowmack 
Missisippi (this name is, I confess, too sibilant and 
mimini-pimini for my liking) the Alleghany chain 
Lake Michegan the great river Kanhawa the 
Athabasca lake the snowy mountains of Orizaba 
Canada but I shall have to bestow a few pages on 
American Hinduisms hereafter and shall here only 
ask the reader to compare the foregoing names 
quite refreshing to geographical students to Cape 
Dods Cape MobbsPittville, &c. 

Perhaps if our early voyagers to Australia (what 
is the native name or names for that fine fifth portion 
of our earth ?) perhaps if they had noted from the 
natives the names of their noble mountains and 
rivers, we might now be tracing them to the Helico- 
nia, and Merit, and Nila, and Ganga, of more poetic 
regions. Is it still too late ? Or must we be con- 
tent to read of the mighty masses and magnificent 
waters of the novel-named world, by the unpoetical 
appellation of the Lachlan, the Macquarie,* the 
Blue Mountains (is it too late to learn their native 
name ? Kal, something, perhaps, or Ni/gheri) the 
Hawkesbnry, the Swan, Botany Bay, &c. instead of 
possibly lONic, or Litigate, or Solar, or Lunar He- 
liconian or Parnasian, derivations ? such as Para- 
mata, Morambidji, or Morumbaji, the fine name of a 
fine Australian river. The accidental retention of a 



1 Fine names too and of a very old and much esteemed 
and lamented friend. 



332 SANSKRIT NAMES 

few, makes us the more regret the probably studied 
absence of so many. 

Let us hope that the fine series of mythological 
baptism found among the glorious range of Himala, 
will never yield to the personalities of English adula- 
tion. Himalaya, the snow-crowned apt appella- 
tion crowned by the snows of ten thousand winters ! 
Dwalagiri, the loftiest pinnacle of our great globe ; 
Gahumuki, its most sacred cavity, " whence famed 
Ganga springs" how fine ! compared with Mount 
SMITH, or THOMPSON'S Peak, or such temporal 
trumpery. 

No disrespect can, of course, be intended toward 
any of the worthy individuals who may bear such 
names as these ; and with them wear the local 
honors of the day. But one has scarcely patience to 
see them supplant the useful, godlike, appellations 
of antiquity appropriately bestowed. 

It may be of less moment in botanical, than in 
geographical, science. But even there 1 am disposed 
to prefer the fine significant native names of Indian 
plants : Camalata, Jatamansi, Sitaphala, Tulasi, 
Champaka, &c. all perhaps derived from mythologi- 
cal legends, like DAPHNE and LAURUS, and other 
Ovidian elegancies. How preferable even to the 
deserved immortality of Jonesia, Banksia, Rafflesia, 
&c. of English substitution. 

I may, perhaps, remark here, as well as any where 
else, that if the Sanskrit isms, or Kalicism*, noted 
in this Head and others, be deemed striking 
or curious, they may, with due inquiry, be extended 



IN GREECE. 333 

to almost any length. The whole world almost is 
overspread with them. I have not sought them for 
the purpose of upholding any hypothesis; nor have 
I, in fact, sought them at all. I am not aware that 
I have ever read a book or a page in such search. 
They forced themselves on my notice in the course 
of a desultory and confined range of reading and ob- 
servance. Any one qualified, and so disposed, may 
multiply Ka/ic, ION ic, Lingaic, coincidences ; lin- 
gual, synchroriic, geographic, to a very unexpected 
extent. 

We must linger a little longer, somewhat more 
miscellaneously, in Greece, for the purpose of no- 
ticing some more of the coincidences mentioned in 
the preceding paragraph. I have accidentally run 
my eye over DOUGLAS'S " Essay on the Modern 
Greeks," whence I have culled a few flowerets that 
invite transplantation into my Katie parterre. 

On " Tricalla, a village," p. 12. something has 
been said already, and we pass on to " the remark- 
able village of Ambffachia," 13. " Holy fountains, 
or wells, were called by the Greeks, agiasmata; agi- 
asma in the singular -ay tour pot. To these fountains 
multitudes will flock to invoke the saint, the genius 
loci. The sick are brought to drink the waters; 
which, destitute of all medicinal qualities, owe their 
influence entirely to the patronage of some superior 
being : and it would be thought great impiety and 
ingratitude in those who receive, or fancy they 
receive, his help, to neglect affixing a lock of hair, 
or a strip of linen, as the votiva tabella, at once to 
record the power of the saint and the piety of his 



334 SANSKRIT NAMES 

votary." 61. References are made to many such 
usages of antiquity. Intending a short article on 
Holy Wells and Fountains, I make here no farther 
allusion to them. 

" Three girls, otherwise of the most bewitching 
forms, but with the feet and legs of goats, are be- 
lieved to circle, in an eternal dance, the point which 
towers above the village of Scardamula" 83. The 
fiction related of this poetical peak, probably fur- 
cated or conical, is very Hinduish, as well as the 
name of the village. 

In a neat little book, entitled " Naples and the 
Campagna Felice," 1 we read (as we may in a hun- 
dred other pretty books) of " VENUS Kallipygia," 15. 
by others written Kallipiya of " old Vesuvius, de- 
tached from its parent, the mountain of Somma, or 
rather, rising from out of its bosom" 17. " the hot 
vapour baths of Tritoli" 40. " the romantic convent 
of Camalauli," 75. " CALPHURNIUS, founder of the 
temple of JUPITER, now the cathedral of Puzzuoli." 
88. 

Here we have Hinduisms in abundance. The 
Katie appellative of VENUS we will pass. Moun- 
tains seem less liable to be nick-named than even 
rivers. " Mountains of the Moon," " Monies Par- 
vedi t " as such a range is named in ancient geogra- 

1 " Campagna Felice! " Is it true that with thy most sub- 
lime mount, and beautiful bay, and gay city, and innume- 
rable fascinations, thou art indeed, as thy natives call thee, 
'* that piece of earth which tumbled down from heaven?" 
But art thou, indeed, what others call thee, " Un Paradiso, 
habitato per Diavoli c t " 



IN GREECE. 335 

phy, and by the Arabians, "jl^Xi! Alkomari," are 
but literal translations of the Chaiidragiri of the San- 
skrit : a mere change of name ; not, indeed, all ap- 
plied to the same range. PARVATI is the best 
mode of writing the name of the Hindu " moun- 
tain-loving DIANA." It is otherways written PRA- 
VADI, PERVEDY, PERVETI, by Western geogra- 
phers. A lofty conical hill near Poona, with a fine 
temple of the goddess on its summit, is there usually 
corrupted into PARBUTTY. In the operations of the 
Russian army in their last approach to the capital of 
Turkey, one of the ghats, or passes of the Balkan, 
was called Pravadi in the papers. In such a range 
of mountains I should expect many other Kalicisms ; 
and where I find Kalicisms, I expect to find them 
connected with hilly regions. 

Chandragiri, in Sanskrit, means a lunar hill. 
PARVATI, in one of her characters, is CHANDRI, in 
the feminine ; her spouse is CHANDRA. Poetical 
interchange of sexes enliven this line of Hindu my- 
thology, which is more fittingly touched on in the 
Hin. Pan. p. 289. A male moon is not very uncom- 
mon, Ib. p. 292. ; nor, among other seeming incon- 
gruities, a bearded VENUS, even in En rope! That 
beautiful planet is in India personified in a male 
SUKRA. 

We have just read of " Mount Somma, the parent 
of Vesuvius." So MA is another Sanskrit name, mas- 
culine of the moon. An etymologist might make 
something out of these names, but not out of Latin 
or Italian. What is Vesu, or Fesuvi, or Vesuva V 
The unmeaning local suffix we may leave. Write it 



336 SANSKRIT NAMES 

Vasu y and you have a collection of Hindu deified 
personages, of whom AGNI, the /gw-eous deity, is the 
fiery chief, and a suitable person to give a name to, 
and preside over, such a Plutonian region. " Mount 
Somma"is, therefore, but another name for Chandra- 
giri, and may be well applied to one of Earth's 
most wonderful and stupendous spectacles. 

We are still in the Campagua Felice; quitting 
Soma, and his offspring Vesu-vius, we may ob- 
serve, in our last quotation, " the hot vapour baths 
of Tritoli." Such surprising natural phenomena 
are justly viewed with wonderment by reflecting 
Hindus; and pilgrimages are commonly made by 
them to very distant founts of hot water or of flame. 
The latter are happily burnt out in our own fortunate 
island ; but who can look unmoved on the wonderful 
smoking spring of Bath yielding as it has yielded 
for thousands of years, such a copious issue of heated 
water, of the same temperature summer and winter ? 
Tritoli, if written -tali, would come under the re- 
marks made on Tintali, in p. 249. : tuli is also a 
Sanskrit word. " Camala uli" is the name of a 
romantic convent. KAMALA, as I write it (some 
write it CAMALA), is a name of the Hindu goddess 
LAKSHMI, in one of her Venereal characters. Carnal- 
doli, the fine hill near or in Naples, may, or may not, 
be the same with Camalauli. Of Carnal odunvm, 
something occurs in another place. Kamaldoli 
would in India mean the vehicle, the palky, or per- 
haps the rest, of KAMALA. 

The temple of JUPITER, now converted into a 
papal cathedral, may have been, in still older times, 



IN GREECE. 337 

converted from a temple of the Hindu JUPITER, 
SIVA, or KALA. Its founder's name, CALPHUR- 
NIUS, comes as near as maybe to KALIPURNA; 
associating him with both Grecian and Hindu le- 
gend. KALI-PURNA, and ANA-PURNA of India, 
and ANNE-PERENNA of the West, have attributes 
and fables in common. See Hin. Pan. p. 158. 

About temples of JUPITER, and MINERVA, and 
VENUS, I expect to find more or less of Kalic, Lin- 
gakj or lONic matter; and do usually there find, of 
such, more or less. If what is now known of Eleusi- 
nian and Bacchic mysteries, as left us by ancient 
writers, were closely examined with the commentaries 
and explanations of moderns, and compared with the 
images and superstitions still existing among Hin- 
dus, under a striking similarity of names, we could 
scarcely withhold belief in their identity. Such ex- 
amination I am altogether unable to make with any 
competency of skill. A few particulars, found float- 
ing on the surface of that line of literature, I may 
endeavour to throw together in a future page. In 
this I shall give one or two instances. 

PROCLUS says, in Theol. PLAT., "That according 
to the theologists who have delivered the accounts of 
the most holy mysteries of Eleusis, PROSERPINE 
abides on high, in those dwellings of her mother 
which she prepared for her in inaccessible places, 
exempt from the sensible world. But she likewise 
dwelt beneath with PLUTO, administering terrestrial 
concerns, governing the recesses of the earth, sup- 
plying life to the extremities of the universe, and 

2F 



338 SANSKRIT NAMES 

imparting souls to beings of themselves inanimate 
or dead. "p. 371. 

The above is a description also, as far as it goes, of 
the Hindu PROSERPINE; who, I think, but I can- 
not at this moment refer to my authority, is named 
PRASARPANA; she abides in high places, and is 
then named DURGA (in common language JDroog, in 
which word many hill forts in Western India termi- 
nate) meaning " difficult of access." She also 
dwells beneath with her consort YAM A, the Hindu 
PLUTO; she is then called PATALA-DEVI, or Queen 
of Hell, as before mentioned, and is employed pretty 
much as her double is above described to be by 
PROCLUS. 

May not the mysterious Cala-thus, mentioned by 
CLEM. ALEX, and others, as used in the sacrificial 
ceremonies of Eleusis, be connected with GALA or 
KALI? The Calathus and Cista, vessels of capa- 
city, were very profoundly mystical. The former, 
according to TAYLOR, was a vessel of a conical 
shape ; and the cist a, small cups or bowls, sacred 
to BACCHUS. We have said in a former, and 
intend to explain farther in a future, page, how 
every thing conical is, with the Hindus, symbolical 
of SIVA or K A LA. I know of no engraved represen- 
tation of the Eleusinian cista small sacrificial cups 
are used in Hindu ceremonials. I have two now be- 
fore me, that have been so used, of silver. One 
may just glance at the seemingly indecorous stories 
related by ancient authors of BAUBO, and note that 
they may be exactly paralleled by those still current 
of DEVI or KALI, among Hindu mythae. 



IN GREECE. 339 

ARNOBIUS relates those stories in pretty plain, 
terms, at which CLEM. ALEX AN. is much scanda- 
lized ; and justly, if the fable be taken literally. 
But JAMB LIC H us (de Myst.) shows that they must 
not be so taken ; and offers strong reasons in favor of 
their purity and propriety : which are, indeed, 
adopted with some complacency by WARBURTON. 
As to TAYLOR " PAUSANIAS TAYLOR," as he is 
sometimes designated he says, that " the doctrine," 
as laid down by JAMBLICHUS, " is indeed so rational 
that it can never be objected to by any but quacks 
in philosophy and religion." Pamphleteer, xvi. 468. 
A position of the learned gentleman more savouring 
of dogmatism than decency. 

To GALA or KALI, many, if not all, of these 
fables may, I venture to think, be traced. Her poet, 
CALLI-MACHUS, in his Hymn to CERES (SRi or 
SRIS, names of KALI) describes the contents of her 
Cala-thus. 

This mythological poet, CALLIMACHUS, bears a 
name which may be suspected of being of Kalic 
derivation. It was he who wrote the original poem 
on the ravished locks of his patroness BERENICE, 
consecrated by her in the temple of VENUS. The 
poem is unfortunately also lost, but it still serves 
to immortalize the pious dame ; the astronomers, 
consoling and flattering her still more, having placed 
her votive hair among the constellations : another 
instance of the mythological and poetical use made 
of that beautiful and interesting appendage. 

In the name of CALLIMACHUS may be fancied 



340 SANSKRIT NAMES 

the Sanskrit compound Kalimuki, fair- faced ; black- 
faced, too, it must be confessed. But are beauty 
and a black skin incompatible? I say, No. 

" No Athenian," says the Hon. F. S. N. DOU- 
GLAS, in his book before quoted, " quits the Pi- 
TCBUS without presenting a taper to S. SPIRIDION, 
on the very spot where DIANA Munychia received 
her offerings ; indeed no voyage is begun, no busi- 
ness undertaken, without some offering at the favo- 
rite shrine. Even the papas sacrifice on the altar a 
lock of their hair." 

DIANA'S name of Muny-chia, is traceable, no* 
doubt, to a Greek origin ; but such origin may have 
been a sequence. I should be disposed to go far- 
ther back to the Hindu DIANA, the consort, under 
another form, of the Muni SIVA p. 58. 314. I must 
etop to dilate a little on the Pir-<eus. It was a har- 
bour with a pharos, and was named from^'re ; which 
assuming necessarily a /)j/r-amidal form, is a symbol 
of the same pair. As before observed, SIVA is also 
the tridented NEPTUNE of India, to whom departing 
sailors would, probably, make votive offerings, as 
the Greeks did, and perhaps still do, at their Pir- 
aus. 

It would be too much to couple poor S, S-pir-id- 
IOn, with deities of fable, merely on account of his 
name. But if we designate him, as is usual among 
his own sectarists, or church, as they term them- 
selves, SPIRIDION; and fancy the initial S to 
have been mistaken for a sanctifying prefix, papists, 
glad of a new saint they might then possibly have 



TN GREECE. 341 

wanted one to make up 365 may not have scrupled 
to admit him into their kalendar 1 on the strength of 
their faith in such prefixture. Extravagant as this 
may seem, it is matched by the asserted and received 
fact of S. ORACTE being an accidental sanctification 
arising out of a mistake touching Soracte, as men- 
tioned in p. 226. 

1 am equally ignorant of the history of both these 
sanctified personages, and so possibly may be my 
reader, but I will endeavour to learn something of 
them. If of dubious, or extremely obscure origin, as 
to odour, &c. I shall deem my suspicion of their far 
Eastern nativity as somewhat strengthened. Mean- 
while I call my friend P/ridlOn, or Pir-gW-IONI; 
and connect him with SIVA and PARVATI, in their 
characters of Fire, and goddess of the ION I ; with 
pir-aiis, p^r-a-mid (A) a Lingaic symbol as well as 
is everything in the form of flame, and erect or 'spir- 
ing ; not forgetting the saint's erect, votive, flaming, 
farthing candle. 

Equally unpardonable with the preceding extrava- 
ganza, if the reader will have it so, it may be to give 
here, avowedly no wise connected with our subject, 
a piece of aristocratic wit, which happening now to 
occur to me I will relate; in relief, as I hope, of the 
apprehended dryness of my subject. 1 

1 Kal (endar) as connected with Time. 

2 Soon after the murderous catastrophe at Benares, in 
which our Political Resident, Mr. CHERRY, and others were 
killed by VIZIER ALI, Mr. DAVIS, one of the survivors I 
believe the only surviving Englishman dined at the R. S. 
Club. He obligingly yielded to a special request, and 



342 SANSKRIT NAMES 

" Nor/' observes Mr. DOUGLAS, on another occa- 
sion, "are flowers the only offerings placed by the 
simple piety of the Greek women upon the tomb. 
Cakes made of honey, flour, and oil; or the Colyva, 
a pudding formed of boiled wheat, honey, and 
almonds, still unmeaningly occupy the room of the 
" mellitumfar;" the propitiatory repast of Cerbura ; 
or the cake TreXavo^, used by the ancients on the same 
occasion." 

The offering of flowers thus made by the simple 
piety of Greek damsels, reminds us, of course, of the 
equally simple piety and offerings of Hindu females, 
who are among the most innocent and interesting of 
Heaven's creatures. They also present cakes, called 
pinda, made of honey, flour, and oil. The Colyva, 
Mr. DOUGLAS calls the Greek cake offered to CER- 
BURA. 1 Of the " Co lyva " I know nothing. Such 

related the extraordinary particulars of that appalling and 
interesting event ; and in doing so described, of course, his 
own most surprising and almost miraculous escape. In the 
early alarm he seized a hog-spear, as he described, and ran 
up a narrow spiral staircase. There he most manfully de- 
fended himself, and successfully, until relief came, a fearful 
length of time, against a host of sanguinary and infuriated 
assailants. In his animated relation of these strange events, 
he had, of necessity, occasion to repeat very often the name 
of his weapon, the spear, as well as the spiral stair. "Aye, 
aye," said Lord MULGRAVE emphatically to the gentleman 
next him, " dura spir-o sper-o." 

1 I have so copied the name, but I am in some doubt if cor- 
rectly, and have no immediate means of seeking. It is of 
little moment. CERBURUS may be the more usual mode, and 
would answer my purpose nearly as well. Few will cavil at 
the rejection occasionally of the termination s or us in Greek 
words. 



IN GREECE, 343 

offerings might on some occasions be called in India 
Kaliva or Kaliya, and especially if offered to SER- 
BURA, the Hindu hell-dog. Like his own brother, 
or himself rather, of Greece, he has three heads, and 
is hence called TRISIRAS. Mythology as well as 
poetry they are nearly identical delights in triads. 
Isis, OSIRIS, HORUS, the prime deities of Egypt 
JUPITER, NEPTUNE, and PLUTO, the three bre- 
thren of the Greeks SIVA, VISHNU, and BRAHMA, 
the trio of the Hindus the Furies, the Graces, the 
thrice three Muses, the three Judges of Hell, and a 
thousand other instances that I have collected, but 
spare the reader here, dance in eternal triads before 
the inquiring eye ; as well as the triple head of this 
infernal dog. 

We have noticed the name of Calphurnius, as the 
founder or builder of a temple of lUpiTER. We 
may, in the same line of allusion, notice the grand 
temple of MINERVA, the Parthenon, on the Acro- 
polis. Though ICTINUS has usually the glory of 
having constructed this edifice, some authorities 
make CALLICRATES a sharer in such glory. WIL- 
KINS, Athenemia y p. 94., refers on this point to 
PLUT. in PERIC. From the remoteness of these 
times the connexion of the Hindu Kalic deities may 
now be but obscurely applicable to the Kalic build- 
ings, and places and fables of Greece. Thus, in lapse 
of time the sharer in the glory of the temple is sup- 
posed to have been the architect, and not the half- 
forgotten deity to whom the temple was dedicated. 
Or the founder of such a temple in honor of KALI, 



344 SANSKRIT NAMES 

may well have been prone to assume a name like 
hers. 

Hard by, was another glorious edifice to JUPITER 
Olympus. " The foundation of this structure having 
outlived all record at the time PAUSANIAS visited it, 
vulgar opinion regarded it as a production of the age 
of DEUCAL|ON." Ib. 156, That is of Deo-KALi, 
or Dev KALI, or KALDEVA. 

The same author, WILKINS, tells us, that the 
" Female BACCHUS of Athens is called by a learned 
and accomplished traveller, Dr. CLARKE, ' the Indian 
BACCHUS,' under the impression that he could dis- 
cover part of the beard lying in the bosom, the head 
having perished." Athen. 181. Combinations of 
male and female moieties are common in India : as I 
have had occasion to state and show in another 
place. See HP. pi. 24. When half man, half 
woman half SIVA, half PARVATI they are called 
Ardha-nari. See pp. 244. 329. preceding. 

" The Romans, on one occasion, set up the image 
of VENUS- Barbata, with a comb in her hand, and 
the masculine appurtenance to the countenance."^ 
Letters from Palestine, 159. A female BACCHUS, 
and a bearded VENUS, are de mauvais gout. But the 
last, as is noticed in another place, is matched by 
the male Hindu VENUS, SUKRA, and their male 
Moon, CHANDRA. But the Moon is sometimes 
every other fortnight indeed LUNA, or CHANDRI. 
These transformations of CHANDRA and CHANDRI 
are poetically and astronomically accounted for in 
Hindu poetics. Western heathens have also Deus 



IN GREECE. 345 

LUNUS, and Dea LUNA. Some of these legendary 
fables are duly noticed in HP. p. 290. &c. 

But to proceed in Greece. Mataranga is a village 
in the neighbourhood of the ruins of the ancient city 
Cierium, in Thessafy; in which city NEPTUNE was 
the deity held in the greatest veneration. Art. ix. 
of the 1st Report of the R. S. of Lit., by M. W. 
LEAKE, Esq. NEPTUNE, he says, was worshipped 
there under the name of CUARIUS, from that of the 
river, which flows by the site of Arne, as Cierium 
was also called. 

RANG A is a name of SIVA, as the god of tears and 
lamentations and mata has a meaning terrifically 
applicable to that tremendous deity. He is the tri^ 
dent-bearer of India Sri RAM also bears a trident. 
May the very ancient city of Cierium have been 
hence named ; and its neighbouring village of Mata- 
ranga? Sri RANGA is also named GAURI his 
consort at least is, and that is nearly the same. 
NEPTUNE we have just seen called Cuarius, after 
the river of that name. In India Gao, GAURI, 
Go vi N DA, have relation to kine. I believe the 
river Cauveri in Mysore is thence named : not very 
unlike Cuarius. 

Rivers and kine bear legendary relationship in 
Greece and in India. GOVINDA, the pastoral deity, 
gives his name to the Krishna. 

The classical Clitumnus is famed for white oxen ; 
and is triply Sivaic. In its name may be recognized 
the Kali, the Turn or Toom, and the Yamuna ; as if 
their names and elemental sounds had been used in 



346 SANSKRIT NAMES 

combination to form that of Cli-tum-nus. This 
poetical river turned white the kine which laved in 
its sacred wave. Such were peculiarly dedicated to 
JUPITER Clitumnus. 2nd Gear. vs. 146. So they are 
to SIVA who rides a white bull: but I do not 
know others may any Indian river having a si- 
milar power of blancherie. The temple of JUPITER 
Clitumnus (or of Kalitumna ?) was on a conical 
hill, near Spoletto. It was equally famed for 
beauty of architecture and of site. PLINY the 
younger gives a rapturous description of it. B. 8. 
Ep. 8. 

The Grecian city Callirete is, perhaps, the same 
as Sir W. GELL and others call Calavrita. Both are 
Sanskrit compounds. Of Reti, something occurs in 
another page. SIVA is called Vritrahan, from 
having slain a bull. 

" CALLIPHAE, one of the \Oxian nymphs." 
WALPOLE. On which a word hereafter. " Ka- 
liria is the name of a hamlet, or summer residence, 
of a tribe of Greeks called Tza-cunn\Ote." Ib. This 
is rather a barbarous name for a Greek tribe the 
name of their residence, in Turkey, the euphonic 
Kaltiia, they probably brought with them. 

Dr. CLARKE mentions the villages of Ambelakia ; 
and Caldurita, in the Morea, and Heraclea the last 
has before been supposed to be Hara-Kala. All 
are of Sanskrit sound. 

A tribe of Turkoman are described by POCOCKE, 
called Begdelee ; as wanderers, levying contributions. 
Tribes, or parties of half a dozen or more, so far 



IN GREECE, &C. 347 

similar as being wanderers and levying contri- 
butions in various ways, are seen all over India. 
They are sometimes wrestlers and I have heard 
them call themselves pelhivan, implying heroic, 
prize-fighter, &c. May not the Begdelee of Turkey, 
be Bagdili, or Baghdili (the three are pronounced 
nearly alike) mean, in Turkish and several other 
eastern tongues, lion-hearted, heroic t &c. in farther 
similitude with their brotherhood of India? The 
gypsies Cgypts?) are similarly seen all over India 
as all over England and nearly all over all the 
intervening regions. 

It was, I believe, to gain an opportunity of offer- 
ing a note on our gypsies, that I introduced the pre- 
ceding and the following passages. 

" We could not help remarking," says Dr. 
CLARKE, " a very great resemblance between the 
Albanian women of Zeitun, and those of India, 
whom we had seen with our army in Egypt. They 
resemble that Indo-European tribe called Gypsies 
in England^ whose characteristic physiognomy no 
change of climate seems to affect." IV. 253. 

Various have been the speculations on this extra- 
ordinary race of man. Their home, or aboriginal 
region, is still a problem real home they seem not to 
know any where. England designates them after 
their supposed Nilic cradle. France calls them Bo- 
hemians. Neither nation, when christening them, 
seems to hav-e tracked them any farther. The Rus- 
sians call them Tzengani ; Germans, Zigeuner ; 
Italians, Zingari. These names, which may have 



348 SANSKRIT NAMES 

been corrupted by transcription, seem of the same 
origin. M. DE RIENZI, as I have seen in a 
periodical, supposes them the posterity of the an- 
cient nomadic tribe of the Tzcngaris, or Van- 
garis ; a branch of the Mahratta pariahs who 
supplied the Mahratta forces in former times with 
provisions." 

It is not easy to know exactly what a writer may 
mean by " former times." A tribe called by Mah- 
rattas and others Vanjari, or Banjari sometimes 
Banjara ; but never with a hard g are, and pro- 
bably were, " in former times," the suppliers of the 
Mahratta and other forces with provisions grain 
chiefly. But I should not reckon the Vanjari a 
very low class or caste not so low as that called in 
Europe, and perhaps in India, pariah; but I do 
not recollect that I ever heard the word pariah out 
of the mouth of a native, untaught by us foreigners. 
In Bombay natives will, after us, talk of pariah, or 
piar dog, Sec. but beyond our tuition, would not, I 
think, apply the term to a man of a base tribe. 

I should not reckon the Vanjara so low a tribe as 
the Mahratta, but I speak vaguely. They are a 
race of stout brave men, and of hardy virtuous 
women. KM. DE R. grounds his similarity of tribe 
on any supposed similarity of name, I think he is in 
error. Nor can any two races of men be much 
more unlike, bating itinerancy, than the Vanjari and 
the wandering Zingari of India. The latter word, 
as Zingar, means a saddler. All leather- workers 
in India are base. In the Mahratta countries 



IN GREECE, &C, 349 

saddle and bridle menders must, with such an eques- 
trian erratic people, have been much employed, 
and of necessity also wanderers. I have forgotten 
the appellations by which these wanderers are called 
in different parts of India. Wherever I have been, I 
have, I think, seen gangs of them, four or five or 
more in number, of males women and children to 
correspond and have ever been reminded by them 
of the gypsies of England. Here they are mostly 
tinkers ; in India, cobblers. 

As curiosity seems never to be altogether dormant 
in England touching this singular race of our fellow 
subjects, it might be acceptable if some one would 
collect the various names by which the correspond- 
ing, if not identical, race are called in India: say, 
from Point de Gal/e to Lahore, and from Sind to 
Assam ; which might be easily done. Among them 
would be chnmar, cobbler, or leather-worker; from 
chumari, a skin. They are rather menders than 
makers ; although zingari may imply the latter. 
Dehr would be another name but this applies to an 
extensive sect, of which the one in question is pro- 
bably a subdivision. Of bhnngi, or night-man, the 
same may be said. Mahommedans call the last 
named tribe halalkhor, base-feeder, eater of forbid- 
den food. The two latter names are applicable to a 
lower tribe than the zingari, or chumar. By Brah- 
mans either would perhaps be called chandala or 
dehr ; but a Brahman would not give either of those 
appellations to a vanjari ; nor perhaps to a zingari. 
The dehr or chandala, or outcast, he, in his semi- 
divinity, would deem doomed to such baseness by 
2 G 



350 SANSKRIT NAMES 

sins in a former existence and altogether unworthy 
of spiritual comfort. A Brahman, under ordinary 
circumstances, would rather die than touch one. It 
has been said that the shadow of one passing over 
the person of a Brahman, would be an offence to 
be lawfully expiable by the life of the too near 
approaching outcast. But I have never heard of 
such an expiation. I have, on the contrary, been 
associated with Brahmans and Dehrs in such deep 
distress as to have witnessed their hands dipped at 
the same moment into the same puddle, impatient 
to raise a portion of liquid to their parched lips. 

It has been supposed that the persecutions of the 
Hindus by TIMUR, about the year 1400, caused the 
voluntary exile of many. But such persecutions 
would have exiled, if any, various tribes that is, 
individuals of many; and it cannot be supposed 
that all would, even in the lapse of three or four 
centuries, have become so homogeneous, in regard to 
personals and principles, as the widely spread race 
under our notice. There was then, and is still, 
plenty of room in India for emigrants from the seat 
of war even of TIMUR'S wars. I should judge the 
wanderers to be of much older date although they 
may not have reached Western Europe, or have been 
noticed on record, earlier than the dates assigned. 
These seem to be in Bohemia, Hungary, and the 
German states, in 1417 ; in Swisserland and France, 
in the following year : and in England the time of 
HEN. 8. is that given for their first appearance. 

Their gross number has been (I should, without 
professing to possess any good data for it, guess 



IN GREECE, &C. 351 

greatly over-) estimated at five millions. Of this, 
one million have been reckoned in Europe ; a half 
in Africa ; one and a half in India ; and two mil- 
lions throughout the rest of Asia. Spain is supposed 
to have sixty thousand of them. 

GRELMAN has shown a great affinity between the 
Gipsy language and Hindustani. My late worthy 
friend, MATTHEW RAPER a V.P. of the R.S. 
abridged and translated GRELMAN'S large work. 
It has become scarce. A new edition, in 8vo., 
with notes adapted to the present day, would, 
I think, be well received. Many years have elapsed 
since I saw RAPER'S 4to., and I have forgotten all 
the lingual affinities. Some years ago, I recollect, 
among other things, asking a black-eyed, black- 
haired, dark-skinned, white-toothed, handsome 
gipsy woman, what she called this? showing her a 
knife. " Chury," she said : exactly as half the 
inhabitants of the great Indian range above indi- 
cated would have answered from Indus to the 
Brahmaputra. I have forgotten the rest of our 
colloquy. 1 

I may have occasion in another page to say some- 
thing on piscine worship and mysteries, so exten- 
sively observable. I find a reference to BUCK- 
INGHAM'S Mesopotamia- on that subject, having 

1 I received the same answer to the same question, from a 
like person within a week of my writing this note May 
1833. 

2 Of the same meaning as Doab in India betvveen-rivers. 
Mesopotamia is the ancient Chaldea; or, as I contend, Ktil- 
devs. 



352 SANSKRIT NAMES 

connexion with what I have to say, in conclusion, 
on the attractive subject of CALIRHOE or KA- 
LI RU HI. In that country it was that VENUS, 
flying from the wrath of TYPHON, was meta- 
morphosed into a fish. Dag, in the language of 
that country, is a fish; and DAGON, in the mytho- 
logy of the Chaldeans, was the fish-formed VENUS. 
To this day there are sacred fish kept in the pool of 
Abraham at C7r, or Or/a. 

Dag, in some oriental languages, means dew ; as 
it means, also, in the current dialect of Suffolk and 
Norfolk at this day. (See Sit folk Words.} VENUS 
was formed from the sea-foam (or dew ?). OM 
is one of her many names. UM A is a name of a cor- 
responding goddess in India. Om and On have 
been deemed the same. 1 Ur 9 PLINY says, is Cal- 
lirrhoen an easy dialectic transition from CalUrhoc, 
or Kaliriihi. Ur appears to have been a seat of the 
true religion in days of old ; and of mythic super- 
stition in later times. 

Of CALLIOPE or, as it would suit me to write 
her name KAL!OPE the coryphee of the Muses, 
presiding over eloquence and heroic poetry, I will 
interpolate the remark that she seems to correspond 
most with SARASWATI " sweet grace of BRAH- 
MA'S bed" the goddess of eloquence, writing, 
music, and the creative arts whose " sighs are 
music, and each tear a pearl/' CALLIOPE, if 
written Kaliapa, or Kaliyapa, would farther connect 

1 Speculations on O'M and ON leading to o'm-nya in the 
East, omnia, &c. in the West might be profitably pursued. 



IN GREECE. 353 

her with Sanskrit sound and significancy. The 
etymology of CALLIOPE is probably the same as I 
have surmised of KALIRUHI Kothhoc, beauty, and 
o\J/, countenance or face. 

There are, as may be supposed, many celebrated 
females named C A LI R HOE. One was daughter of 
NIOeE. Legends connected with both the Greek 
and Sanskrit Kaliruki, run parallel : a fatal neck- 
lace ; fatal to, among others, HERM!ONE, who re- 
ceived it from EUROPA, she from TUpiTER denial 
of connubial rites proceedings of a very tragic and 
ensanguined nature, denote some striking analogies 
in their respective histories. 

A name of KALI or PARVATI, is SATI ; meaning 
transcendent purity. It is the word so often in 
English mouths and types, as Suttee. In one of 
her adventures, in rage and revenge at not having 
been invited to a wedding or a funeral I may have 
forgotten which, but it was a feast (every event 
with Brahmans, as much as among Englishmen, is 
begun and ended with a feast ; it is, as it were, the 
necessary alpha and omega of all ceremonies) in 
rage and revenge, she flung herself into the fire and 
was consumed. She became SATI or Pure: for, 
as MENU says, " Fire is the great Purifier." 1 This 
is the origin of the name and practice of Suttee. 
She was consumed, not destroyed ; changed, not 
annihilated. Being immortal she was merely 
regenerated. A poet would perhaps say she was 

1 Whether it were a wedding or a funeral, the presence of 
fire is essential. There is a mysterious triad of fires the 
nuptial, the funeral, and the sacrificial. 



354 SANSKRIT NAMES 

embraced by AGNI the igne-ous, god. I have a 
picture of SIT A in the flames, sustained by the two- 
faced, three-legged, six-armed, red-skinned AGNI. 
All these attributes are extensively and profoundly 
significant of which see HP. 

So the interesting young female, of exquisite 
beauty, distractedly beloved by a Bacchic high-priest 
of Calydon (mark Kalidun, or Mount Kali, and 
hence, as hinted in another place, Caledonia} named 
CALIROE, or KALIRUI, as I say, became a Suttee, 
or Sati. Her igneous immolation was decreed by 
an oracle, in consequence, or in punishment, of her 
frigidity. But even the inquisitor of that day, re- 
lenting at the sight of her beauty her Kaliroe, or 
Fair-face and, smitten with remorse at such con- 
templated enormity, destroyed, not her, but himself. 
And KALIRUHI as I choose to call her, followed 
his example. She became Sati but whether by 
solitary suicide, or by concremation, is not stated. 
Hindu females still commit the sad act both ways. 
With the body of the husband it is called Saha- 
marana. Without, when he have died at a distance, 
it is Anumarana, or post-cremation. The latter I 
have never witnessed. Concremation I have, too 
often and, having taken notes at the time, and col- 
lected some materials thereon, could, I think, con- 
coct an interesting Fragment on the suicidal subject 
of Sati. 

In former pages, 245, 7, 8. we have seen Kaliya, 
a Greek word, in supposed connexion with a like 
Sanskrit name. So Calliope and Kaliyapa, may be 
fancied similar. The last word in Sanskrit means 



IN GREECE. 355 

silent meditation on KALI: a species of worship, or 
propitiation, much pressed in Hindu precepts. Yap 
is thus, and otherwise, used on several occasions. 
Ask a Hindu astronomer the name of the constel- 
lation which we call CasslOpeia, and he will imme- 
diately tell you KASYAPA ; and give you the legend 
of the exaltation to astral honors of the important 
historical personage, who bore that name on earth. 

" So the Muses, aye 

In-dwellers of the Olympian mansion, used 
To sing- : the chiefest of them all Calliope. 
For she alone with Kings majestical 
Walks." ELTON'S HESIOD. T/ieog. 

Connected with Kal, in the relationship of fire, 

heat, blackness, darkness, &c. we may notice nbp, 
caleo, to grow hot. Here we have the root, in imme- 
diate combination with the ever-recurring sound, IO. 
Our coal, has also the root, and sense. It used to be 
written col and coll. JUNIUS, Etym. ANG., writes 
it cole. In the Mid. N. Dream we read, " like 
lightning in the collied night." And in OTHELLO, 
" And passion having my best judgment collied." 
ii. 3. So in a comedy called the Family of Love, 
1608 "Carry thy link t'other way thou colliest 
me and my ruffle." " The word, I am assured," 
says STEEVENS, " is still used in the midland 
counties. In the northern counties fine black clay 
or ochre is commonly known by the name of callow 
or killow" (mark the immateriality of the initial, 
and the interchangeability of the vowels). " It is 
said to have its name from kullow" (Kal\O ?) 
" which in the N. means the smut or grime on the 



356 SANSKRIT NAMES 

back of chimnies. Colly, however," he concludes, 
" is from coal, or collier. 91 

In Suffolk we have a little black troublesome 
louse which infests the top of growing beans, which 
we call collier; and when the plants are so dis- 
figured and injured, we say "the beans have got 
the collier." 

To show the farther extension of this root, in 
sound and sense, I will venture on an extract from 
my C. P. B. wherein I find this entry: " Colchi- 
cum what is this plant ? whence its Kal-ic name ? 
Is it black, or conical, or triform ? or has it any 
attributes that may be twisted into Kali-cisms?" 
And I find the following appended, by way of 
answer : " This plant has been so named from its 
abounding in Colchis, in EUboza. It is otherwise 
named lUnci and lOncacei why ? Here we have 
not only the root K L, but its intimate IO, EU, or 
IU for in sound they differ immaterially and bhu 
(bo)." " Ess. char. calyx, a spathe cor. six-cleft 
tube, springing immediately from the root " per- 
haps in this form i which is but a combination, a 
junction, a union of IO " cap. three, connected " 
(triune) "roof, bulbous, abounding in milky juice," 
like the most mysterious and sacred somalata, or 
moon-plant, of the Brahmans the acid asclepias." 

The preceding may appear trifling so may what 
follows, on Colchis, and its Kalicisms. But let us 
recollect that it is the very cradle of fable and 
mystery: all connected with it, its golden fleece, its 
Argo, and Arghanat-ics, and a hundred others, sa- 
vour of mystery, in connexion with dates older than 



IN GREECE, 



357 



JASON, and with countries, perhaps, still more 
remote. 

The characteristics or attributes of the Colchicum, 
above enumerated, would mark it as a mystical 
plant, in the eye and mind of a Hindu classifier. 
The nearest cognate eastern Kalic sound that occurs 
to me is Kalki. Kalki-kama is a Sanskrit com- 
pound, but not, that I know, applicable in this in- 
stance; unless Colchicum be of aphrodisiac tendency. 
Its poisonous quality farther denotes it Kalic. SIVA, 
as has been before noticed, p. 263 is a poison- 
swallower. 1 It stuck in his throat, and gave it an 
external blue tint ; as is seen in pictures of him. He 
is hence named NILAKANTA, or the blue-throated: 
and his ardent followers stain their throats with 
sanctified ashes and indigo. Ashes, as being the 
result of fire, are a very mystical substance, the im- 
mediate product of that great agent that great 
changer of forms or SIVA. I have known indi- 
viduals named after this azure fable ; usually called 
NEELKANT spelled differently perhaps. A Hindu 
poet, complimenting a beauty, whether a goddess 
or a mortal I have forgotten, avers that it was " in 
despair of obtaining such peerless charms that the 
disappointed consort of PARVATI drank the poison 
which dyed his neck azure." 

Hindu poetry, and, indeed, all their writings, so 
abound in mythological allusions, that an acquaint- 
ance with that species of their learning, as they 

1 In chemical hieroglyphics ? is arsenic. 



358 SANSKRIT NAMES 

call it, is necessary to the comprehension of any 
author. 

One of the attributes of the black, terrific goddess 
is a cup, wherein to receive the blood of her victims. 
This containing vessel is called, among other names, 
argha, and putra. With us a cup is variously called 
cal-ix, cat-ice, and chal-ice but he might be deemed 
an incurable or outrageous etymologist who would 
endeavour thence to trace relationship; or the do- 
lorous initials of such words as cala-imty, c#o/-era, 
&C. 1 to a like source. KALI, and IRA, and IST, 
would, in combination when one of two medial 
vowels is mute produce like sounds : but, although 
these are severally names of the goddess, I cannot 
say that connectedly Kalira, Kalisi they are then 
so. She is, however, the deity propitiated in times 
of pestilence, to avert her anger. 

I have somewhere recently read of " SMASIN 
KALI, as the consort of KALA, in her character of 
goddess of cemeteries. Images of her under this 
name and form " (the form I have not seen or 
heard of) " have been made and set up and in- 
voked in various places about Calcutta, and other 
towns in India, in the hope of checking the cholera, 
which has of late years so extensively afflicted those 
fair regions. The ceremonies are said to commence 
at the new moon." 

1 What a number of English words of dark, dolorous, 
chronic, fiery (all Kalic) meanings, might be collected of this 
initial sound ; among them, calcine, calculate, caldron, ca- 
lefy, calid, caligation, caloric, calx, kalender, kali, kiln, &c. 



IN GREECE. 359 

The above I appear to have taken from some pe- 
riodical ; and appended to it, is a note of inquiry. 
" SmasinV Sema SamiV" which is thus answered. 
SAM i is a name of KALI, connected with ceme- 
teries, in as far as under that name she is invoked 
as the goddess of the Sami tree the Adenanthera 
aculeata of the pure wood of which, by the mys- 
terious friction of two cones, of occult Linga-ic and 
\Oni-c forms, Brahmans are, under particular cir- 
cumstances, required to kindle an unearthly fire 
for the due performance of the tripartite ceremonies 
of their nuptials, the sradha or sacrificial duties in 
honor of departed ancestors, and for their own 
funerals. 

Another of the names of this goddess of ceme- 
teries is KAMI; and another SAMI-RAMI. Under 
the latter she has been found to correspond, in le- 
gend, as well as in name, to the S EMIR AMIS of the 
Greeks. The IONO of that race was named SAMIA, 
from Samos, her reputed birth-place, under the 
shade of an agnus-castus, or chaste-tree ; common on 
that island. The Hindu SAMI is annually recalled 
to life by ceremonies performed under the pure 
shade of the Sami tree ; a spot peculiarly sacred to 
her. Some of the leaves of that holy tree, and some 
of the earth of that consecrated spot, are carried 
away and kept till the festival of the ensuing year. 
Samos also produced a peculiar kind of earth called 
Samia terra ; but I know not how much super- 
stition may be attached to it. JUNO is declared by 
mythologists to be the same as ION A and as SE- 
LENE, from an arkite relationship. Her image at 



360 SANSKRIT NAMES 

Samos stood in a lunette, crescent-crowned, In 
Lacotria, a statue was styled VENUS-JUNONTA. 
BRYANT. " The name of the dove was ION A ; 
often expressed AD-!ONA. DIO.NE is VENUS 
Aphrodite.'' Ib. 

Trees, as being among the most beautiful pro- 
ductions of Nature and, I was going to say, among 
the most wonderful, but that all her productions 
seem when duly examined almost equally so have 
become all the world over the immediate objects of 
poetry, fable, enthusiasm, and superstition. Some 
instance will appear casually in this volume, and the 
subject might be greatly extended. 

Whence cemetery ? from xoju,ao>, as some have 
said, meaning put to sleep; oblivion, forgetfulness? Is 
not this almost as far-fetched as Sma, Sema, Sam-it 
And why may we not be allowed the endeavour to 
trace cholera, colera, to KALI R A as the consort of 
the choleric god (and she herself, as we have re- 
cently seen, is IUNO-like in her anger) may be 
well called, by the mere union of two of her names, 
as has just been shown. Such is the case in SA MI- 
RAM i. I do not say that she is named K A LIRA, 
nor know that she is not. 

Let us say something farther on the poetical 
country of the Colchiciim. Colchis or Cho/cos, had a 
noted city named Cyta. SIT A, we have seen in 
another page, is an interesting personage in Hindu 
e pi cs the faithful wife of RAMA, "of cerulean 
hue;" like KRISHNA, who is sometimes black, as 
well as blue. All the rivers of Colchis run into the 
EUjcine sea. Here is the usual mysterious junction 



IN GREECE, &C. 361 

Kal IO which would be hieroglyphically expressed 
A or H or perhaps -t : as is intended to be shown 
when we come to explain the upper line A of PI. v. 
Nos. 5. 14. HERODOTUS says that the Colchians 
were originally Egyptians, and were black: SE- 
SOSTRIS having left part of the army with which 
he invaded Scythia in Colchis, to people it. They 
had, he says, woolly hair, and were of a dark com- 
plexion. This description applies to many of the 
Abyssiniam? Habshi, as they call themselves na- 
tives of Habesh. BRYANT supposes the Colchians 
to have been one of the most ancient colonies of the 
Cuthites one of their principal cities, he says, was 
Cuta : the Caucasian range of mountains ran through 
their country ; named, after their ancestor Chus. 
FA BE R, in his Cabiri i. 266 says that "the snaky 
locks of Gorgon, and the Colchian dragon, equally 
relate to the solar superstition." I should expect to 
find in Colchis if any archaic thing remain the site 
or ruins of a temple or temples heretofore relating 
to the more eastern KALI, and mountains from 
their forms, and rivers, bearing Kalic names. I 
infer that the name and colour of the abode and race 
of the Kalki-ans another mode of writing it, but 

O ' 

pronounced sufficiently like Colchians have re- 
ference to the black goddess of India ; in like man- 
ner as in India, Habshi or hubshee is applied to 
black things grapes for instance from their colour, 
more than from supposing them natives of Habesh : 
who, as we have recently seen, are so called. 

From a passage in the preceding par. we might 
be reasonably led to expect Hinduisms in that fine 
2 H 



362 SANSKRIT NAMES 

range, the Caucasus. After noticing that the Ar- 
ghanathic expedition has intimate connexion with 
Colchis, and that the Colchians have been just men- 
tioned in connexion with Caucasus, let us run a 
rapid eye over those mountains, and see if they retain 
any vestiges of Hinduism. If Caucasus were written 
Kakasu and how valueless the final sibilant is in 
many languages no one will deny meanings may 
be found for that compound in Sanskrit, which ab- 
hors such finals. Su, means beautiful ; and Kaha 
(cauca would do nearly as well) is a crow ; but not 
perhaps so restricted. The eagle would be a more 
befitting associate for the scenery of that glorious 
range. 

Its highest summit is called Kasi-beck. K. POR- 
TER'S Travels. Kasi, in Sanskrit, denotes pre-emi- 
nency ; and is a classical name of the Hindu " eternal 
city/' Benares, as hath, I think, been before noticed. 
" Tilridshkali," according to the barbarous re- 
dundancy of consonants in the Russ, is the name 
of a mountain torrent of that region, flowing from 
Kasi-beck, in a style described by PORT EH i. 86 
as likely to arouse the feelings of a mystic Hindu. 
It would remind him of his own Ganga, and the 
scenery of Nipal. " Kristawaja, or mountain of the 
cross,' 7 looks and sounds more like Sanskrit than 
Russ or any other language : so does " the moun- 
tain god, GAR A." i. 90. The description of these 
mountains and cleft passes by PORTER, would suit 
almost equally well for the similar scenery of the 
Himalaya. 

Approaching the sacred and poetical regions of 



IN THE CAUCASUS, &C. 363 

Ararat, a town named Goomri, a river Akhoor, and 
a monastery Kotchivan, occur, i. 170, 1. The last 
is good Mahratta Sanskrit, meaning the vehicle or 
support of the tortoise : on which mythological, ter- 
raqueous, animal, VISHNU and other arkite deities 
are seen. I know not if Ararat can be tortured into 
Sanskrit, or if it require any such torturing. The 
final rat, or rat'h, is a vehicle, or support, or rest, in 
some of its dialects. " Anni" is a place in that 
neighbourhood 172. "We crossed the Akhoor near 
a spot where a boiling spring issues from the ground, 
accompanied by volumes of steam.' 7 177. The city 
of " Nagchivan " 179 compounded of nag, the 
great mythological serpent, and van, its vehicle or 
rest. VJSHNU is often seen reposing on that "thou- 
sand-headed" " Opliiucus huge;" and otherwise 
connected with it. Nag is the king of the serpent 
race an endless source of Hindu fabulous legend. 
" Talish," 181" Karakala," 198 " Makoo," 
(q. Mahakoo ?) " Sheroor Sevan," 202 remind 
us strongly of Hindu names of places. Again * 
" Devaloo, Oujary," 210" Kalagan," 214 and 
others, which the curious reader will find described 
by PORTER in the neighbourhood of Ararat, would 
induce a belief that the Sanskrit tongue and Hindu 
superstition once had sway in that region. In i. 
571, he mentions " Kanarah," near Persepolis. 

More such names might be found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ararat. But, few as these are, it may 
be doubted if so many so closely allied to a Hindu 
language can be found in all France or England. 
In Ireland, Scotland and her isles, they abound ; as 



304 SANSKRIT NAMES 

we hope to show soon. We must now take leave of 
Sir KER PORTER, with whom I had the pleasure 
of a slight acquaintance, lamenting the loss of so 
accomplished a gentleman. 

We have slid, as it were, out of Greece for a 
while ; not quitted it abruptly and must now re- 
turn thitherto notice a few miscellaneous gatherings, 
before we finally quit that seducing country. 

Considering the ultra-poeticalities of Olympus, I 
am disappointed at the unyielding Greekness of its 
name. The " biforked hill," if this be it, promised 
something Hinduish ; identifying or connecting it 
with the Kailasa, the terrestrial paradise of SIVA ; 
or with Merti, the OJympidj in every thing but name, 
of Hindu poetics. I can make nothing of it under 
the name of Olympus. What other names has it ? 

Its immediate neighbourhood yields a little. Olym- 
pia city is at the foot of mount SATURN, washed 
by the river Cladeus, which soon intermingles with 
the ION i -an sea. This city was among the most 
celebrated of antiquity for sacred groves, trees, &c. 
mysteries. We may here trace some Kalacisms. 
KAL, like SATURN, is Time in Cladeus, we may 
fancy Kaladeo, or deva. But leave we Olympus and 

" the Olympian maids 

The daughters they of aegis-bearing JOVE 
Whom, to the embrace of JOVE, MNEMOSYNE 

bare of old in the Pierian mount 

Thrice three nights did JOVE embrace her. 
She, some distant space from where 
Olympus highest rears its snow-capt head, 
Brought forth the thrice three maids whose minds 
Are knit in harmony." ELTON'S HESIOD, T/teog. 



IN GREECE, &C. 365 

Of CASSANDRA, I can make but little. Kasi and 
INDRA offer some speculation in sound : but I am 
unable to connect them by any common legend. 
The many daughters of PRIAM and of the Puranic 
DAKSHA ; and SATURN and the Apsarasa mermaids, 
might perhaps be brought into relationship by an 
initiated hand. But I neither know their names; 
nor where to find them, or their histories 

" Then embracing earth, 
He fashion'd the great THAUMAS, 
And blooming CETO 

From NEREUS, and the long-hair'd DORIS, nymph 
Of Ocean's perfect stream, there sprang to light 
A lovely band of children, goddesses, 
Dwelling within the uncultivable main 
They from the blameless NEREUS sprang to light: 
His fifty daughters versed in virtuous tasks/' Ib. 

The name of CALYPSO is also prominent but 
here again I am in ignorance. If Kalapsara were 
admissible, something might be said connecting the 
poetical personages of the preceding par. and quo- 
tation : " goddesses, dwelling within the uncul- 
tivable main." 

We read of the " gulf of Bhagena, or Golokythitt, 
near the channel of Cerigo " the southern point of 
the Morea: a promontory, probably. Such are in 
India symbolic of SIVA. BHAGA and BHAGI are 
names of him and his consort. In Colo we have 
the root of Kal ; in Cerigo, Srigao, Cerigo I have 
noted as in connexion, if not identical, with Ceri- 
gotto, but have omitted my authority. Srigao may 



366 SANSKRIT NAMES IN GREECE, &C. 

in Sanskrit mean holy kine ; and Srigat, a holy 
gate, or pass. 

Candia, the modern name of Crete, is said by an 
anonymous writer to be derived from Khunda, the 
Arabic name of the capital. Capitals rarely give 
names to countries and I should be rather dis- 
posed to say, from the Sanskrit Kunda, a hill, or 
Kund, a pool or lake. Is there any noted hill or 
lake near the city, likely to have afforded a name 
to it, or to the island ? 

" Macronisi, or the isle of HELEN," noted in 
history or fable for amatory scenics, reminds us of 
KAMA'S piscatory symbol Makara; or of one of 
his names thence derived, MAKARI. I si, it may be 
recollected, is a name of PARVATI ; but I am not 
aware of its having any direct reference to the 
freaks of the Hindu CUPID, one of whose names is 
KANDARPA. As may be supposed,, his names and 
attributes and legends are perpetually alluded to by 
all Sanskrit writers ; whether poetic or didactic. 
When KRISHNA in the Gita, is likening, or rather 
identifying himself with the first of every thing, he 
says, " Among fishes I am the Makar I am the 
prolific KANDARPA, the god of love." And in ex- 
planatory reference to a passage in p. 355, I may 
add " I am, amongst worships, the 



367 



IN AFRICA. 

THOSE of my Readers who may be classed as 
Orientalists ; who have watched the progressive 
developement of the cognascence of the Sanskrit and 
Greek mythology and languages ; may not, per- 
haps, be much surprised at what precedes touching 
chiefly geographical nomenclature connected with 
such mythology. No one must expect to dip into 
Greek or Sanskrit literature without ever-recurring 
allusions to that all-pervading subject. " There 
gods meet gods, and jostle in the dark." But what 
is to be expected in the Cimmerian regions of Central 
Africa *t Who looks thither for poetry or polish ? And 
who may not feel some surprise at finding the rivers, 
mountains, towns things which usually receive 
appellations least liable to change bearing Sanskrit 
(and Greek?) names; almost as commonly as the 
rivers, mountains, towns, of India or Greece '! 

The following few pages contain some of such 
instances as have occurred in the currency of my 
very limited reading. I do not recollect that I ever 
read a volume, or a page, expressly in search of 
such things in reference to Greece, Africa, or any 
other region. They are of incidental occurrence and 
notice. Those referring to Greece, and most of those 
referring to Africa, were noted many years ago. 



368 SANSKRIT NAMES 

Some of the latter were published in the Asiatic 
Journal of 1817. Wishing to throw together the 
Greek and African coincidences, I will here note the 
latter, substantially in the form in which they were 
communicated to that Journal although at the risk 
of some repetition. 

The similarity in the usages, customs, &c. of dis- 
tant regions and remote ages, have amusingly and 
profitably attracted the notice, and employed the 
pen of many writers. The same may be said, in 
perhaps a greater degree, of affinities in the lan- 
guages of people geographically and chronologically 
remote. Such similarities and affinities are some- 
times very striking and unaccountable ; and have 
given rise to various speculations curious, learned, 
profound, extravagant. But I do not recollect any 
writer attempting to amuse or instruct the reading 
public in a branch of coincidence so to speak that 
appears to me as curious and striking as any of 
those above mentioned ; nearly, indeed, related to 
them. and which as naturally gives rise to specula- 
tions that, if pursued, might ramify into all the de- 
scriptions just enumerated. I mean in the Names of 
Places such as cities, towns, hills, mountains, 
rivers which may be generically classed under the 
Head of " Geographical Nomenclature." 

I have little pretension to the ability of instructing 
the public : but perhaps some readers may conde- 
scend to excuse this attempt to contribute to their 
amusement, by pointing out sundry coincidences in 
India, Greece, Africa, America, Britain, and other 



IN AFRICA. 369 

parts of the world ; between which it may not be 
easy to discover any ready channels of lingual inter- 
communication. 

I will now show that many of the towns, hills, 
rivers, &c. of Africa even deep in her interior 
have Sanskrit names or names sounding very like 
that language. What their signification may be in 
the dialects of Africa, if any, I have no means of 
ascertaining. Some may sound like corrupt Arabic 
but perhaps have no local meaning in modern 
language. 

Let me here observe, that although in all parts of 
the world all names of places (and of persons also) 
may reasonably be supposed to have been originally 
significant in the local tongue, yet in the lapse of 
time the sounds have altered ; and the sense has 
been forgotten, in so many instances, that etymologi- 
cal research has been often put to the test, and not 
seldom whimsically extended, in the attempt to 
trace such varied sounds and meanings up the tor- 
tuous stream of ages back. x 



i A stranger to the languages of Europe, or even an uniu- 
structed Englishman, would not easily recognize the names of 
Our SAVIOUR in the mouths, or from the pens, of nations half 
a dozen leagues or hours to our eastward. The French pro- 
nunciation cannot, perhaps, be better expressed by our 
letters than thus ZSHASOO KREE. This may serve to shovr 
the difficulties of etymologists, in this line and what licence* 
may be taken and allowed, when ages and oceans have rolled 
between the regions thus attempted to be lingually re-united. 
And let it be farther observed, that when I write of Hindu- 



370 SANSKRIT NAMES 

In hilly and poetical countries most billy coun- 
tries are, or have been, poetical mythology, the reli- 
gion of the day, has lent its extensive aid to geogra- 
phical nomenclators. This applies strongly to 
Indict, where the Pantheon of the Hindus is found 
to have been the grand magazine whence such per- 
sons have derived and applied their varied appella- 
tions : a very great proportion of which is thus easily 
traceable by any one moderately skilled in the dia- 
lects of India. And as the sacred language of the 

O O 

Hindus and their mythology are little or nothing 
altered in the lapse of many centuries, in India we 
may run and read in the features of nature, and in 
the early works of man, the origin not only of local 
nomenclature, but the names of places very ancient, 
and distant from this supposed source. Through 
what channels, lingual and geographical, the current 
of connexion may have run, is not evident ; and has 
been the subject of the speculations above de- 
scribed. 

With these premises I invite the Reader to remark 
the following names of places which occurred to me 
in a recent perusal of Park's last mission, as coming 
within their purview : 

Jonkakonda Tetidiconda Kootakunda Tatti- 



isms in Greece, Africa, &c. I do not mean to be restricted 
within precise geographical, or even historical boundaries. 
** In or about,' 7 " in such neighbourhood ;" or under such 
influences, now, or at some earlier period, may rather be un- 
derstood. 



TN AFRICA. 371 

konda Barraconda Seesekund Tambttkunda 
Mariancounda Tandacunda Fatteconda Maura- 
conda. 1 

On this class of names what I have before said, 
touching Kunda, a /////, and Kund, a pool or lake, 
applies here and may suffice. Such terminations are 
common in India, and are almost always, I believe, 
found attached to hills or pools, or to their imme- 
diate vicinity. Some instances I will note : Gol- 
conda; or, as I conjecture, Kalkunda Gurrumkonda 
Gancskunda Kailkunda Inaconda Mi conda ; 
(perhaps Mahehunda) Nargovnd Noulgootid 
Penekonda Curacunda. Many others might be 
added. Whether these terminations be spelled like 
PARK'S konda, condtt, kunda, cauti da ; or like those 
of India, which are as varied as PARK'S, with 
the farther difference of gotuid, kendu, ken, gundy t 
&c., I am disposed to refer them all to the Sanskrit 
kund or kunda. The same sound in India is found 
initial in Condapil/y Cond Conjeveram Condatchy 
Cundapoor Cundwah, &c. Whether these be all, 
or chiefly, names of hills, I have no present means of 
ascertaining- but suspect so. PARK has omitted to 
mention the description of places bearing the name 
of Konda in Africa : but I suspect them also to be 
hills, or connected with them. 

1 I had here, and in the names, &c. hereafter given, re- 
ferred to the pages of the several authors whence I have 
taken them as I have generally done, precedingly, in 
respect to Sanskritisms in Greece : but considering the little 
probable utility of such minute references, I have now, to 
save room, mostly omitted them. 



372 SANSKRIT NAMES 

Let me here (again) observe that in names of orien- 
tal places, persons, or things, vowels must not be 
supposed to stand for much. A substantial reason 
will be or has been ? ;iven for this in another 

O 

place. Consonants are the bones and sinews of iso- 
late words. A substitution of these important verte- 
brae of vocables may be allowed to a certain extent. 
I shall, however, require these indulgencies in a very 
limited degree : not exceeding, perhaps, the allow- 
able interchange of a b and v or a y and a.j or a k 
andg. 

With a little of this licence where wanted, and it 
may be, and is, allowed to others, as well as to dis- 
tressed etymologers, let us try to turn PARK'S Afri- 
can names into Hindi. Jonkakotida may be Jaueka- 
kunda, or the hill of JANEKA. I know not, it is true, 
of any such hill in India but JANEKA and his 
daughter JANEKI, commonly called JANKY, are im- 
portant mythological or historical persons well known 
in India; 1 and may well have given their names to a 
hill or river there, as well as in Africa. 

Tendiconda and Tandacunda, of PARK, are, I 
imagine, the same place, or the same name. And 
although here again I have no knowledge of any 
such compound name in India, yet I and a is a Hindu 
word, and the name of a town in Bengal ; where, 
indeed, there are few or no hills to fix it on that 
country being chiefly alluvial and flat. I should, 
therefore, expect to find there few or no Kunda as 

1 And, of course, noticed, with some of the fables con- 
nected with them, in the HP. 



IN AFRICA. 373 

names of places and the hilly country of the dekkan 
to abound in them. A town in the Carnatic is named 
Tondi. In some dialects of India, tanda, or tunda, 
or tund (vowels are of no moment, the root is tnd) 
means cold. And although we may not, at first 
view, expect a reason for its positive application in 
the interior of Africa or in Bengal, yet comparative 
degrees of cold exist every where and perhaps in 
very elevated spots positive too.i The " Hill of 
Cold" may not unreasonably be looked for and 
found within the tropics, though not so obviously, as 
within the polar regions. Mountains covered with 
the snows of a thousand winters are in sight from 
Bengal. 

The Kootakunda of Africa may be also traced to 
India. In modern dialects though I do not say 
that such dialects are derived immediately from the 
Sanskrit, the prime radix perhaps of all language - 
Koota means a dog : and it farther means short, or 
low of stature. It is found initial, final, and sole, in 

1 Nor need we ascend or move extra-tropically for positive 
cold. I have known it so cold in Bombay that the troops 
could not parade at the usual time, day-break. It was put 
off till the sun was high. Travelling once to Poona accom- 
panied as is mentioned in p. 148. we pitched our tents the 
first night it was Christmas Eve at Panwell, near the tank. 
It was a bitterly cold night. We moved at day-break next 
morning and my gallant, and noble, and shivering friend 
pointed my attention to the thermometer hanging on his tent- 
rope. I write from recollection, but I am within bounds when 
I say it was under 40 : and that on coming to our new 
ground, the same thermometer in the same position, in the 
shade, stood upwards of 100. 

2 I 



374 SANSKRIT NAMES 

the names of many places in India. The name oc- 
curs in like manner in Africa. I should judge but a 
to be Sanskrit, and to mean a town, from finding it 
applied to places spread all over India. Perhaps 
Calcutta (KaUknt?) Calicut Devicotta Palam- 
cotta Gooty Dutidergultee Mi/gotta Kota 
Teekotta, &c. may all contain it. The Kootakunda 
of PARK may therefore be set down for a compound 
Indian word. 

Of Tattikonda the same may be said. Tatti, or 
Tatta, is a word current in Indian dialects ; and is a 
name, and part of a name, of Indian places and 
things. 

The same as to the Baraconda of Africa. Bara is 
an Indian word of several meanings. Applied to a 
place, it would perhaps be more classically written 
Vara or Varaha, a name well known to Hindu my- 
thologists. It is as often pronounced Bara. 

" Seesekund" PARK says, " is the same village 
with Kitssai, the inhabitants having changed its 
name." Seesu or Sisu is an ancient Hindu name of 
persons and things. 

" Tambakunda " is Indian. There are Tamba- 
cherry, Tamracherry, Tambah, Tambekhan, &c. In 
some dialects tamba is copper. If we drop the b, tarn 
or tama would mean darkness, blackness, &c. and 
has extensive applications. Of " Mariancounda" 
and " Mauraconda," I shall only say that they have 
Indian sounds. A hill on which we have a fort a 
mile or two inland from Tellicherry, is named Mora- 



IN AffclCA. 375 

kitna where I have passed many a day but I be- 
lieve this termination in Malabar is from a source 
different from kunda. 

" Fatteconda " is an Indian compound. Fatte or 
Futteh is more immediately Persian. I do not know 
indeed that it is at all Sanskrit, although used in some 
dialects deduced therefrom. Fatteconda in India, 
like Futtyghur, means the hill or fort of victory. 
The latter would be, perhaps, more correctly spelled 
Fdttehghiri : but I am not sure whether ghur may 
not, like poor, or pur, or pura, or puri, or pooree, as 
it is variously written and spoken, mean distinctively a 
town or fort and ghiri, or girl, restrictively a hill. 
Futtehpet, Fattehabad, &c. occur in India meaning 
the town and abode of conquest. 

On Koonda, or Ko*dy t otgoond, or Kendy, or Ken, 
I may here note, that near Pootta, on the road to 
Bombay, is a hill and village named Ganeskondy, 
sometimes called and written Gunrrisken. There is 
a temple on the side of the hill, looking eastward, 
in which is an image of GANESA, the elephant- 
headed son of PARVATI ; said to have been miracu- 
lously developed there. This miracle happened, 
like some others at Poona, 1 think, in my time, I 
have passed the temple a hundred times, and almost 
as often vowed to visit and examine it ; inquire its 
history, &c. But, as usual, what one can do any 
day is often not done at all and so it is with me 
and the temple at Ganitkundy. A miraculously 
discovered, or heaven-descendedj image, is as com- 
mon in India as in Italy. The consequential en- 
dowment of a fane is a matter of course a temple, 



376 SANSKRIT NAMES 

a priest, a town perhaps priests, a city and see. 
The similarity of the legendary histories is, as 
perhaps, has been before said, surprising. 

Having been thus diffuse in the notice of this first 
class of African names, I shall hasten through the 
others selected from PARK'S last mission, to ex- 
emplify my speculations. Samee (SAMI is a name 
of PARVATI, as before noticed) Kutijar Wallia, 
creek Madina, Tabajang, Jambero Manjalli, 
Tabba Cotta Jallacotta, Maheena, Tambico : " Sa- 
makara, woods and wilderness " Mambari Sam- 
bankala (SAMBA and KALA, personages of the 
Hin. Pan.) Tambaura, mountains ; Toombijeena, a 
pass through them Serimana (S RIM ANA, a name 
of KARTIKYA) Neetakalla (words strictly San- 
skrit, and ever recurring in every mythological or 
historical inquiry) " Ku llalie, a very high, de- 
tached, rocky, hill." (Such hills in India are typical 
of KALA) Gangaran, (Ganga, the Ganges} Se- 
coba " Sankaree, a high rocky hill, which rises 
like an immense castle from the plain." (SivA, the 
spouse of the mountain goddess PARVATI, is named 
SANKARA.) 

Sabooseera Jeena Wangara Nemansana 
Kooli Chekora Koonteela Doomba Tancra- 
wally Yanimarou Talimangoly Mousala 
Samicouta Chicowray Jyallacoro Soobacara 
Tacoutalla Bancomalla " Yaminna, or the river 
Joliba." The Joliba is the Niger. In the more 
euphonic Sanskrit it would probably be Yalava. If 
it should mean black or blue, like niger, and nila, it 
would be curious. The name of Yaminna, con- 



IN AFRICA. 377 

nected with the Niger, reminds one of the river 
Yamuna of India, called " the blue daughter of the 
sun" in Hindu poetics meaning, perhaps, that she 
is the offspring of Vis UN u or the sun, by his melting 
operation on the snows of Himala. 

The following are taken from the map prefixed to 
PARK : Kukundy, Ko/ar, Jeogary, Bady, Konia- 
kary, Malta, Kolor, Koolar, Tallika, Koikarany, 
Samakoo (river), Mouri, Tambaoura, Sarola, Lingi- 
cotta, Mallacotta, KorankaUa, Manickoroo, Sanjee- 
cotta, Kandy, Sampaka, Sami, Jarra, Toorda^ 
Satile, Seco, Comba, Dama, Nyamo, Ghunge- 
rolla. 

Now let me ask any oriental reader if he can 
peruse these names of places without fancying them 
taken from some map of India, instead of Africa ? 
Many, and of what follow, are actually names of 
Indian places ; and most of them could be easily 
traced to their several sources in the languages of 
India, by any one moderately skilled therein. It 
may be doubted if all France, Germany, Russia, 
England, and Italy, could furnish so many places 
with Indian names, as may be gathered from 
PARK'S short journeyings in Africa ; and from his 
necessarily meagre map. Very many of these 
names, be it remembered, and of those which follow, 
occur in the depths of central Africa ; where, until 
lately, neither Hindu nor English man was ever 
seen, or perhaps heard of. Can any one, with a 
knowledge of East Indian dialects, read them, and 
deny, or doubt> that a race once inhabited those 



378 SANSKRIT NAMES 

regions, with whom some of those dialects were 

O ' 

current? 

This may be to some a tiresome topic ; but deeming 
it not incurious nor unimportant, I am disposed to 
trespass a little longer, and give some more Indian 
names from a work entitled " Proceedings of the 
African Institution." 2 vols. 8vo. 

Bishna (VISHNU is sometimes seen so written, 
and BISHNU and BISHEN) Woolli Fittayeraboy 
(a place where there are hot wells is named Vize- 
raboy, a few miles S. of Bombay). Kirisnani 
Coniakari Sooma (SoMA, the moon) Comoroo 
Coomba (KoMARA and KUMBA are Hindu mytho- 
logical personages) Karaleeja ngo Ta lica Gung- 
gadi Semegonda, near Wangara Walll KOORA- 
BARRI DEM B A these two are names of men. 
Siratik. Sira, and Sidatik are names of towns in 
the Dekkan. Tikri is a hill in some East India 
dialects. 

The following are from HOR NEMAN'S route on 
the map : Siwah, Terane, Rhamanie, Sakra, Sidi- 
bishir. (SiDi is a name of SIVA Vrisha, whence 
bishir may be allowedly derived, is part of a name of 
his VRISHADWAJA, he who rides a bull.) Tripoli, 
and Temisscij may be from the Sanskrit Tripala and 
Tamisa. 

These are from the line of PARK'S route on the 
map : Downie Jinbala Kamalia Ganga 
Yamina Calimana. The last four places are close 
to each other on the Niger. If found on the Ganga 
or Yamuna (Ganges, or Jumna) they would have 



IN AFRICA. 379 

excited no observation ; but in the interior of Africa, 
they yield a greater confirmation of my hypothesis 
of that region having been formerly inhabited by a 
Brahmana race, than any thing I have elsewhere 
met with ; and I deem the proof very striking. 
These also occur on the map : Fooliconda Massa- 
konda Worada Bali Sitaloola Koomakarry 
Sididooloo ; on which I shall only observe, that they 
are all either partly, or wholly, Indian words. 

That the interior and remote Africans have, to a 
great geographical extent, been Hindus, I am, from 
these premises, disposed to suggest : and I expect, 
when we shall become better acquainted with those 
little known regions, to find my view confirmed by 
the discovery of Hindu remains, in architecture, 
excavations, sculptures, inscriptions, or some equally 
unequivocal evidence, in addition to that of names. 
Something similar, though not at once so striking 
and convincing, to what has recently 1 been de- 
veloped in the interior of Java; and what farther 
researches may bring to light on Celebes, Borneo, 
Luconia ; and others of the vast, remote, and little 
known of the eastern isles regions as vast and as 
little known as Africa. 

The preceding appears to have been the substance 
of what was communicated to the Asiatic Journal. 

I must indulge in a quotation of a passage by my 
lamented friend Major RENNELL, in the conclusion 
of his account of the map prefixed to PARK'S last 
work : " The hospitality shown by these good 

1 This was written nearly twenty years ago. 



380 SANSKRIT NAMES 

people" (interior Africans, especially the Mandingo 
tribe,) " to Mr. PARK, a destitute and forlorn stran- 
ger, raises them very high in the scale of humanity ; 
and I know of no better title to confer on them than 
that of the Hindus of Africa." 

Since the preceding was written, and in substance 
printed, other books have passed under my eye, 
whence I have taken some more names, tending, as 
it appears to me, to confirm my aforesaid hypothesis 
touching Hindi- Africa. At the risk of being very 
tedious, I will give many of them, as briefly, how- 
ever, as I can. From DEN HAM and CLAPPERTON'S 
discoveries, these : 

Angala Loggun Mandara Merly. These are 
names of mountains in vol. i. p. 143. I have noted 
no names earlier than that page. The reader will 
not fail to remark Mandara as a mountain in the 
interior of Africa. In the same page is a place 
named Sankara> a name of SIVA ; and in those sub- 
sequent, the following : Deoga Sogama Dag- 
wamba Mora Conally Karowa Kora Mak- 
kery, hills Adamowa Mona t or Monana Raka 
Garnbarou Dower go Manga Lada Muggaby, 
lake Musgow Koorie, and Say ah, islands in the 
lake Tchad Shary, river Babbalia Begharmi 
Gourie War a Waday Meswrata Kaka Katta- 
gum Wajah. From vol. n. these: Joggabah, 
island Dttgheia Kala Gambalarnm and Gurdya, 
rivers Maou Mendoo Molee, river Katanga 
Bilma Kaleeluwha Omhah Tegerhy Digoo 
Boogowa Katungwa Nansarina Girkwa Sock- 
wa, river Duakee Raka Ongoroo Gadanea 9 or 



IN AFRICA, 



381 



Katnnia Duncamee Ratah Kagaria Dugwa 
Knkabome Mugawin Barta, wells Koka Kutri 
Burderawa Gondamee, lake Tagra Kalawawa 
Kulee Miwa Eatowa Kqffondingie Takroor 
Ghoowary Ghoondar (how if here were a lake on 
a hill ? Khundard) Atagara Kabi Yarba 
Ghoorma Banbara Ghoongo Soorami Malee 

o 

Sanghee Bhargo. Thus far DENHAM and CLAP- 
PERTON. They speak of "DUMBOJEE, the name 
of one of the Gadado's officers" " MOOD IE, the 
commander of our escort" in the very interior of 
Africa, where a white man or a Christian, was never 
before seen. 

Hastily skimming the Travels of the more fortu- 
nate Nigerian LANDER, I notice the following and 
add interpolations in view to brevity, and omit refe- 
rences : Anamaboo Badagry Accra Asmara 
(in India, asi is 80, nara a man) Gwendiki Ma- 
loo Jaguta Bohoo Eetchoolee Katanga, the 
capital of Yariba Moussa, a rivulet Kakafungi- 
Coobly Bhoosa. The chiefs of Niki, Wowow and 
Kiama " Engarsaki, a rugged and romantic range 
of hills, is called from a country of that name " 
Yaoorie Koolsu Gnarie Warrie Koroko Buoy 
Sandero. Kingka Loogo Pundi: these three, 
with other states, form the extensive kingdom of Boor go 
Catsheena, also a kingdom Zaria ZegzegMara- 
die Hausa Gonja Comassie Melalie Comie 
Lay aba Bajeibo Lec/iee Madjie Belee Da- 
canie " Gungo, an island in the Quorra, or Niger " 
Coodonia, river Cuttup Egga Kakunda the 
countries of Jacoba and Adamowa Boiqua. Aba- 



382 SANSKRIT NAMES 

zacca Tacwa Kirrie (Three rivers of consider- 
able magnitude join, of which the Quorra is one. Of 
this something is intended to be said in another page). 
Bonny and Calebar, rivers Cameroon, mountains, 
13,000 feet high (Kamr, the moon, or the full- 
moon, in India of this something elsewhere) and 
a river so named Laya Rabba, a large and 
flourishing town, with, alas ! a slave-market " from 
the river Kirrie to the mouth of the Nun" " a coun- 
try called Settra-Krou." 

" Mount Kesa," otherwise spelled Kesey, "an 
elevated rock in the midst of the Niger, rising 
abruptly ; its appearance is irresistibly imposing, 
and majestic beyond description. It is greatly vene- 
rated by the natives" (so it would be if so rising, 
Lingaically, in any river of India} " and favours the 
superstitious notions attached to it. Its legends 
are of a very interesting nature." Some of them 
are warmly given by LANDER; which might, 
seemingly, have applied to a rock in the Ganges, 
where the rock might probably have been called by 
the same name; KESA being a name of KRISHNA 
and VISHNU. 

A plate is given of " Mount Kesey" and it is 
certainly a very striking object; and would be so 
considered any where, by any race, the most en- 
lightened or the most barbarous. It exhibits this 
form Q. Its sides are "almost perpendicular and 
naked." 

In another place we find this fine aqueous obelisk 
springing, like the famed obelisk of ON (p. 285.) 
out of a great expanse of tranquil or gently moving 



IN AFRICA. 383 

water, noted as 300 feet high. I wish LANDER 
had given us the full native name not Mount 
Kesey. It may, haply, be Kesa-Kund, or some 
such. 

I also find this note on the mention of the Ca- 
meroon mountain and river by LANDER. The 
"Mountains of the Moon 57 of modern geographers, 
" Monies Pervedi " of the ancient, are likely to be 
called Camer-oon by Mahommedans from ^ Kmr, 
the full moon. Roon is an Indian word, applied to 
rivers the Coleroon in the Carnatic, I should rather 
write Kfilirun, but its orthography is too established 
to allow of alteration without the appearance of af- 
fectation. Pervedi t I believe I have before said, is 
probably PARVATI, the mountain goddess of India ; 
and the moon, then named CHANDRI, consort of 
CHANDRA, otherwise SOMA, the male moon. Soma, 
or Somma, be it remembered, is a name of Vesuvius ; 
a truly SIVA-/C mount or rather of its parent; for 
Vesuvius is by some authorities reckoned the summit 
or cone only Soma as the base, and the older name. 
In Sanskrit Soma-bhava would mark the parental 
relationship ; and such is the name currently altered 
to Sambawa of one of the most active and energetic 
of existing volcanoes one of, perhaps, ten times 
the potency and terrific extent of destructiveness of 
Vesuvius. I now speak of Sambawa, as described 
by Sir STAMFORD RAFFLES and others, in the 
eastern seas, where this lunar parentage seems ex- 
tensive including, perhaps, Sumatra. 

The mighty cone, the Cameroon, LANDER ap- 



384 SANSKRIT NAMES 

pears to describe as " dividing the embouchures of 
the spacious rivers Calebar and Delrey, from the 
equally important one of the Cameroons on the east." 
Here is, indeed, a mythos ! Such a cone, dividing 
three fine rivers before they join the sea would 
be made much of in India. Delrey is probably a 
modern name. 

In ADAMS' Sketches of Africa, these King 
COOTRY King PEPPLE King COLE. These may 
be nicknames but if African, they have Asiatic 
sounds Kutri, Pipala, Kuli, or Cooky. These 
occur as names of tribes Bejulapat Sustra-cundy 
Calawapore ; require little or no alteration to make 
them Sanskrit compounds. These, as names of 
places Teghery. This, in Southern India, means 
Fire-hill. I should perhaps write it Tighiri ; pro- 
nouncing it the same. Kishbee Ashanuma Dirkee 

O 

Bilma Lari Mandara Bhagermi. " Mora, the 
capital of Mandara, situated in a valley, at the foot 
of a noble chain of hills " where Grazzias, a cen- 
tral-African name for plunderers, reminds us strongly 
of the Grassias of the hilly regions of central- India, 
of the same habits. (The above, mentioned by 
ADAMS, appear to have been taken from the Qu. 
Rev. of that work.) 

In a newspaper review of " CAILLIE'S Travels to 
Timbuctoo" are these names of places, in the king- 
dom of Fauta Dialon, far in the interior : Kakondy 

Kankan Sambatikala Cambaya all Indian 
names and words. In another place I find these 
IJaco Tamba Bailunda Icalo Golungo 



IN AFRICA. 385 

Adongo Cunhinga Kisama Ambriz "lake 
Maravi, a dead sea ; an Asphaltes." 

I find another long list of Hindi-African names, 
taken from BOWDICH'S Ashantee. Deeming this 
portion of my Fragments as not a little curious and 
interesting being, as far as I know, the opening of a 
new branch or channel of inquiry far from unimportant 
I must here add many of them, though tiresome, 
probably, to some readers : omitting those names 
which may have been noticed by others, earlier 
quoted : Gungaddi Jing Busampra Paraso 
Fohmani Dumpasi Dadawasi- Moodjawi Dan- 
karam Mankaran Birrim Korraman Dunsa- 
boWj river Azabimah Soubiree Sekoree Prasso 
Anijabirrum Cootacomacasa Payntree Ana- 
maboe Amparoo Abikarama Sesee Kiradi, ri- 
ver Bonasoo Dankara Yami Bhupi Salaga 
Yahndi Degomba Karhala Saraka Lako Ka- 
waree Calanna Kooukoree Doowara Hwholla 
Quolla. It is not so noticed, but the two last are 
probably rivers, or a river. Hwolla, or Woola, is a 
Dekkany name for a river; or the river, as I suspect 
it is also in Africa. Gange Yum Yum Bagarimee 
Shuerca Matchaquadie Gooroma Garnhadi- 
Uogondhagi Todonkaralee Kallaghi Barrabadi 
Mal/owa Karshala -*- Goorojie Koomba Tom- 
bed Goodooberee Cormantee Cheendul Moohn- 
da, river Sheekan Kalay Ohmbay Samashialee 
Imbekee Oondanee Bolaykee Shaibee Bayhee 
Wola t river. Query the same as Hwholla and 
Quolla, above mentioned ? Adjomba Inkajee 
Erringa Okota Ashdera Okandee Sappalah 

2K 



386 SANSKRIT NAMES 

Koomakaimalong Deeta Mavonda Boma Bin- 
da Mayumba Dinkara Laka Kanji Cooma- 
sie Yamee, river Accasey Sarasou Dwabin 
Measee Anyabirrim Mansue Abikarampa Amo- 
sima Sallagha Assin A ncornassa Boosampra, ri- 
ver Chamahj river Berrakoo, river Asharaman 
Pagga Parakomee, river Ansa Bohman, river 
Jim, river Souee Akim Elmina Sanasee Adin- 
karra Bahoree Bantookoo Sarem Shrondo-' 
Assinee, riv. Takima Adirri, riv. Koodongooree 
Birrinsoo, riv. Dagumba Cayree Jinnie Koon- 
toorooa Koomada Kaweree Kumsallahoo Koon- 
kori Marrawa Beseeree Doowarra Gaora 
Colte, river Kulla, river Gauge Canna- Da II 
Sozvhonde Yaraba Kaiama Mahalaba Goobir- 
ree Daworra Madagee Maiha Akatayki Sue- 
condee Taccorary Boutrie Ahanta Adoom 
Adunwa Asankarie. At this name is this note 
" Not half through BOWDICH ; but enough." 

Perhaps so but I find some more tempting names 
of places, from the map given by that traveller. 
Among them these Garoo Bambarra Jinbala 
Quolla, river GadimaBambook Jaora Mallaia 
Hasoowa Jabowa Mala MashinaKabarra 
Tarrabaleese Mookanasa Googara Yaouree 
Cassina Yahodee Damisiama Dinka Doorooma 
Matchaquarodi Koomada K a/aha Goorwasie 
Apacca Toombea Katanga Goodoobirree Mahee 
Til/ay toko Badagry Pahmee Abomy Asan- 
karie Bagamidri Bramas Medra Biapara. 

The above are the chief, but not all, of what I find 
extracted from BOWDICH : to many of the names I 



IN AFRICA. 



387 



have annexed such notes as these, " several omit- 
ted," &c. " many not extracted"" p. 192-3-6-9, 
many not extracted"" p. 482 to 85, and to 492 
and 505, many." So that copious as is the preceding 
list of Hindi-African names, 1 I might have made 
it much more so from the same work, and from 
others ; but I will abstain, giving only one more 
instance in Africa. 

Calabar, the sad mart for slaves. Of Cala enough 
has been said for our present purpose. Bar or bara, 
is also Hindiand var, vara, and varaha : war 
also, and wara. The last means a division, or dis- 
trict, or quarter. It is also the common termina- 
tion of the days of the week ; like our day; post- 
fixed in the same manner to the name of the planet. 
Thus Bud-war, is Wednesday BUD, or WODEN'S 
day. Som-war, Monday SOMA being the moon; 
and so on, as with us : a curious fact, when first 
developed. Poona is divided into districts or quar- 
ters, so distinguished. Calabar, at that city or 
Kalawar would mean, the street, or division, of 
KALA. But I do not recollect if any be actually so 
called. It is not unlikely ; for it is a very mytholo- 
gical city the metropolis of the only region ruled by 
Brahmans. That holy race, it is well known, is for- 
bidden, by severe denunciations, from degrading 
itself into the rank of kings. And in fact Brahmans 
never do so. Royalty is the exclusive right of the 



1 " Namaqua, a tribe far inland from the C. of Good Hope." 
I know not whence I took that note. Maqua is a fishing tribe 
on the coast of Malabar. 



388 SANSKRIT NAMES 

military tribe. A Brahman-Rajah notwithstand- 
ing an illustrious instance in our eye is a positive 
anomaly a contradiction an impossibility, I had 
nearly said. It is very well for a. traveller; but 
would be reprobated by an orthodox Theologian. 

More of these Hind-africanics might be given ; but 
I must stop here. Seeing to what a length this Head 
of distant Sanskritisms has extended, and must far- 
ther extend, I must quit Africa. So copious is that 
Head, that had I begun the volume with it, I could 
have spun the tedious tale to this high page. But 
though I endeavour to diversify it a little by less 
tedious interpolations, arising, however, out of the 
subject, I fear to be tiresome with such lengthened 
monotonies. 



IN ENGLAND. 

HAVING so lately mentioned some of the Hindi- 
poetics of Ireland, I am tempted to pursue the topic 
into that prolific land ; but I will keep it a little in 
reserve, and see first what England will yield in that 
line. It is not, however, from her number of Hindi 
examples that England claims the first place in the 
triple union of Britain. I have, indeed, but few to 
offer ; and those, perhaps, not very striking. I could, 
I dare say, collect more ; but I am alarmed at the 
length to which this line of my Fragments has already 
been spun out, and mean to be brief, and cannot be 
otherwise than desultory. Although amusing and 



IN ENGLAND. 389 

interesting to me, it may not be so to my (nume- 
rous ?) Readers. 

In Devonshire are the villages of Claypidon, Coly- 
ton, and, I think, Ufculmznd in Suffolk we have 
Claydonof KL/c root. Near Carlisle is Caldewgate. 
This may mainly, no doubt, be derived plausibly 
from a homelier origin : but such a name occurring 
on the banks of the Ganges, or as a pass in the 
rugged ghaut mountains, would, as a matter of 
course, be at once set down as Caldewghat, or Kal- 
deoghat ; or, as more classically written, Kaladeva- 
ghat the landing place, or pass, or road, or way of 
KALA-DEVA. Ghaut, whence our designation The 
Ghauts ; meaning thereby generally, the precipitous 
range of the Dekkan mountains, which run from 
Cape Komari (Comorin) northward beyond Surat, 
means a pass, over or in those mountains ; as well as 
a landing place, or a passage over, or a way to, a 
river. Our word gate has been hence, and perhaps 
not very wildly, derived : for it had anciently a dif- 
ferent meaning. Our Saxon ancestors by gate meant 
a passage, or way, or street, or road. The word is 
still so used in Scotland. And in the Scripture gate 
occurs in a sense less restricted than in our common 
usage. The Sublime Porte admits not of translation 

o \ 

into our language in the ordinary sense of door or 
gate. " Lift up your heads, ye everlasting Gates" - 
in the original language and sense, is doubtless more 
striking, and powerful, and lofty in allusion, than 
our translation of it implies. 

Camalodunum of the Romans has been supposed 



390 SANSKRIT NAMES 

to have occupied the site of the fine old town of 
Colchester in Essex. The name of the town is now, 
of course, traced no farther than to its neighbouring 
river Colne, with a common Roman suffix, castra. 
But I am disposed to go farther. Kamala-dun, the 
hill of KAMA LA, is traceable to India, where it is a 
name of LAKSHMI, in a character corresponding with 
the mother of our CUPID KAMA or CAMA being 
his Hindu name. TACITUS, however, favors the 
surmise that Camerton, near Bath, is the site of the 
ancient Camalodunum. In the neighbourhood of 
Colchester and the Colne, the existence of some 
vestiges of Sanskrit legends has been suspected 
beyond their own Kalic names. Cala is not an 
uncommon name for a river in regions very dis- 
tant from each other meaning, where a meaning can 
be traced, black. The river Black&ater runs near 
Colchester. Maldon is a town near it. Written 
Maladun, we have a Sanskrit compound. But I am 
not able, thence or now, to throw any light on this 
matter. Cala and Caldew are Scottish rivers ; of 
which something presently. Kala-nadi, or Black- 
river, is in Bengal. A word on Stygian rivers occurs 
in pp. 242-7-8 and of Camalodunum in p. 336. 
We read of " the Camaldoli convent in one of the 
wildest and most beautiful of the Tuscan Apen- 
nines." There is also a Calimaruzza in Tuscany. 
Kali-marut is pure Hindi, as well as Kamaladoli. 

In this paucity of Hindi-English, I will bestow a 
few lines on another range of our country names. 
Some speculations on names beginning or ending in 



IN ENGLAND. 391 

dun, are meant to be offered in another place. Duni t 
doney, downy, pronounced alike, may be thence 
derived. D and T are so easily convertible that 
I am sometimes inclined, especially where connected 
with a hill, to suppose ton to be cognate : although, 
no doubt, town is, on many occasions, a more pro- 
bable derivation. Lisdowney, the pretty name of an 
Irish parish, may, or may not be E. Indian. It re- 
minds me of Paiduniy a pretty name that used in my 
early day to be given to a part of the great village 
or town, commonly called Dungaree (Dunghirj, 
probably, from a neighbouring fortified hill) on 
Bombay. It was where a streamlet crossed the high- 
road. Paidoney, as other ways spelled, means Foot- 
wash ; and it may, peradventure, be by this time 
the name of a great village ; or it may, with its 
streamlet, be altogether lost. 

Newton-toney, in Wiltshire, near the hospitable 
seat of my much-lamented friend Sir CHARLES 
MA LET, not far from Amesbury and Stonehenge, is 
prettily washed by a rivulet. Newtown or Newton 
is, to be sure, the very antipodes of archaism : but 
toney or duni may have been the appellation of the 
spot long before the prefixture. 

I know not if any writer has endeavoured to trace, 
to any extent, the names of places of cities, towns, 
mountains, rivers, as to their meaning. It would be 
easy to trace such names in India. If Hindi, they 
are mostly mythological if Mahomed an, personal : 
both, especially the first, a good deal corrupted in 
pronunciation. The Coleroon, in the Carnatic, is 



392 



SANSKRIT NAMES 



probably Kalirun, or Black-river. The Caveri, her 
sister, from GAURI, perhaps, a name of PARVATI, 
meaning white. Or it may be from KAUVERI, the 
consort of the sordid KUVERA, regent of wealth. 
Colour is thus a copious source in the nomenclature 
of waters ; as will readily occur the red, the black, 
the white, the yellow, rivers and seas. 

In England many names of towns and places ex- 
plain themselves those ending in ford, or bridge, or 
brig : and perhaps, in chester, or meer, or wich, or 
wick. The last I surmise, in preference to the Saxon 
and Latin vich, to have been given to places pro- 
ducing salt; or somehow connected with that mi- 
neral, in production, manufactory, or mart. 

But there is one termination of very frequent oc- 
currence on our island that I do not remember to 
have seen handled in any way. It is that of ham. 
No doubt, it may, in some cases, be an abbreviation 
of hamlet but not apparently in very many. In 
Suffolk only we have upwards of a hundred towns 
and villages with names ending in ham. It would 
be tiresome to enumerate them. Now if one cha- 
racteristic feature be found to accompany all, or 
most, of them, and only one and if that one do not 
extensively apply to others, we might reasonably 
infer that such singularity of appellation was uni- 
formly derived from the similarity of characteristic. 
As far as my knowledge and inquiry have gone, all 
such towns and villages are characterised by a run 
of water, through or near them. I hence infer that 
current water and ham have an intimate relation- 



IN ENGLAND. 393 

ship, in some tongue older than our own : although I 
am not linguist or antiquary competent to show or 
conjecture how. 

Most places except your Johnstowns, Kemptowns, 
Pittvilfes, 8cc. had names, probably, before they 
had buildings. The earliest name of a vill is, most 
likely, taken or given from some naturally or pre- 
existing thing if near a hill, dun ? a rivulet, ham? 
a salt-spring, wick ? l or ford, or wood, or tree, 
or field, or rock, or stone, &c. 

Being a maritime county with an extensive sea- 
board, Suffolk has, of course, many rivers, rivulets, 
brooks, creeks, &c. We have hence several places 
with the termination ford, as well as with wich or 
wick. Few, perhaps, are aware of our claim to the 
appellation of the land of Ham. I know not if any 
other county have it at all equally. I imagine not. 

We have upwards of 90 towns and villages ending 
in ton ; more than 20 in ford; 13 in don or den, for 
ours is a flat county ; 4 ending in wich or wick ; I 
know not if all saline ; 5 in brook ; 6 in burgh ; ] in 
borough ; in grave 6, implying fields of battle ? I 
am acquainted with only one parish so terminating 
Kesgrave, in which are many tumuli ; and an ex- 
tensive heath, on which early strategists 

" As if at home they could not die " 

might choose to combat. We have a Iioo, a hoe ; 
and of holt, 2. Some have fancied these connected 
with hill. 

1 Thus Ipswich, Nantwich, Droitwich, Dunwich, Walbers- 
wick, Sandwich, &c. I conjecture to be, or to have been, 
places connected with salt. 



394 SANSKRIT NAMES 

But, dropping this line of investigation, let us turn 
to Scotland, which we shall find more prolific in 
Kali-dunia-msms. 



IN SCOTLAND. 

IN Scotland I could find many Kali-cisms ; as the 
recent spelling of Cale-donia may lead us to infer. 
I have before hinted that Kali-dun is the hill of 
KAL : Caldew, a name of SIVA; Cala, another 

" Through richer fields, her milky waves that stain, 
Slow Cala flows o'er many a chalky plain." 

LEYDEN'S Scenes of Infancy. 

Milky and chalky are appellations that may not 
seem to bear out my black or dark hypothesis, 
as connected with Kala : but being comparatively 
darker than its occasional admixtures, the river Cala 
may still have received its name from that source. 
Besides, we have shown that of all the Hindu male 
deities, SIVA alone is white ; and, as GAURT, his 
consort is also fair. So a union of Gala's darker 
waters with the occasional chalky, milky stains, 
described by LEY DEN, may, in a poetical eye, be a 
union of those mythological beings. So chalky, this 
river, like the classical Clitumnus or Kalitumna, of 
p. 345, may have the property of blanching the kine 
that lave in her " milky wave." 

On the banks of this Kaledunian river Kala a 
monstrous serpent was slain, as is related by LEY- 
DEN, in a style very correspondent with the legends 



, IN SCOTLAND. 395 

of similar Hindu exploits ; and written, I believe, 
before that accomplished and lamented scholar went 
to India. KRISHNA, the blue or black, slew a 
pythonic serpent on the banks of a black river, as is 
mentioned in pp. 247. 8. 

Glen Calader is a grouse-producing spot sur- 
rounded by hills perhaps. Slightly altered to Ka- 
ladara it is pure Sanskrit. It would be pronounced 
Kalader, or Calader, in Southern India ; and ap- 
plied to a conical hill, or to one cleft, or in any ele- 
vation peculiar, the name would be expressive. It 
would mean Ka/a-bearing, or crowned with KALA, 
or his seat. It is not an unusual combination. SIVA 
bears the female moon CHANDRI on his head, 
and he is consequently then called CHANDRI- 
DHARA,orCnANDRiSEKRA, moon-bearing, or moon- 
crowned. He has likewise the Ganga, or river 
Ganges as we call it, " a wanderer for thousands 
of ages in the mazes of his red-clustering locks ;" 
and is hence named GANGADHARA Ganges- 
bearing. Stripped of its poetry, it means simply 
that the river is produced by the rippling melting 
of the snows of a thousand winters among the sum- 
mits of Himala the throne of SIVA from whose 
head she is seen flowing in a score of pictures 
in my possession; as may be seen in several of 
the plates of the Hin. Pan. 

" Adieu, ye mountains of the clime 
Where grew my youthful years 
Where Lochnagar, in snows sublime, 
His giant summit rears." BYRON. 



396 SANSKRIT NAMES 

Nctgar, sometimes written nugger, is a very com- 
mon East Indian termination. " The heights of 
Dunbar " dun, as usual, connected with elevation 
if written Dunvar, or Dunvaraha, would come at 
once to a Kali-duni-amsm. 

As before hinted, I am disposed to trace to Katie 
sources the origin of the names of places beginning 
or ending with Kul, Col, Kit, &c. having the root 
K-L. Caledon, Culloden, Calender, Coll, 1 Colonsay, 
Kilnenver '* The legendary three-peaked Eildoa," 
a conical and very poetical hill the Trimontium of 
AGRICOLA, is one of the most picturesque in the 
South of Scotland and many others of the like 
root, as well as other Sanskrit sounds found scat- 
tered over Scotland, that for the present I shall omit 
farther mention of. 

1 Stepping, a few days ago (May 1832) into the British 
Institution, I noticed a pretty picture, which seemed to re- 
present something Lingaic, or Kalic. It was an abruptly 
elevated, taper, solitary, rock, uprising several yards ; like 
some of the monoliths at the Hindruidic assemblage at Stone - 
henge. Such a stone in India I should have expected near 
a temple of SIVA, orKAL: that is, rather, such a temple 
would be found so placed ; for such a stone is, probably, 
immoveable. Referring to the catalogue, I found it de- 
scribed as " A Druid's grave on the island of Colonsay." 
This may not be so decidedly Hindi as Col-O-M the root 
of Colomb, Colombo, Il-colm-Kil, &c. : but is, to a certain 
extent, confirmatory of the spread of the Sanskrit root K-L ; 
in remote connexion with something KAL-IC. A farther 
spread to Druidic Kalicisms I may not now venture the 
attempt to show. 



397 
DUN DONE DOON DUNE DENE. 



Connected, more or less, with the subjects of 
several passages of this volume, I find a note on the 
word Dun, which I will give here. It was intended 
for earlier insertion ; but may come in, not inappro 
priately, in the neighbourhood of Kali-dun-mnisms. 

Mr. ROBERTS, in the work quoted in p. 200, gives 
a stanza from an old Welsh poem, and thus trans- 
lates it " I beheld the spectacle from the high land 
of the Done." The pronunciation of the word may 
be considered, like its spelling, as variable. My 
theory is that the word, written or pronounced dif- 
ferently perhaps, but all containing the consonantal 
root D-N, conveys very extensively a meaning of a 
mountain, hill, or high land. 

Our dun cow is probably the dtin, as in Italian ; 
or doon, or done (I mean the varied spellings to 
signify the same) cow : that is, the mountain cow, 
slain by GUY on Dunmore heath. Mr. ROBERTS 
seems to think the epithet referrible more to place 
than colour ; and that the cow was worshipped as an 
arkite symbol. The celebrated Hindu mythological 
cow SURABHI maybe extensively combined in fable, 
and matched in mystery and potency and prolifica- 
lity, with any of her race. Another of her names is 
KAMDENU, granter of desires. Of her I shall say 
no more here : Q. S. occurs in the Hin. Pan. 

A list of names occurs to me having the root in 
question initial, final, or sole which will, I think, 
on the main, bear me out in my theory. Of several of 



398 SANSKRIT NAMES, &C. 

the places I know nothing but the name ; but I deem 
them connected, more or less, with altitude. Dun- 
dee, Dunkirk, Dunchurch, Dundalk, Downs, Denes, 
Dunmow, Dunghiri, or Dungaree in Bombay, Duu- 
garvan, Dunira. Dun-e-din castle, the seat of the 
D. of Athol, in Scotland, is oriental as well as bo- 
real. I dare say the castle "stands high o'er the 
plain," though it has not been my good fortune to 
visit it. " Dunsinane's hill" we have all read of 
and so I have of the "heights of Dundee," since I 
put that " bonnie toune" into my random list. 
" Dunottar castle stands very boldly," I have 
quoted, but have not noted where perhaps in 
Scotland, for that region abounds in hills and dun. 

" And to an elfe queen I me take 
By dale and eke by doun." 

Rime of Sir THEOPHAS prefixed to that delicious 
poem " The Bridal of Triermain." " Dule upo 
dun," is referred to as a whimsical anecdote in Ro- 
BY'S " Traditions of Lancashire." 2nd Series. 

Caledonia was not, in old times, applied, as it is 
now, to all Scotland. That name was more properly 
confined to the mountainous regions of Angus, Perth, 
and Fife shires, and the N. E., up to the Moray frith. 
The inhabitants of these regions were farther called 
Deucaledonians or, as I have hinted in another 
place, Deva-Kali-dun-ians. See p. 344. 

SIVA or KA LA is in conversation, and perhaps in 
writing, named DEOCAL. Cal, in the Wallachian 
dialect, is a horse. It may not have a like meaning 
in the Sanskrit but Kal is time both yesterday 



DUN DOON DOUN DUNE. 399 

and to-morrow and is so far connected with a 
horse, that the next and last great incarnation, or 
descent or avatara, of the renovator is to be eques- 
trian. This is predicated of VISHNU, apparently 
somewhat anomalously ; but he, being also the Sun, 
is also a modification of Time and is to be then 
KAL-KI. He will like HIM of our Apo-cAi^ 
ypse be mounted on a white horse. He will destroy 
KAL or Time 

" And sware by HIM that liveth for ever and ever 
" That TIME shall be 110 longer/' REV. x. 6. 

Whether the Maha-pralaya of the Brahmans is to 
be of Vulcanic or Neptunic origin, I do not recollect. 
But in fact all cataclysms of that great sort must be 
of igneous origin. 

We may not stop here to dilate on the extensive 
profundities of the word Kal, as applicable to Time. 
They embrace in fact boundless metaphysical and 
mythological speculations. The compound Trikala, 
or Tricala, has called forth earlier notice. 2Vi, as a 
prefixture, seems to bear a meaning of great im- 
port and, in its root T-R to be the parent of a 
very extensive race of mysterious words cognate with 
Trinity and Truth. It is intended to postfix an 
Index to this volume, wherein some instances of this 
will be referred to ; they having, unsought, occurred 
in it. Of Trikala I will just add that it comprehends 
the past, present, and future. The name was given 
to a celebrated bard CHAN DA, who 

*' With a master's hand and prophet's fire 
Struck the deep sorrows of his lyre " 



400 SANSKRIT NAMES, &C. 

in the Court of the Raja PRITHVI, about 1200 A. D. 
" forcing ages unborn to crowd upon the soul." The 
Sanskrit Barda or Bardai, corrupted in the western 
dialects to Bhat, seems to be the origin of our Bard. 
Their avocations were alike. Of this some extended 
mention is made in my volume on " Hindu Infanti- 
cide." pp. 15. 78. 

Loch Lydorij in Perthshire, is surrounded by 

mountains ; as I have read some of them probably 
dumc in name. May not the "donjon Keep" of 
our old castles, have been " on turret high," and not 
cryptic, like our modern dungeons ? " Dunes of 
the N. coast of France and Holland; of Norfolk, 
Cornwall, and Moray." Those in Norfolk are, at 
Yarmouth , called denes. " The Downs" I take to 
be the same word of the root D-N from the com- 
paratively high land hard-by : likewise " The Dens 
of Yarrow." 

Dun gate in Cambridgeshire though apparently 
of less dignified derivation ought to be Dun-ghat 
the pass of the hill. I marvel if its locale tends to 
strengthen this notion, which I hazard, never having 
seen the supposed ghat, or gate, or pass. 1 See 
p. 335. 

In some Greek dialects, bria figiot is said to mean a 
hill : it would strengthen my theory if dun. were there 



1 So I have supposed Calcutta to be Kalighat ; and perhaps 
Kalikut, or, as we write it, Calicut. The final has, however, 
a different meaning. Our word Calico is from that ancient 
city of the Samori, or Zamorin, as the Portuguese have 
taught us to call him. 



D U N-^CE R ID WEN SRID U N. 40 1 

found to have a like meaning. Cala-bria, and Cate- 
don-ia, would then seem less fanciful when written in 
my (amended) way Kala-bria, and Kali-dun-ia. 

" The Eildon hills, which raise their triple crest 
above the celebrated monastery of Melrose." SCOTT'S 
Dem. and W. 132. A suitable abode for poetry and 
superstition ; and there they have abounded. " Dun^ 
shi, a fairy mount in Scotland." Ib. 65. 

In a long list of designations of witches, warlocks, 
and hobgoblins, given in REGINALD SCOTT'S Dis- 
coverie of Witchcraft, Ca/cars occurs among the 
various incubi. Of this term REGINALD'S illustrious 
descendant, Sir WALTER can make nothing. May 
he not resort to the kal and car of India, for some 
clue to it ? India is, perhaps, the cradle of half of 
such nursery tales and, saying no more of them at 
present, I will just remark that car, or kar, is there 
a much used word, meaning worker, performer or 
works, performances ; having reference to potency 
or manipulation. 

The Druidic Hu, as the Sun, corresponds with 
VISHNU. The Druids had also CERIDWEN, the 
goddess of Death ; who, in their metempsycholo- 
gical system, was likewise the goddess of the reno- 
vation of life. This is strictly and strangely Hinduic 
if Druidic and Brahmanic coincidences still seem 
strange. SIVA, or KALA, is rather the changer of 
forms, than, as commonly understood, the Destroying 
power. The Brahmans are too philosophical to ad- 
mit of destruction, in the sense of annihilation : 
" Look Nature through 'tis revolution all 
All change no death. All to re-flourish fades, 



402 SANSKRIT NAMES 

As in a wheel, all sinks to re-ascend. 

No single atom once in being ; lost, 

With change of counsel charges the MOST HIGH." 

YOUNG, 

This is their doctrine, as well as that of pagans 
and Christians. 

Now CERIDWEN, as the Welch write and pro- 
nounce it, might as well be written and pronounced 
SRI DUN ; which would then, in India, as I contend, 
mean the holy-hill. I do not recollect such an ap- 
plication to the mountain goddess PARVATI, albeit 
so myrionimous. But it may well have immediate 
reference to her ; not only in that character, but as 
the Sakti, or active energy, of KALA, the changer of 
forms; or, as the Welch term CERIDWEN, the 
goddess of the renovation of life. 



IN IRELAND. 

TURN we now to our green sister an island distin- 
guishable by many contrarious epithets. But we 
are now to notice her only, or chiefly, as she exhibit, 
among her most endurable features, traces of Hin- 
duisms of having in her earlier day, like, as I 
contend, many other distant parts of the world, been 
inhabited by a race who had a language very similar 
to that found now to be known in India only. 

In an earlier page we have been seduced into two- 



IN IRELAND. 403 

Or three Hindi- Iricisms. A few more we now pro- 
ceed to give without much attention to arrangement. 
Brevity is now of more importance : 

Toomevara, a town. Toom is the common name 
of the Tunga river in the S. of India. It joins its 
name and waters with the Budra, and is then usually 
called the Toombudra. These, in their joint course, 
commingle with the Krishna ; and lose their name in 
his. Their several junctions are holy places. In 
another work I have related how my old Mahratta 
Brahman General PURSER AM BHOW, hazarded 
national interests to make a movement, with the 
immense army under his command, to the confluence 
of the Tuom and Budra, that he and his holy 
brethren might be purified from an unhappy taint 
which they had unwittingly incurred. The B/tow 
was duly washed, and weighed against grain, clothes, 
and metals ; which were given away in chanty. I 
shall note these effects and cause no farther than 
just to mention that the extended taint originated in 
one of his holy mess having forgotten his semi- 
divinity in regard of a base-born comely cobbler's 

wife. The termination of Toometara, has been 

before noticed as being similar to vara, or varaha ; 
meaning a boar one of the avatara, or descents, 
commonly called the incarnations of VISHNU. Var, 
or vara, is also a region, or quarter. 

Caladuff Ballaghy Maghera Killoscully 
Ballina, with the river Mot/ near it " well stocked 
with fish." Mahi, sometimes pronounced moy, is a 
fish in some Indian dialects. The river Ban t near 
Coleraine. Ban is a rocket in India ; and is not an 



404 SANSKRIT NAMES 

unlikely appellation for a rapid river. If the initial 
were changed to F, as is so common, it would have 
another eastern meaning. Bally shamum Ballina- 
sloe Ballimauy Ballenagar Ballinacally Bally- 
neale Bally 'ghadereeu Ballycallan Balligorey 
Bally rtahinch Balligowley Ballyvourney. 

These are names of places in Ireland. What bal 
or ball may there mean, I know not. In India, bat, 
or bah, is an infant ; BALI is a proper name. Hin- 
dus and Papists are equally attached to divine chil- 
dren : the first, to KRISHNA particularly. His in- 
fantine miracles and tricks are endless. I have 
scores of casts and pictures of him as a child then 
called BALKRISHNA some of them palpably pa- 
pistical ; that is, would answer equally well in Ba- 
lasore, Bally, or other Indian places so commencing, 
as in Ballimany , or Ballaghudareeri, or Balligozcley, 
in Ireland. See plate 59 of HP. for BALKRISHNA 
and his mother DEVAKI, which fully bears me out 
in this notion. 

Gowley is a milk-maid in Krishnaics : what it may 
be in Balligowley I cannot tell. BaUgorey is also 
Hindi referring to gao, kine ; or to GAURI, a name 
implying fairness. 

Bambino is a name in Italy for the infant object 
of adoration. A bambino wooden image at the 
church of La S. M. in area cali, on the Capitoline 
hill at Rome what different feelings arise from the 
ancient doings of the Capitol and the Bambino 
works great miracles at this day. It was brought 
from heaven by an angel, &c. &c. in the usual style 
of mendacious audacity, that Hindus even, with 



IN IRELAND. 405 

their heaven-descended wooden image (not I believe 
called Bambino} of KRISHNA at Jaganafh, may not 
exceed. I am ignorant of the Italian word bambino, 
otherwise than as a sort of endearment. Possibly 
our bam, and bamboozle, may be derived from it. 

The poetical banks and neighbourhood of Kil- 
larney, we have noticed in other places as abound- 
ing in Hinduisms. There are, farther, Ballydow- 
ney, and the river Galway, and Aghadoe, near by. 
In India such names would pass without notice; 
triflingly altered, perhaps, and perhaps not, in con- 
versation, to Kalarni, Balidun, Kalava, &c. Mag- 
hery, a village in A rmagh, would probably be Ma- 
hagheri in India, but pronounced as in Ireland, and 
would mean Great-hill. It seems to be near the 
river Blackwater. I wish I knew the name in Irish. 
It might sound, perhaps, like Kalinadi, or Krishiu?, 
or Kalirun Indian rivers ; having, like the Nile and 
so many others widely diffused, a blue or black 
meaning. 

Tincurry is an Irish town. Tin or teen is very 
currently and extensively three in India ; what it 
is in Irish I know not. Of curry I am doubtful, in 
the more immediate sense of the excellent dish, 
commonly so called by the English, in both coun- 
tries. I may err, but I do not think the said dish is 
any where in India known by that name, out of the 
reach of English influence : that is, among un- 
tutored, unsophisticated natives. Kalis, or Kullis, 
is, I think, a common native name for a stew, and 
perhaps of a curry. But doubtless in the great re- 
finements of Indian cookery the Brahmans fancy 



406 



SANSKRIT NAMES 



none can cook but themselves, and the Mahomme- 
dans are also justly proud of their attainments in 
that important branch of gastronomies among, I 
say, such refinements, they have, doubtless, a suffi- 
ciency of discriminative appellatives for their varied 
viands. I was long in possession of a book on 
Cookery, said to have come but of TIP POO'S kit- 
chen. It was given to me by an old and much 
respected Seringapatam friend, Colonel JOHNSON, 
C. B. of the Bombay engineers, who obtained it on 
the spot. I long meditated a translation but be- 
coming less and less competent, I put it into the 
hand of an able friend, in the hope of getting it 
thereout for the uses of this volume. But it is not 
so. He has returned to India, and I have almost 
lost sight of him. If the Irish Tincurry were Tin- 
gurry, I should handle it differently. Curry, and 
Kurrie, occur in the names of places in India. 

If I were to run my eye over a map of Ireland,. 
I have little doubt but I could pick out scores, if 
not hundreds, of names of hills, towns, rivers, &c. 
looking and sounding very Hinduish. But I shall 
not do so now. The following, I observed, with 
two or three of the foregoing, in one Irish news- 
paper ; Anadown Moycullen Kilmoor Kilas- 
pugltmaru (Ki/as pugJi naru are Indian words 
familiar to me) Kilcummin Killiany Seskeriam 
Balnagare- Kinvara Adragool Garrunina 
Killala Tonadronin Kilerohan Rhtgana. These 
names are very Indian. 

At Kilcullen and Kilkenny, are two of those very 
curious round towers, the origin and uses of which 



IN IRELAND. 407 

have so baffled the researches of antiquaries. I 
have not the means at this moment of ascertaining 
the number or position of these towers. 1 Those men- 
tioned are the only specimens that I have had oppor- 
tunities of examining ; and very beautiful they are, 
If, on farther inquiry, they should all, or mostly, 
be found, like these two, connected with towns or 
hills, bearing KaLic names, it would be a somewhat 
curious clue for a farther line of investigation. Such 
things in India would be deemed Litigaic or Sivaic. 

The first that I saw was that at Kilcullen, county 
Kilckare,. 1 was struck with its KaL/c form : nor 
probably were other KaL-icisms overlooked Kz'L- 
K/wL/e K?'L-e?tf re or Kaladara f It reminded me 
of a similar erection on the fine island of Durma- 
patam, to the north of Tellicherry, on the coast of 
Malabar. To that, in early day, I have paid many 
social and festive visits. I was, I believe, the first 
(and am, alas ! the only one left) of the merry set 
who achieved the ascentx to its summit. It was not 
very difficult to an expert and enterprising climber, 
and less so to my followers ; as, in ascending, I 
picked out finger and (shoeless) toe-holes, for their 
accommodation. I have no notes of its size, or of 
any particulars connected with it. I was no note- 
maker in those days, since which nearly half a cen- 



1 I have since found this note Kilkenny, county, boasts of 
five of the round towers. They are at Canice Tulloherin 
Kilree Fahrtag, and Agkavillen, That at Kilcullen, near 
Kildare, (Kaldara?} is about 50 feet high. Some are said 
to be more than 100. 



408 SANSKRIT NAMES 

tury has passed away. But its name Katcha- 
paramba floats in my recollection and that it 
was nearly solid at bottom, arid for some yards up ; 
perhaps to a half of its height or more. Some steps 
led down to a sort of cellarage or magazine, abound- 
ing in bats. The Irish towers are hollow from the 
ground to their open top, like slightly-tapering 
enormous round chimneys ; or small, hollow, Mar- 
tellos. Katchaparamba is near the S. E. angle of 
the river which divides the island from the land of 
Mayaluvar, or Malabar. We considered it, from 
its commanding position, near the river, and its 
magazine, as of military origin. 

Ireland abounds in dun, or don, or down, as the 
initial, final, or sole, of names of places : Dundalk, 
Doneraile, Downpatrick, County Down, &c. Near 
Killarney are Dunloh and Dundag. This I have 
deemed to be extensively connected with hill or 
mountain ; and something has been, or is intended 
to be said, thereon, in another page. 

Bumatty, and Ardnaree, occur as Irish names. 
Bhumatilooks and sounds strangely Sanskritish : so 
is Ardnari, meaning half -man, or half'-ivoman a 
name, or Ardhaiiari, given to the mystically con- 
joined half-and-half persons of SIVA and PARVATJ, 
of which representations are given in PI. 24, and a 
history in p. 98 of the H. P. The one-breasted, 
Amazonian figure so conspicuous in the Elephanta 
cave is supposed to be ARDNARI. 

In a legend ascribed to OSSIAN, mention is made 
of a hero who was treacherously slain at an as- 
semblage met to worship the Sun. " His wailing 



IN IRELAND. 409 

dirge was sung, and his name is inscribed in Ogum 
characters, on a flat stone, on the very black moun- 
tain of Callan." This black Callan is about nine 
miles from Ennis ; and to this day " a Druidic 
altar" is shown on it. 

That the mysterious Irish Ogum characters have 
connexion with the mysterious O'M of the Hindus, 
I hoped to have shown in these pages, but fear I 
cannot. O'M, Ogum, Ogham, and Agama are 
closely cognate in radical sound. The last means, in 
Sanskrit, occult, obscure, mysterious, cryptic. The 
Agama Sastra is a portion of the Hindu Scripture 
which treats on those dark matters. In a former 
page, 151, I hinted that our doxological Amen and 
the Hindu O'M, might perhaps be found to as- 
similate. The Jews have an adage, that whoever 
repeat Amen, energetically, with all his might, opens 
the doors of Paradise. 

Lord Mo N BOD DO maintained that the ancient 
languages and mythologies of Ireland and India 
were much alike. In .several, perhaps many, in- 
stances they certainly are. His Lordship may not 
be deemed very good authority : a better one who 
was however deceived, not deceiving traces, among 
many other coincidences, Hibernia to the Sanskrit 
Juvernia, the land of gold. But, dropping these 
topics, I will here offer a connecting link of Irish 
and Indian poetics, in the legend of the tri-union of 
the " three sisters of Ireland/' and the " three- 
plaited locks," the Triveni, of India. 

In earlier pages allusions have been made to 
the mysterious sanctity of junctions of waters 
2 M 



410 SANSKRIT NAMES 

especially, 1 in India called sangam and to the 
ultra-mysterious holiness of the spot of union of three 
rivers. Only two of such potomaic tri-unities, I 
have noted as having occurred to me but since 
such restrictive note was made, another, if not two 
other, Triveni, has occurred : in Africa and in South 
America. I will put the names of all in juxta- 
position here although I may confine myself, on 
this occasion, chiefly to the first two of these 
aqueous mythi 

In India the Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati 
Ireland Barrow, Nore, Suir 

&. America Cooiony, Massaroni, Essequibo 
Africa Calebar, Delrey, Cameroon* 

The rivers of the upper line join at or near the 
city, which bears the modern Mahommedan name of 
Allahabad the residence of the Most High. It is 
by Hindus called Prayaga,the union; and Devi- 
prayaga, the union of the goddesses. Allahabad is 
the capital of a province of the same name ; which 
contains also the sacred city of Benares and these 
two cities are still the most noted places of Hindu 
pilgrimages. The two first named rivers join visibly 
the third, the Saraswati, somewhere under ground. 
Endless are the poetic and mythologic allusions to 
this Triverii, or "the three- braided locks." 

1 It is intended to add an Index thither the reader is 
referred, if desirous of connecting the dispersed mention of 
matters in this volume. 

2 In p. 382 preceding, is a glimpse of another African 
Triveni but I have not noticed sufficient of it to warrant 
farther remark here. 



IN IRELAND. 411 

Three rivers joining must strike even an unpoetical 
or unsuperstitious observer or people, with some ad- 
miration a junction of two is, indeed, not to be seen 
unmoved. 1 And it is not to be supposed that so ima- 
ginative a race as the Irish, any less than their 
brethren of India, would let such phenomena remain 
unsung. We accordingly find the sangam, orprayag, 
or union of the rivers of the second line the Barrow, 
Nore, and Suir the " three sisters," the Triveni, 
the " three-plaited locks " of Hibernia, near Kil- 
kenny, her Devi-pray aga, duly celebrated in Hiber- 
nian poetics. 

It is very probable that fables connected with this 
uncommon spectacle may be current among the 
Irish ; not hitherto made known to a mere English 
eye or ear. Those of India are more easily accessi- 
ble Sanskrit is more studied than Irish. I should 
be pleased to be the means of directing the attention 
of any inquirer into the poetical histories the 
" Faery Legends " of Ireland, to this probably 
fertile source : and still more pleased if it tend, 
more and more, to identify the language and mytho- 
logy of ancient India with those of ancient Ire/and. 
We may, perhaps, find an Irish KRISHNA (be it 
observed that KRISHNA in Irish as well as in 
Sanskrit is the Sun) mysteriously twining the 
triple locks of his divine RADHA. Of this attractive 



Thus Scott: " And from the grassy slope he sees 
The Greta flow to meet the Tees; 
Where, issuing from her darksome bed, 
She caught the morning's eastern red." Rokeby. 



412 SANSKRIT NAMES 

subject I have seen many, and possess several, draw- 
ings and models. 

The sources of the Indian and Irish rivers are, 
alike, contiguous : and, after great divergence, 
alike mingle and unite their waters. The " Three 
Sisters of Ireland 9 ' 1 have been happy enough to 
number SPENSER among their tuneful admirers. 
He traces their birth to the embrace of the giant 
BLOMIUS (had it been BHUMIMS it would have 
suited us better) with the nyrnph RHEISSA 
(would it had been RHADA) and thus glances at 
their course and confluence in their wanderings 
towards the omnivorous deep : 

" The first, the gentle Sliure, that making way 
By sweet Clonmell, adorns rich Wat erf or d ; 
The next, the stubborn Newre, whose waters gray 
By fair Kilkenny and Roseponte board ; 
The third, the goodly Barrow, which doth hoard 
Great heaps of salmon in her deep bosome 
All which, long sundred, do at last accord 
To join in one, ere to the sea they roam : 
So flowing all from one, all one at last become." 

SPENSER composed his Faery Queene in Ireland 
in part, perhaps not all in his abode at Kilcol- 
man, near Doneraile. In that immediate vicinity 
are seen the hills of Ballyhoura, called by him " the 

1 The Hindu Triveni, or conjoined river goddesses, is suita- 
bly represented in^?g*. 2. pi. 75. of the Hin. Pan. a triple- 
headed-six-handed-one-bodied female, bestriding a fish. A 
nimbus surrounds the heads. It is from a very pretty subject, 
with appropriate tints, attributes, and symbols ; as described 
in p. 429. of that work. 



IN IRELAND. 413 

mountains of the Mole," because, perhaps the river 
Mola or Mulla, which passes his abode, issues 
thence. The mountains of the Nagle are also in 
sight. Hindi names are here. Mola is a river of 
India, running past Poona. The remains of SPEN- 
SER'S castle Kilcolman Kalkalmani? still " show 
high on the hill." His great work is still justly ap- 
preciated by the family of ALTHORPE as " The glorie 
of their noble house." 

Let us here note a few more names of places in 
Ireland^ looking and sounding like Hind-Iruh-ia 
Mullwgar Ballimacue Ballycar Busmanagher 
Dunkery, cavern, at the Giant's Causeway (q. Dun- 
gin'?) is a most mysterious and impenetrable fond ; 
the entrance is by water only, under a natural 
pointed arch. 

I recently read this announcement of a marriage 
in an Irish newspaper: " At Kiltala, A. B. of Ag- 
lia, to C. D. of -Ballitigumboon" Ballangumboon * 
what a fine name ! There is none other such 
name in Europe. In India some are very like it : 
Ballanbangam, for instance, among the Eastern 
Islands. 

But with such fine old names as Ireland abounds 
in, such is the whim of our brethren there as well 
as in America, and elsewhere that we hear of 
places called Joktutottm, Johiisonstown, Castle Blar- 
ney, or Blaney I write rather at random. And, by 
the way, Blarney is not amiss. 

Not, however, gentle reader, that you may expect 
a town or a castle, as the result of a visit to a place 
with such a handle or tail to its name. Arriving 



414 SANSKRIT NAMES 

late one evening at the mansioa of a respected 
friend, living in such a town, as I supposed, I soon 
imbibed a high idea of the refinement and hos- 
pitalities of the inhabitants from the nature of my 
reception and entertainment at dinner, bed, and 
breakfast. And as I neither followed my friend's 
noble pack of fox-hounds, nor sought any of his 
game, I expressed a wish for an opportunity of exa- 
mining the antiquities and curiosities of art and na- 
ture with which 's Town might haply abound. 

But, as YORICK, hastening to drop a tear on the 
tomb of the hapless AMANDUS and AMANDA, 
found, when he got thither, no tomb to drop it on 
so I, at Johnstown, found no town to examine. My 
friend's was a lone house : no other within a mile or 
more. It had, I learned, been built, but not as I 
could perceive quite finished, by his father : whose 
name, and my friend's, was JOHN. It is in the cen- 
tre of a fine estate, and a noble house. The guests 
had little room to regret the lack of antiquities, or 
the absence of any thing desirable. I have not 
since drank better (nor more ; aside) claret, cham- 
pagne, or whiskey punch : nor met a heartier wel- 
come from the natives of any town good luck to 
them. 

Ireland is, and has for ages been, es- 
sentially poetical. It may seem extravagant, but I 
can fancy the traces of Brahmanal language and 
usage spread widely over the surface of her ter- 
ritory and feelings. A gifted Hibernian neither 
thinks, nor speaks, nor writes like his more 
sober neighbours. Write or speak he on statistics, 



IN IRELAND. 415 

his figures are tropes, not arithmetic eloquence min- 
gles with his calculations the wild graces of poetry 
are mixed with the lucubrations of science. So in 
India her history, physical, and natural, and 
moral, is intimately intermixed with her mystical 
theology ; and all, even her numerous works on ma- 
thematics, and other branches of science, are com- 
posed and preserved in anapaests, dactyls, or dithy- 
rambics. 

Many of the lower Irish a great many of them 
are observed to be more intelligent, or shall I say ? 
shrewd, than their compeers of England. May it 
not, in some wise, be attributed to this that a 
great proportion of the Irish learn English ? This 
is, of itself, an intellectual step, even when un- 
consciously taken. The mere acquisition of a second 
language, though imperfect, is a mental effort ; and 
it may not stop there : it is one among the many 
materials in the composition of thought. The Irish 
are also, as I have said, more imaginative. I con- 
clude their language to be more figurative, poetical, 
mythological, than mere English. This speech of a 
Dublin fishwoman to her neighbour, led me to think 
that in her native tongue a word exists equivalent to 
the Sanskrit argha, or rim of the \Orii perhaps in 
sound as well as in sense : " Lend me," said she, 
" your rim-o'-the-world, while I skreech half a hun- 
dred of oysters." " Rim-o'-the-world ! " this was a 
sort of sieve. Its circular form, and the containing 
property of its concavity, seemed to give it a rela- 
tionship, in the familiar figurative flourish, to more 
remote and recondite things. The testaceous heroine 



416 SANSKRIT NAMES 

with her sieve, assumes, in one's imaginative eye, 
the attitude of a Danaide another fifty-daughtered 
piece of poetics (see p. 365.) in which haply some 
more Eastern, if not Irish, fables might be found to 
coincide. 

The religion too of the lower Irish tends to render 
them more imaginative. Lutheranism and Calvin- 
ism are more prosaic than papacy. We have few r , 
or no, poetical legends ; no recent miracles ; no 
saint-ampoules; no tender adoration of the Virgin ; 
no ladies of Loretfo or Radna ; no gorgeous 
paintings, nor mysteries, nor processions, and all the 
fine eye-and-ear-tickling pageants and poeticalities 
of papacy. 



IN NORTH AMERICA. 

OF North American places and persons, bearing 
names savouring of Orientalism, I have noted a few. 
We may first observe and lament if we list that 
the languages of the earliest races, who stood per- 
haps in the highest rank of uncultivated man, as well 
as those aboriginals themselves, have become nearly 
extinct. I know not where to seek N. American 
existing lingual archaisms. The few words which 
have occurred to me as names of places and of that 
description, are so fine, and Oriental in sound, as to 
cause regret that more are not accessible. Having 
in another page said a word on N. American names, 
intermingled with others, I require less prefatory 



IN NORTH AMERICA. 417 

remark here and have indeed but little to add 
thereto. 

" The plains of the Saskatchewan," how Sanskri- 
tic! Sasa, (or Sasi/i,) a hare Katchwa, a tortoise 
van, a vehicle. Nootka Ontario Canada the river 
Unjigah the heads of the Miami the valley of the 
Juniata the waters of the Ohio the river Scioto 
Niagara. The red men of the Arkansa and Mis- 
souri the tribes of Wyandoh Delaware Pownee 
Osage Michigan Chactaw Chickasaw Collapisa 
Mohican Mohawk Ottawa Cherokee Mohe- 
gan Seneka Kayuga Oneida Winebago Sau- 
kie Potawatomy Maqua Naragansett Massa- 
womakeh Adirondack Onandaga lake Candaigna 
the rivers Potapsco and Yougihogeny the towns 
of Wapagkkenetta Shubertcadie Pairaba the 
provinces or regions of Kentucky Alabama. 

Maranon is the native name of the river Amazons 
Madawaska, that of St. John's it runs through 
the finely named Tamaskwata lake before it loses 
itself in the Atlantic. Karnoursaka is the ancient 
native name of the country and river between 
Quebec and St. John's : and thereabout is the town 
formerly called Michilimackinack. Trivial altera- 
tions in the vowel sounds of these names will convert 
them into Sanskrit- looking, and Sanskrit- sounding, 
and Sanskrit-meaning words : and this remark 
applies to a very great majority of the words ex- 
tracted with the corresponding view throughout this 
book. 

As names of noted men these occur : MUSCATA- 

M1SKAKATCH, Or BLACK-HAWK WABUKIK 



418 SANSKRIT NAMES 

SHEIK, or WHITE-CLOUD GARANGULA PON- 

TIAC TE GUMS AH SAGUOAHA PoCOHONTAS. 

A few of these American names might lead one to 
suspect that a modern hand may have been at work 
on them : but, with very few exceptions, they are 
decidedly East Indian ; some pure, admitting, with 
little or no altering, of ready translation and all of 
them so fine in sound as to cause regret that so little 
of languages containing such fine words should have 
been preserved. 

Arkanzas a river and territory. The red men of 
the Arkanza are before mentioned and America 
has a red river ; perhaps this. It is probable that 
colours would be found, if the meaning of American 
names could be traced, to be the source of many. I 
have not discovered a black water there no Acheron, 
or 6Y^r, or Kalanadi ; so common in other regions. 
Sing- Sing, a state prison on the magnificent banks of 
the Hudson ! What a bathos ! What a name for 
such a river! Mrs. TROLLOPE says, that "the 
Hudson can be surpassed in beauty by no river out 
of Paradise." In India sing or siugha, is a lion. 

The falls of Packagama, on the Mississippi of Ca- 
hoos, on the Mohawk of Ottawa or Ottawasa of 
Shawenagan of Housatomck of the Potomac or 
Potowmack the cataracts of Teqmndama and She- 
naiidoah the last named river joins the Potomac, 
and affords some of the finest scenery in the Union. 

America may be proud of such fine names but we 
are compelled to read also of " Brownville on the 
beautiful banks of the Monagahala ! " We may not 
o much reprehend the worthy citizens " BROWN, 



IN NORTH AMERICA. 419 

SMITH, JONES, and ROBINSON," and others, giving 
their own suitable names to log-towns of their own 
creation. It is the nick-naming such ennobling and 
magnificent features of the fine country which has 
fallen under their prosaic sway that one is disposed 
to lament. It is a happiness that Niagara has not 
sunk into Smith's-falls or Tivo/i. 

The name of Kahirama may at first startle one's 
eye or ear, seeking Sanskritisms but it may be only 
a little display of classic lore on the part of the pro- 
prietor of a Belviderean spot near Washington. The 
last name ennobles any place any where. But we 
may be allowed to smile at some Uticarians and Cin- 
cinnatarianisms. 

It may, however, with a race having nick-naming 
propensities, answer the purposes of village creators 
to give fine names to the sites of their huts. " We 
passed," says an anonymous traveller, tl among a 
succession of places of minor importance, Rome, Sy- 
racuse, Canton, Jordan, Byron, Montezuma, Lyons, 
Palmyra flourishing villages ; but bearing no more 
resemblance to their namesakes than the meanest 
hovel to Windsor Castle." It were unreasonable to 
expect they should. The observation of the travel- 
ler might have been spared, and so may mine, that 
if one class of Americans see fit to sink the fine old 
names in their fine country and substitute mean ones, 
another class seems disposed to make some amends 
by introducing among them the titular grandeur of 
other regions. 

An old map of America coming recently in my 
way, I have picked out the following ; and think I 



420 SANSKRIT NAMES 

could thence, and from early gazetteers, pick out a 
hundred more of the same fine oriental sound : 
Schenectadi Oswego Tuscorora Temiscaming 
Chomenchouan Oatagami Paniasa Nasoury 
Tamaroa Caligoa Imahan Cadodakqui Nania- 
ha Kalaoochi Kallamak, river Appomatok 
Metchigami, island Alacapa Kalamonchi. Such 
names of places and rivers are not, perhaps, pre- 
served any where but in such old maps and gazet- 
teers. They have been erased, like those who 
named them, from the geography and face of those 
fair regions. 



IN SOUTH AMERICA. 

WE will also quit them and descend to their 
southern neighbours ; and glean first a few names of 
a similar description from TEMPLE'S entertaining 
"Travels in Peru." How few of the following 
would, if they occurred in a map of India, as some 
of them may, be suspected of being also Peruvian or 
S. American. " The rapid river Tola " " Province 
of Cochabamba " " Rivers Bermejo and Paiana" 
" The port of Arika"" The extended lake of Ti- 
ticaka, in the province of Puno, eighty leagues in 
circumference, is situated in a high range of hills 
the hills of Cancharani and Laycacosta." On 
the eastern shores of the Titicara, in the district of 
Larecaja, grows timber of the largest dimensions." 
" The city of Chvquisaca," as spelled Spanish 



IN SOUTH AMERICA. 421 

fashion, is pronounced Chokisaka, and is pure Hindi. 
It is said to mean in the Quichua language, where it 
is written Choque-chaka, " bridge of gold." The 
riches of the Incas, in their golden age, passed that 
way by Cusco. 

" The romantically situated Indian village of Yo- 
calla 1 here we saw rocks and mountains of more 
curious appearance, and more fantastic forms than 
any I had yet observed." At any place, named IO- 
kala, in whatever part of the world, I should expect to 
find such rocks and mountains ; cleft, conical, spi- 
racular with rugged chasms, fissures, and other 
" curious and fantastic forms :" whether in Peru, 
Greece, India, Africa, Scotland, or Ireland. But to 
proceed with TEMPLE : 

" The port of Anacato " " The town of Ouroru, 
famed for its mines of silver and tin hence per- 
haps its name." Perhaps but I know a village in 
India named very like it. " Sicasica, formerly a 
neat and respectable town." " The stupendous Mi- 
mam, the giant of the Andes" I LI is a name of 
the mountain goddess of the Hindus, and mani is 
closely connected with another of her names see 
p. 308. ILA is her sposo " The giant of the Andes" 
is sometimes named Ilamani. 

" A cholo of Cochabamba." These female cholo, 
the original natives, are described as delectable crea- 
tures. I know not if they are called chuli, in the fe- 
minine : that word, in India, is peculiarly so. " The 



1 How strangely this term, Indian, has been, and is, ban- 
died about ! 

2 N 



422 SANSKRIT NAMES 

province of Chayanta." I should conjecture this to 
be, or to have been, well wooded. CHAYA is the 
Hindu personification of shade. No other people 
have been so extensively poetical as to deify this 
greatest of all intertropical luxuries. Even in our 
boreal latitudes, what can sometimes exceed this 
source of enjoyment? I can scarcely refrain from 
giving a legend or two of this interesting goddess. 
Her adventures with the sun, are very charmingly 
narrated in Hindu poems. See some mention of her 
in H.P. But I have never seen any image or picture 
of her. Her name, changed sometimes to Sayeh, is 
extended through many eastern dialects; including 
Persian and other Mahomedan languages. Sayeh 
perwer * &kn means one " nurtured in the shade" 
in obscurity unintellectual one on whom the sun 
of intelligence has not shone. Another compound, 
similarly derived, is sayeh miahn ; meaning, perhaps, 
in the shade, or shade-caster. It is an awning, 
supported on poles, and stretched by ropes in front 
of, or between, tents or houses ; or sometimes by 
itself affording in all cases the luxury of shade. 
I have heard it called seminiana. Returning to 
TEMPLE, we find in his second volume 

"The Corregidor of Tungasaca." A complete San- 
skrit compound. "The provinces of Paria and 
Tint a." " An Indian named THOMAS CALISAYA, 
a native of Tiquifia, arrived as a Canari, or special 
messenger, from TUPAC C ATARI the Ltca. He 
spoke no other language than Ayamara." " The 
town of Sorata." Our famed city, usually written 
Surat f is pronounced Sorat by natives. " The 



IN SOUTH AMERICA. 423 

curate of PucaranL" If this last name sound like 
Italian or Spanish, it sounds also Malabaric. " Ita- 
laqiie, Mocontoro, Collona, Colioni." KallOni, as 
remarked of other regions Sanskrit and Greek. 
" River gold from Chayanta native iron from Ata- 
cama a vein of solid iron, barra the town of 
Salta." 

" The province of Tarija " is described as little 
known out of S. America. Bones and skeletons of 
enormous animals are found there ; and until lately 
have been supposed and concluded to be human. 
" Bones of the ancient giants of Tarija, " are fami- 
liar words. GARCILLASO, and others, gravely de- 
scribe a race of giants, all males, on the borders of 
Atacama. Having excited the wrath of Heaven, 
they were destroyed by thunder and lightning. 
TEMPLE ii. 320. 1. 

This race would have suitably matched the war- 
like inhabitants of an E. I. island, all females 
hence called Hamazen. They are also called Stri- 
raj or ruling women. Mention is made of them in 
my volume on " Hindu Infanticide," p. 82. there 
supposed to have near relationship to the one- 
breasted Amazons of the westerns, in that feature, 
as well as in name and fable. 

Some speculations have been indulged in touching 
the supposed peopling of the S. American provinces 
from the East. TEMPLE would have fancied the 
natives of Chiriguano Chinese, had he seen them in 
England. (His description is rather of the Malays.) 
" A circumstance," he says, " which supports the 
theory that these parts of S. America were originally 



424 SANSKRIT NAMES 

peopled from the shores of the Eastern world." 378, 
Whatever support such theory may hitherto have 
found, yet stronger will, I think, be derived from 
a comparative consideration of the remains of the 
earlier languages of both S. and N. America, still 
extant in the old names of rivers, mountains, towns, 1 
8tc. 



1 If one were to skim Mexico and Peru with this view r 
many confirmations might occur I will here just note one 
quoting from myself: " RAMA is also found in other points 
to resemble the Indian BACCHUS. He is, notwithstanding his 
lunar appellation of RAMA-CHANDRA, fabled to be a de- 
scendant of the sun. His wife's name is SITA ; and it is very 
remarkable that the Peruvians, whose Incas boasted of the 
same descent, styled their great festival Ramasitoa. In a 
charge delivered by Dr. WATSON, afterwards bishop of 
TLlandaff, to the clergy of the archdeaconry of Ely in May, 
1780, are many curious and shrewd observations on oriental 
usages. He notices ' a string of customs wholly the same 
amongst people so far removed from each other as the 
Egyptians and Peruvians. The Egyptian women/ he says, 
' make sacred cakes of flour, which they offered to the queen 
of heaven at their principal solar festivals called Raymi and 
Citua: the Peruvian women did the same/ Almost all the 
customs described as common to those distant people, the 
Egyptians and Peruvians, as well as that quoted, are Hindu 
customs ; ancient and existing/' Hin. Pan. Having men- 
tioned the faithful SITA, one of the most interesting females 
in Hindu poetics, I will here note though confessedly not 
much in place that the alike interesting SITTI MAANI, so 
pathetically mentioned by the traveller PIETRO BELLA VALLE, 
and described as an Assyrian girl, would, from her name, 
lead one to think that she must have been a Hindu, rather 
than a Mahomrnedan though she is said to have been born at 
Bagdad. SITAMAANI, is Hindi. 



IN SOUTH AMERICA. 425 

" The village of Tolapampa." " The battalion of 
Ayacucho." " The village of Muyokiri." " The 
single hut of Maimara." " The wonderful valley : 
from beyond Humuguaca to Jujui, a distance of 
nearly one hundred miles, the road continues in a 
deep and narrow channel that must have been 
scooped through the rocks and mountains at some 
remote period of the world, by means of an irresisti- 
ble flood^ of the power of which the human mind 
can form no conception. " 420. Such a strait, so 
cleft by some violent disruption, would be dear to a 
mystic Hindu. It would be peopled by mythologi- 
cal inhabitants and every cone and fissure would 
have its fable. 

" There breathes no sound, 

There waves no grove, no fountain music plays, 

No river in the march of waters joys ; 

But Superstition lends her willing ear 

To hail her fancied God." 

" Thus NEPTUNE in his ocean car appeared 

APOLLO gloried in the realms of light 

And DIAN, with her starry nymphs begirt, 

The VIRGIN soon inspired 

at length Idolatry, 

In sycophantic homage, knelt and prayed." 

The Messiah. 

"The port of Yala." " Gran, on the river Ver- 
mejo The post of Bajoda The small hamlet of 
Simolar The excellent port of Sinsacate." Thus 
far TEMPLE'S amusing " Travels in Peru." 

Another writer mentions the " desarts of Uuasco, 
oy Atacama, and Calama, and generally 



426 SANSKRIT NAMES 

between Coquimbo and Puyter " all, T think, in 
Peru ; but I have not noted the position nor the 
author. 

I have lately seen a book announced by this title 

" Captain ANDREWS' Journey through 

and Salta to Putosi thence by the desart of Ca- 
ratija to Africa." 

" The desart of Caranja," in connexion seeming- 
ly with Peru, and the name of Oran occurring, as 
above, as the name of a place in that country, re- 
minded me of the island of Caranja, forming part of 
the eastern side of the fine harbour of Bombay. 
Caranja is its common name among the English ; 
and I have no doubt of its being a native word, 
although I can recollect no other place in India of 
that name, and I know no meaning of the word. 
But Oran is the common name among the natives ; 
and is also the common Hindustani and Mahratta 
name for a desart; or a ruined, unfruitful, deserted, 
region or place. Oran is not, I believe, a very 
productive island but it does not, I think, altoge- 
ther deserve the name of desart. I know not if 
the neighbouring Mahratta continent be deserted, or 
infertile, or unpeopled. But here are the names of 
Caranja and Oran connected with the sense of de- 
sart, very closely and widely. There is also an 
Oran, a large town, of Algiers, in the province of 
Maskara : but not, that I know of, in any way con- 
nected with a desart : excepting, indeed, that when 
that town and fort have been, as they now are, held 
by a Christian power, the country beyond, and in 
the neighbourhood, has been so laid waste by the 



IN SOUTH AMERICA. 427 

Moors, as to be no way so well distinguished as 
by the name in question. When Spain held Gran, 
all its provisions and supplies were furnished by 
sea. 

Conquerors, discoverers, and other innovators, of 
course, let their personal feelings operate in the 
substitution of new, for the old, names of places. 
Venezuela, or Little Venice, sounds not so much 
amiss as some of the substitutions of the Spaniards. 
Still its aboriginal name, Kohibakica, which fortu- 
nately has not been lost, is, as Lt. LISMAHAGO 
would say, more sonorous. The Spaniards, in their 
awkward orthography, write it Coquibaqua. I will 
here interpolate a name of a place near Venice Ma- 
lamoco whose fine sound would do credit to either 
or all of the Italic, American, or Sanskrit lan- 
guages. 

Kalamarka, a ruined village in Peru, and Cala- 
boda in the Caraccas, and Parana are also San- 
skrit, or Sanskrit-sounding names. Chimborazo, I 
conclude to be also native. What a fine name for 
the glorious summit of S. America sister to the 
giant of the dudes, Ilamani. On the hilly, holy, 
island of Salsette, near now, indeed, joined to 
Bombay, is a beautiful spot named C him boor. 
These names occur also, miscellaneously, as of S. 
America Rio Colorado Tulcnhueuo Para Co- 
lares volcano of Antuco Chamacasapa, in Mexico, 
has a series of mountainous caverns, through which 
subterrene rivers pass and re-issue. This last name 
is almost pure Sanskrit Kama Kasyapa. 

A sangam, or junction of rivers, has been before 



428 SANSKRIT NAMES 

mentioned as mystical and sacred, with Brahmans and 
their followers : of three, profoundly so see pp. 
251-7. and pp. 409-12. I have there said that I 
knew of but two such one in India and one in 
Ireland. But I now find a note of another such 
junction in S. America, and of a fourth in Africa; 
written, perhaps, since. Such triple junction is called 
in India, Triveni, or the three-plaited-locks. It is in 
the province of Guiana that the American Triveni 
is found, in the union of the Coioony, the Massaroni, 
and the Essequibo. At their confluence the Dutch 
had once a capital city, named after the last river. 
Her two first-named sisters join her lovingly kiss 
her or intertwine their locks as they would say in 
India about one hundred miles from their mouth. 
It would be curious if the natives of Essequibo the 
Allahabad of America were found to regard their 
triple junction with any feelings of superstition. I 
think it not unlikely. Such feeling would not, of 
itself, perhaps, be confirmatory of intercommunica- 
tion, at some time or other, with their distant co- 
mystse in India and Ireland; but coupled with other 
coincidencies, although little else than lingual, it 
would go far to prove it, to minds not unreasonably 
sceptical. 

The names of these S. American " three-plaited- 
locks," may not, as some think, materially aid my 
hypotheses. But I am disposed to think differently. 
The first Coioony I choose to spell KolOni ; and 
it strikes at once. I should expect such a river or 
mountain in Malabar or Mysore. Massaroni, or Ma- 
zaroni, is more like Italian, and I shall not attempt 



IN SOUTH AMERICA. 429 

to make much of it. I may note, however, that the 
smooth liquid sounds of the Italic are found extensively 
spread. If written Mahasaroni, it may pass for an 
E. Indian, as well as for a S. American, or an Ita- 
lian name. Of Essequibo I shall attempt less. It is 
probably pronounced Askibhu ; on which something 
Sanskritic might be hung. But let it pass. Also the 
plain of Corazan, blazing with a volcano, and wa- 
tered by the Cauca. 

In Guiana I have farther noted these few E. In- 
dian sounding names the province of Cumana 
mountain Tumucurang (RANGA is a name of SIVA). 
The rivers Maroni, Paramaribo (PAR A is a name 
of SIVA'S consort) Arawary, Manet, Yapura, Gua- 
viari, Carom. 

Since the preceding was in print, a few more 
fine E. I. sounding names in Guiana, have fallen 
under my notice, which deserve to be retained, as 
trivial ; even if we insist on a classification Greco- 
Romaic. Most of the following refer to Nat. Hist. 
the parentheses are interpolations of a slightly 
altered orthography to render the names more 
Strikingly Oriental. 

" The maipoori (mahapuri) manati, or river-cow, 
grazing on the leaves of the Caridor (Karidur) tree." 
" The jaguar the black hannaqua the mighty- 
billed toucan the mighty camoodi the aboma, or 
boa." " The labarri is nearly as poisonous as the 
conacoushi, horrible reptile. The hideous pipa, or 
guinea frog the paco, a delicious fish, of the same 



430 SANSKRIT NAMES 

genus as the cartaback, and waboory ; and omah or 
peraij deservedly dreaded by swimmers. The war- 
wureema is a tetrodon. The cayman the sweet 
scented hyawa logs of ducollubola. rivalling ma- 

+s O ' O 

hogany the bouracourra, or letter-wood the tough 
hackea cassava bread the querryman, a fish (keri- 
mani) the worali poison the harmless liquor py- 
warree. The melancholy note of the houtou 
marabuntah, a wasp the roots of the water- 
poisoning hyaree" 

The preceding are taken from the early pages of 
ALEXANDER'S Transatlantic Sketches: wherein 
mention is made of the three rivers joining their 
waters about 100 miles from the Atlantic, and of 
Bartika, at their confluence. 

The large town of Paramaribo seems to have re- 
tained its fine old name throughout Batavian in- 
fluences also the lake Tappacooma. The tribes of 
Arrawak (WALLABANARI, an Arrawak chief) 
and Accaway, Carib, Wurrow, and Macoushi, deserve 
also this transient notice : so do the fine rivers Oro- 
noko and Atchafalaya : the last I believe is N. 
American. Nor will I aver that, in other instances, 
I may not, through ignorance or inattention, have 
misplaced towns or rivers. Neither will I here claim 
for the following extract the most appropriate place. 1 
But coupled with the submergent junction of the 
Saraswati and Ganges, before mentioned, a similar 
phenomenon is recorded of the Alpheus and Arethusa^ 

1 Intended chiefly as a peg, on which to hang an Al- 
pheusian note. 



IN NEW ZEALAND. 431 

in the 8th Idyllium of MOSCHUS ; thus rendered by 
ELTON, in VALPY'S edition: 

" From Pisa, where the sea his flood receives, 
Alpheus, olive-crowned, the gift of leaves 
And flowers, and sacred dust, is known to bring 
With secret course, to Arithusa's spring: 
For plunging deep beneath the briny tide, 
Unmix'd and unperceived his waters glide. 
Thus wonder-working Love, with mischief fraught, 
The art of diving to the river taught." Class. Lib, xxx. 



IN NEW ZEALAND. 

A FEW names of places, persons, &c. of the like 
connexion with the foregoing, spread widely over the 
surface of our globe, I will, somewhat more miscel- 
laneously, notice, in conclusion of this subject, and 
Head of our Fragments. From NICHOLS' voyage to 
New Zealand, these: TARAPEEDO TURREEGUN- 

NJVH DUATERRA KoRAKARA TARA WARA- 

K EE names of men. Wytanghee Wycaddee Wye- 
mat tee rivers. Wy, Wye, Wahi, pronounceable, I 
suppose, nearly alike, seem extensively applied to 
rivers. Of places, these names occur in Netu Zea- 
land: Cororadikee Kororadika a port and district; 
perhaps the same name Moorberee, lake Wan- 
gerao, harbour Tudukacka, a district Eoracky, a 
landing-place Rangeho, a village. Hevee is a bone. 
The New Zealanders are said to have the legend of 
the formation of the first woman from a rib of the 
first man. Their supreme deity is MAWHEE-RANGA- 



432 SANSKRIT NAMES 

RANGA. RANG A, we have before seen, is a name 
of SIVA, and Maha as a common prefixture (mean- 
ing The Great} to his name. SRI RANGA, I have, 
on another occasion, surmised to be the origin of 
Seringapatam or Srirangapatan, the town of the 
holy RANGA; and RANGHI is his consort. Under 
these names and character, they are the deities of 
tears and lamentations, as is emphatically noticed in 
p. 345 preceding, without advertence to this. Now 
mark "HECKOTOROO, god of tears and sorrows, 
with his wife, form the constellation Ranghee," 
among the New Zealanders : but which that is, 
NICHOLS has not said. TEEPOCKHO is their god 
of anger and death (TRIPURA is so connected in 
Hindu mythology) TOWACKHEE of the elements 
MOWHEEMOOHA of the earth MOWHEE-BOTAKEE 
of diseases. 



IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS, &c. 

OF the Sandwich Islands I find this note 1 the towns 
of Honoruru, Hawai } Oahu, sound Hinduish. The 

1 And, among some miscellaneous matters, in the form of 
queries, these : Trafalgar ? May not an orientalist find in 
these three syllables reasonable tracery from the farther east ? 
Tiro, or tre, or trifal, orphal, orp/iul (flower or fruit) g-ar, 
ghar. Triphalghar may, I think, be so traced to a meaning. 
Bucephalus? of the "Macedonian madman" may it be 
from Bhuseliphal ? Will the Spanish or Greek yield such 
etymologies as might be found in India ? A horse may, 



IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 433 

religion seems to border on Hindu legends: they 
have a god TAROA, of whom some Krishnaic stories 
are related. He assumed a polyandriac character, 
as he, in his ubiquity, wandered, wiving, from island 
to island, lived in a shell, &c. 



indeed, be thought to take a name rather from kine than 
fruit. Bu is bucolic, both in India and Greece ; and I ad- 
mit that BUKEPHALUS partakes more of Greek than San- 
skrit ; but it partakes of both. Ox-headed is a likelier deri- 
vation than any florescent source. Aksa, in Sanskrit, is an 
ox. "Whence Hymettus?" Some one has said, "from 
the blood of PYTHON ;" but I know not who or where ; 
and I am not learned enough to trace whence. The honied 
hill may not be sufficiently lofty to warrant a derivation, 
in that region, similar to the Haimala of northern India; 
which is supposed to be from haim, or haima, snow, or 
snowy. Strongly or mildly aspirated, ancient and modern 
Greek may perhaps furnish words Khima ? Khion ? of 
nearly similar sound arid meaning. "Arcadia?" Arghadia, 
or Arghadeva ? the holy or divine Argha? a word implying 
a mystical union of the Linga, lOw, and their receptacle 
not readily explainable, nor, it is admitted, very applicable. 
" CLEOPATRA?" Kaliya-patra, or putra ? If the first, or 
Kaliapatra, we may note that patra in India is almost syno- 
nymous with patera in idolatrous Europe. Patra refers also 
to a leaf, of which the earliest of such articles were probably 
made. Leaves of the plantain, and of the banian tree, and 
others, are still used in India as plates for eating off, and 
for many other culinary, and even sacred, purposes. If putra, 
the word means offspring, children. Here, agajn, not very 
applicable by me. " Will the Scandinavian regions yield 
any thing in this line of conjectural etymology?" I have not 
sought and do not expect that many Hinduisms would turn 
up therein. In Sweden, Upsala, lOnkoping, Calmar, might 
be noted. 

2o 



434 SANSKRIT NAMES 



IN THE TONGA ISLANDS. 

Anamooka is described as a town in Tonga-tabu, 
one of those islands: MATABOOLE, a counsellor, 
companion, and chief minister of state. These words 
are East Indian. The name of the island is said to 
denote a holy place one devoted to divine pur- 
poses. In India, tonga means strong, and we have 
seen it, p. 403. or Tunga, as the name of a river in 
the Dekkan. Tapu is so near Tabu, as fairly to 
claim close relationship, if not identity. It has, I 
believe, some connexion with tapas, worship, ado- 
ration, see p. 273. and Index. Tapu is said also 
to mean island, in Sanskrit; and that Tapu-rawan 
is another name of Ceylon the island of RAW AN. 
The ten-headed, twenty-armed tyrant, king of that 
classical island, was so named, or RAWENA ; whose 
rape of SITA, the HELEN of the Ramayana, is the 
theme of that epic, as the rape of HELEN is of the 
Iliad. From Tapurawan some have derived MIL- 
TON'S 

" utmost Indian isle, Taprobane." 



IN ABYSSINIA. 

From the work of Mr. SALT I have taken a few 
names and subjects connected with mine. I have 
noted that his work was not searched narrowly, and 
that fewer such occurred than I expected. Here are 
some Antalow Bora Salowa Saharti Call 



IN ABYSSINIA. 435 

Chelicut, p. 347. Gorura Agora, 354. 9. " river 
Wadiy near the town of Gullibudda" Garima, 399. 
The preceding are names of places. " Gomari is 
the hippopotamus," 354. At p. 341. are some cha- 
racters cut in stone, in " fragments of inscriptions 
found at Yeeha, amidst the ruins of the monastery 
of Abba Asfe." Among the characters are No. 4. 
of line D. of PI. V. of this volume, which, in pp. 302. 
3. 4. preceding, has been called the Ramaic and The- 
ban plow; also 5 and 16 of line A, Hindu sec- 
tarial distinctions. Also 2 of B. the trisula or tri- 
dent of SIVA, inverted, as when NEPTUNE " the il- 
lustrious earth-skaker," the "tamer of horses," 
who is sent by HOMER to "Ethiopia's sons " struck 
the Attic soil with his. As well with 2 of B., that 
extensively classical subject is more or less con- 
nected with 5 to 18 of that line; 20 of A. and 10 
ofE. 

In the two next pages, 342. 3. of Mr. SALT'S work, 
more of these characters occur, cut in and raised on 
stone, which are still mystic in India. I shall here 
note only another inverted trident, such as B. 16. 
with the middle limb elongated. Mr. SALT sup- 
posed them to be "part of an old Ethiopic 1 alpha- 

1 If it should prove correct what has recently been said, 
that discoveries have led to the conclusion that the Brah- 
mans (of India and of Egypt ?) had in days of yore eigh- 
teen languages, each appropriated exclusively to one line of 
subjects; of which we have hitherto learned only one lan- 
guage, viz. that devoted more particularly to mythology, or 
religion ; if this important fact should be confirmed, a very 
wide door will be opened, through the mastery of such lin- 



436 SANSKRIT NAMES 

bet ; some of them being precisely the same as are 
in use at the present day ; and others exactly those 
met with in the inscriptions at Axum" But the page 
is approaching when our PL V. must be more parti- 
cularly described. 

" To the north of the 1 Shiho," says Mr. SALT, "are 
found people called Mara, Boja, and Manda. Be- 
yond these are the Juma-jum, and the Beja-rubroo. 
Other tribes are distinguished by the names of Bat- 
mala, Karob, Bartoom, Adamur, Subderat, Ummara, 
Barea, Hallingalaka a road leading to Gella Guro 
and Hamazen northward lie the Kot and Saharat, 

gual vestibules, to an extent of investigation which may, in 
its results, develope very strange, curious, and important 
things and, let us hope, among them, historical and other 
truths. 

1 SIVA is, in the southern, western, and, perhaps, other 
parts of India, corruptly pronounced SHEO, and otherways 
SEO, SEU, and Siv. A conical hill, among the highest, on 
Bombay, and the most northern is (almost of course) named 
after this elevated family. Natives generally call it SEO or 
SHEO very nearly the Shiho above. The Portuguese built 
a fort on it, which we keep up. It used to command the 
passage between Bombay and Salsette, and served as a check 
on the Mahrattas of the latter island. We always write it 
Sion, and pronounce it as we do the name of our " holy hill." 
It was probably so called by our predecessors. The Abys- 
sinian river Shiho may be Sheo, and, like the Nile, named 
from a colour. Hence Niger, Negro, Nila, Kala, Blachwater, 
Behr al abaid, or White river, the Euphrates, and other well- 
known waters the Red river, Blue river, &c. of North Ame- 
rica of which I have not learned the native names the 
Yellow river of China and others, denoting a very exten- 
sive spread of such potamic baptism. Of this something has 
occurred before. See Index. 



IN ABYSSINIA, 437 

stretching towards Dobarwa the burning regions 
of Tehama the districts of Hamazen, 1 Kote, Seah, 
Serawe, Mahwalla, Halai, TsamaihQ river ~Mun- 
nai." 441.3. 

" The following names of districts in Amhara, 
mentioned by LUDOLF, were recognised by intelli- 
gent people at Chelicut : Anbasit Barara Daj 
Demah Makana Zaramba Wara Wudo Wai- 
nadga." 492. 3. 

" A species of falcon is named Godie Godie, which 
I believe to be nearly allied to the Sacre" App. xliii. 
" The Abyssinians entertain a singular superstition 
respecting this bird." SALT describes it, and adds 
" from this, and its resemblance to those so fre- 
quently met with among the hieroglyphics of Egypt, 
I am led to suspect that this species may answer to 
the sacred hawk of that country, so venerated by 
the ancient inhabitants." Ib. 

That the Godiegodie of Habesh, and the Garuda 



1 Of another Hamazen, see something in p. 423. 

2 Mani is an alligator in Malabaric. I have somewhere 
an account of the killing and eating an alligator in Malabar 
in which exploit I, in my early day, was a principal per- 
former. I have a vivid recollection of the feat; and of 
making a hearty supper off its tail and tongue, which were 
very good. Lately eating, for the first time, roasted stur- 
geon, I was strongly reminded of the alligator rump-steaks. 
It was at Morakona, a fort and post where I commanded in 
1787, near Tellicherry, a region abounding in alligators. The 
four or five festive associates in this exploit the most exhi- 
larating in ' which I was ever engaged in the sporting line 
are all food for other reptiles: "Eat and be eaten'' is 
Nature's grand law. 



438 SANSKRIT NAMES IN ABYSSINIA. 

commonly called Garoor or Gorora of India, the 
Ibis, or sacred hawk of Egypt, and the mythological 
Eagle of western pagans, are one and the same bird, 
the coincidences of name, character, and legends, 
amply testify. Not perhaps the same species, but 
all of the falco tribe. With the exception of the 
serpent, no other genus of animal has, probably, 
spread itself so widely over the surface of supersti- 
tion the religion of feeble minds as the eagle. 

Concluding this long Head or series of my Frag- 
ments, very much longer than I had anticipated 
intended to exhibit the great extension of Hindu- 
isms lingual and legendary I desire to repeat 
that such coincidences might be collected ; and 
many, no doubt, stronger than are here given, to 
an exceeding great amount. Such as I have noted 
have occurred, unsought, in the currency of desul- 
tory and confined reading. The mass of miscel- 
laneous matter crowded into this third series of 
Fragments might have been variously divided and 
headed : but such arrangement would have caused 

O 

greater expansion, where typographic condensation 
is found more expedient. 



FRAGMENTS FOURTH. 

DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE PLATES 
IN THIS VOLUME. 

THE little history of the Plate given as the Frontispiece is 
this : I had been some time thinking of having a conceit, 
heraldic, perhaps, or allegorical, engraved as a distinguish- 
ing mark of the volumes on my book-shelves I may not 
use the language of the great, and call my room by the dig- 
nified name of " Library." But, through the kind, long- 
continued courtesy' of literary friends who have obligingly 
presented me with their valuable and duly esteemed works 
some of them condescending to accept my poor things in 
very inadequate return, save of courtesy and good-will 
from this source, and from that of being a reviewer of some 
forty years' standing, and an occasional contributor to pe- 
riodicals (and not on such occasions receiving money but 
books) I have, without buying to any extent, become pos- 
sessed of a good many volumes. While concocting some- 
thing to paste into them for the purpose mentioned, the 
pretty tail-piece in p. 103 of the curious little volume by 
M. OUVAROFF " An Essay on the Mysteries of Eleusis" 
met my eye. 

It struck me as being nearly what I wanted ; and I waited 
on the spirited publisher, Mr. RODWELL of Bond Street, 
and asked his permission to have the idea of the Goddess 
and Cube lithographed, to suit (with, probably, some alte- 
rations and additions) my said purpose. Although an entire 



440 DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

stranger, personally, to Mr. RODWELL, he very politely pre- 
sented me with the plate, to do what I pleased with. 

But, after every search, the copper could not be found. 
My sense of the courtesy and liberality is, however, the 
same ; and I take this occasion to return my due thanks to 
Mr. RODWELL. 

I proceeded then to have the impression re-engraved, 
with certain alterations ; retaining, indeed, little else than 
the conceit of the Cube and the goddess say CERES, or the 
Genius of Grecian Literature, removing the veil which has 
so long hidden the secrets of Egyptic and Hindu lore. On 
two sides of the lithic cube, forming the seat of CERES, 
are represented in M. OUVAROFF'S plate, the now well- 
known colossal triune Elephantine bust, taken from NIE- 
BUHR (Voy. in Arab. II. 25) and the head of Isis, from an 
ancient Egyptian brick, of which Count CAYLUS has given 
the figure, in his Recueil d'Ant iq. iv. p. xv. 

When I had proceeded some length in my engraving, 
being well pleased with the conception and execution, I de- 
termined, not only to place it in my books, but, in the hope 
that it may also please my readers, to give it as a Frontis- 
piece to my unpretending volume. 

Kind Reader if you will take the trouble to turn to our 
Frontispiece, you may see the Genius of Grecian Literature, 
if you please, or CERES, or Isis, or SRI the goddess re- 
vealing the hidden things of India and Egypt. She is up- 
lifting that veil which has hitherto obscured them. On its 
hem are written those barbarous and unintelligible words 
which some writers on the Eleusinian mysteries say con- 
cluded them, by being whispered into the ear of the terrified 
aspirant. 

If a solution of these words be sought, it must be in the 
languages of India; where also must be sought extended 
to Egypt and hidden in her hieroglyphics an explication of 
the mysteries themselves : and where, I am disposed to be- 
lieve, more of Christianity will be also found as well his- 
torical as doctrinal and mystical points than has hitherto 
been suspected. 



FRONTISPIECE. 441 

For the central word in this mysterious triverbal phrase 
KONH OM HAH, the reader will perceive I have substituted the 
Hindu mysterious triliteral word AVM- He may well be 
alarmed, if the fact be new to him, that on this almost in- 
effable word best expressed in our letters by AUM, but in 
our spoken language by O'M volumes have been written. 
I will relieve him by asking leave to write only a few lines 
thereon. 

It is called emphatically the monosyllable. " I AM," says 
KRISHNA, in the Gita, " of things transient, the beginning, 
the middle, and the end: I AM the monosyllable among 
words : amongst harmonious measures I AM the Gayatri.'' 

As the Gayatri will be presently noticed as forming a por- 
tion of our Frontispiece, I will, in the quotations or allusions 
respecting O'M, include some mixed up therewith. These 
from MENU " A Brahman, beginning and ending a lecture 
on the Veda, must always pronounce to himself the syllable 
O'M." 

" BRAHMA milked out, as it were, from the three Vedas 
the letter A, the letter U, and the letter M, which form by 
their coalition the triliteral monosyllable together with the 
three mysterious words, bhur, bhuva, and swer," (These 
words mean earth, sky, heaven.) 

" From the three Vedas, also, the Lord of creatures, in- 
comprehensively exalted, successively milked out the three 
measures of that ineffable text, entitled Gayatri." 

" The triliteral monosyllable is an emblem of the Su- 
preme ; but nothing is more exalted than the Gayatri." 
Inst. c. ii. v. 74. 76. 83. 

Among the many curious results of investigations into the 
mystic religion of the Hindus, may be classed the fact that 
" the barbarous and unintelligible words," in the mysteries 
of Eleusis, are in fact Sanskrit. 

Kanscha, K<ty, signifies the object of our most ardent 
wishes. O'M 'Ofj. is, as we have shown, equivalent (and 
connected with many other things) to our Amen. Paksha, 
no, signifies change, duty, fortune. The last word, pahsha, is 
pronounced vaksh and vact in the vulgar dialects; and from it 



442 DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

the obsolete Latin word vix is, as Mr. WILFORD says, obvi- 
ously derived. From this gentleman's Essay, Art. xix. in the 
fifth vol. of As. Res., this notice of the Sanskrit Kansclia 
O'm Paksha, as the manifest source of the Konx Om Pax of 
Eleusis, is taken. The words have in Sanskrit many other 
separate meanings connectedly perhaps, not much. It was 
not for their meaning that they were selected by the Hiero- 
phant of Eleusis ; but probably as being barbarous and un- 
intelligible " ignotum per ignotius." 

We will dismiss this copious subject with the remark that 
the monosyllable is equivalent to, if not identical with, the 
Alpha and OMeg-a the I AM, lACD, and other mysticisms 
of later Westerns, as has been before hinted in p. 151, and 
as are variously represented in line E of Plate v. 

Of the revealing figure SRI, or CERES, or Isis, and her 
mystical veil, and its heretofore unexplained triverbal 
phrase, including its ineffable medial triliteral monosyllable, 
we shall here take no farther notice. She has declared that 
she "Is all that is, or was, or shall be" O'Mm'a " and that 
her veil no mortal had been able to uplift." See p. 289. 

We descend to the cubiform seat of the goddess. Around 
one of its sides we read the ineffable, the holiest, verse of 
the Veda the exalted Gayatri. It is called the " Mother of 
the Vedas." It occurs several times in those venerated 
books, addressed apparently to different deities. That ad- 
dressed to SURYA, or the Sun, appears to be considered as 
the principal, or most profound. It occurs in the Sama Veda, 
as revealed to the great sage VISWAMITRA, and has been 
thus translated by Mr. COLEBROKE: " This new and ex- 
cellent praise of thee, O splendid Sun ! is offered by us. 
Let us meditate on the adorable light of the divine Ruler 
may it guide our intellects." Another version enjoins medi- 
tation on " that divine and incomparably greater Light, 
which illumines all ; delights all ; from which all proceed ; 
to which all must return ; and which alone can irradiate our 
intellects." 

This text must not be articulated, even by a Brahman. It 
must be meditated in solemn silence. The fine conclusion of 



FRONTISPIECE. 443 

THOMPSON'S Hymn would find a ready echo in the breast of 
a pious Hindu 

" I lose myself in THEE in Light ineffable 
Come then, expressive silence, muse His praise." 

Such silent musing a Brahman, as mentioned in p. 366. calls 
Yap. This must suffice of the Gayatri. 

We proceed now to the three-headed bust, so ineffably 
surrounded. NIEBUHR, I believe, first exhibited an en- 
graving of the Elephantine Colossus to Europe, in his Voy. 
en Arabic, &c. Amsterdam, 1780. It may seem strange that 
the English should have remained possessed of the island on 
which is the wonderful cavern temple, containing this subject, 
many years without (as far as I know) publishing any en- 
graving or description of it. The island, named by the 
Portuguese after a gigantic elephant rudely detached in 
stone, is in Bombay harbour, six or seven miles east of the 
town. My old and learned friend, MAURICE, copied it from 
NIEBUHR, as the Frontispiece of his first vol. of Ind. Antiq. 
and descanted on it very profoundly. It has since often 
been engraved and described. 

My visitings to it and the fine cavern, of which (among 
hundreds may I not say thousands ? of other figures) it is 
the main and most conspicuous object, have been frequent 
beginning with 1784, and ending, I think, in 1804. I have 
wandered socially and alone, through every part of the 
cave, and pored and pondered on every subject. I have 
painfully circumambulated the island at the water's brink ; 
and, as I believe, found excavations on which no European 
eye had before rested. I have, within the cave, written 
descriptions of each group, and almost of every figure ; and 
have returned to read my expanded notes, before each, to 
verify them. I have examined the Colossal bust with NIE- 
BUHR'S plate in my hand, and a note therein marks my 
opinion of its inaccuracy and insufficiency. 

In such moods I have farther resorted to a ruined temple 



444 DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

at the apex of a sea-chafed promontory, on the other, or 
western, side of Bombay, called by us Malabar Point. Such 
promontories, or tongues, are mystical, being of the form of 
a Linga, or delta. This Point, and the subject to which I am 
about to call the reader's notice, are mentioned in p. 324, 
preceding. 

On one of those occasions, removing, with the assistance of 
half-a-score stout men, the ponderous stones thrown ruinously 
about, as blasted in early days, by the idol-hating (!) Portu- 
guese, I was delighted at the turn-up of a beautiful model 
of my favorite study at Elepkanta. It was, like its gigantic 
type, considerably mutilated. I, of course, brought it away 
triumphantly not much considering what right I had to do 
so. But it had lain buried long before our time ; and my 
" EUREKA!" was not to be damped by " considering the 
matter too curiously/' 

I brought it to England and, after having been some 
years deposited in the museum at the East India House, it 
now surmounts a four-sided pyramid, at my humble abode in 
Suffolk. Diminutive as my pyramid is, compared with its 
archetypal Sivcegyptic Lingi, my miniature bust is no less so 
in reference to its gigantic original. It is however, I con- 
jecture, a ton or more in weight ; and it is more mutilated 
than is indicated in the plate. It is a fine specimen of or 
subject for the mythiarcha?ology of-India. 

My rural pyramid supports also, imbedded in one of its 
sides, another stone, similarly raised to light, from beneath 
the ruins of the same temple. It is a full-length ; sedent 
four-armed three-headed. The bust is given in No. 4. of 
line H, of PI. V. of this vol. 

Of the nature of these triunities, of their histories or 
allusions, I shall here say little. They have been exten- 
sively discussed elsewhere. In former pages, the words 
Trimurti, Triform, Triveni, of nearly like meaning, have 
occurred ; the first, a visible union of the great powers, or 
attributes, of Creation, Preservation, and Renovation; the 
last, of their active energies, personified as rivers. Under 
those words in the Index which it is intended to append to 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES I. II. 445 

this vol., references to what may occur on those subjects in 
its pages will be found. 

On the Egyptic side of the pyramid-containing-cubic- 
throne of SRI, I shall here be all but silent. I have, indeed, 
made a poor attempt to say something connectedly on the 
subject of Hindiegyptic hieroglyphics ; but not satisfacto- 
rily to myself and I spare my reader. Of the pyramid com- 
prehended in the square, containing the eternal sol-lunar 
symbols and aspiring scarab, with humanity strangely pros- 
trate, he will think what he please. 

It remains to say a word on the smoking, not burning, 
mashaul or torch beneath the cubic pedestal : and I shall 
only say that the composition having been originally in- 
tended for a library distinction, the reader may not, it is 
hoped, be disposed to be severely critical. He will not 
suppose that the humble wight whose name is there, or 
elsewhere, scarcely distinguishable, presumes to think that 
he can raise the torch that is to relume the obscure subjects 
above him. He can, at best, be the mashalji, who may 
haply serve to light the path to others ; himself obscured 
and bewildered in the smoke. This must suffice as to the 
Frontispiece. 

PL I. p. 6. and PI. II. p. 13. are there sufficiently de- 
scribed ; and so is PI. Ill, in pp. 22 and following, as far 
as No. 8 of that plate. Nos. 9, 10, it is said, in p. 34, 
would be farther noticed. I have now, therefore, to add that 
No. 9 of PI. III. is zfac-simile of a sard in the collection 
of Sir GORE OUSELEY. It contains the name of the Deity, 

aiil ALLAH in relief, on a dark ground. Within the letters 
which compose that holy word, the whole of a venerated 
text of the Koran is most minutely, but clearly, cut. 

This text or sentence is well known by the name of Ait ul 
Kursi, or " the verse of the throne." It occurs in the 3rd 
Sect, of the 2nd Sura, or chapter, entitled Al bakrat, or " the 
Cow." It is such a favorite as to be worn more, perhaps, 
than any other of the Koran, on the persons of Mahomme- 
dans, as a talisman or phylactery either written on paper, 
or engraved on stones and gems. 
2 P 



446 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE III. 

The Ayet al Kursi is deservedly a favorite. The original 
is said to be unsurpassed as a magnificent description of the 
Divine Majesty. It is thus rendered by SALE disclaiming 
equality with the dignity of the original : 

4 < God! there is no GOD but HE. The living, the self- 
subsisting. Neither slumber nor sleep seizeth Him. To Him 
belongeth whatever is in heaven and on earth. HE knoweth 
that which is past, and that which is to come. His throne is 
extended over heaven and earth ; and the preservation of 
both is no burthen to him. HE is the High the Mighty." 
1.47. 

The * teshdid at top contains the initial sentence of the 
Koran, and of all its chapters save one as is noticed in 
p. 28. preceding, where the sentence is given at length, with 
some observations. The text is continued and completed in 
the other limbs of the name ALLAH : and in the concluding 
part, or zamma, on the left, are inscribed the same name, 
and the names of the " holy family/' as given in p. 25. 
No. 9 of PL III. might, perhaps, have been made to contain 
as much as the sard ; but if we had so crowded in the whole, 
no ordinary eye could, unassisted, have read it. 

No. 10 of PI. III. is from the same Collection. It is a fine 
red cornelian, on which the words Ya ALI are raised ; and in 
the letters is cut, in very minute Arabic, the whole of a 
text known to Mahommedans by the title of Nad i ALI 
its first words. Its finals O ALI are on the stone. In the 
two dots under the Ya is the date of the engraving, " 1207 
of the Hijri," as I find it written by my right honourable 
and respected friend. 

Orientalists, who see that to complete the invocation two 
more dots are in strictness wanted, will be aware that al- 
though on stone such completeness may be looked for, yet, 

in writing, the dots under the (j ye final are seldom seen. 
As a final they are not required ; that letter being then so 
unlike any other. As an initial or a medial A it is so 
exactly like others j A j A V A .> .i J A equiva- 
lent to our b, /?, t, n, and th, as to require the diacritical dis- 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES IV. V. 447 

tinction. But in current writing the points are omitted or 
misused, to the great perplexity of students and unpractised 
readers ; and must doubtless give great scope to the varying 
readings of important words in languages including the 
Hebrew, and all ? which you read from right to left where 
a dot, or two, or their position, entirely alters the whole 
sense of a word, and of a sentence. 

The Nad i ALI, or " Praise of ALI," will come again 
under our notice. And this must suffice of what I had to 
ofter in addition on the curious subjects, as I deem them, of 
PI. III. 

The top subject of PL IV. is an antique flat Egyptian 
pebble of the same size ; well cut, and in fairer preservation 
than the ill-worked though well-engraved stone indicates. 
It represents two Ibii with their necks crossed, in a billing 
attitude. Loti, probably, in bulb and stalk, in different 
stages of efflorescence or expansion minutia equally dear to 
Egyptian and Hindu mystae compose, with two stars, the 
contents of this subject. This is the only lithograph in my 
volume. It has been done some years. But the dissertation, 
or Fragment, that this pebble was meant to illustrate is not 
ready : and if it was I could not find room for it. 

The central subject, the seal of the Fraternity of St. LAZA- 
RUS of Jerusalem, at Burton Lazars in Leicestershire, has been 
already described. See pp. 76 to 80. The " something 
hereafter" of pp. 79, 80, on the position of the Saint's fin- 
gers, and the ovals and cones of the middle and lower sub- 
jects of PI. IV. will be briefly noticed presently. 

PI. V. This uncouth-looking plate was got together to 
illustrate, among other things, a Fragment expressly on the 
matters more or less connected with the form and sound of 
|O extended to IO nt *> This has been hinted at in earlier 
pages ; and a peculiarity in the printing of those forms and 
sounds will, probably, have been noticed. But it has been 
easier to fill the Plate, than to finish my Essay. The latter 
I have not done at all to my satisfaction. It is too long, 
and must be severely abridged. But even in that not easily 
acquired form it would be far too long for admission in this 



448 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

volume ; whose end I am, somewhat unexpectedly, but not 
unwillingly, approaching. I cannot omit the Plate, as it has 
been often referred to. Another subject which it was in- 
tended to illustrate was a comparison of the early Christian 
Gnostics, with their congenerous namesakes, the Nastikas of 
India. The similarity of their tenets and proceedings some 
of them abominable is striking. It can now be noticed, if 
at all, but incidentally. 

As in PI. 2 of the Hindu Pantheon I crowded together 
nearly a hundred subjects of Hindu mystagogy, connected 
with their various " Sectarial marks or symbols" so in 
PI. V. of these poor Fragments, I have collected half as many 
more strange-looking things, haply Indian, Egyptian, 
Grecian, Christian not bearing exclusively on any one topic, 
but still connected more or less with each other. For, indeed, 
all mythological subjects or allusions tend immediately to, 
or are derived from, the sun and moon ; or rather the sun 
only. Beyond this it is religion and a portion of the true 
religion. It is " That GREATER LIGHT, whence all come, 
whither all tend which alone can enlighten us ;" the sub- 
lime substance, as we have recently seen of the most vene- 
rated text of the Veda. 

We have seen it hinted in earlier pages how extensively 
prevalent the sound |Q is fancied to be lengthened into 
IO"i> an d varied in |O nza > ITJw> an d a hundred other 
instances. And it seems to be as mystical as prevalent. 
Some speculators write the lengthened sound Yoni, and it 
may be the best way. Others differently ; but all are pro- 
nounced, perhaps, nearly alike. It has suited an hypothesis 
of mine to print it \Qni ; with the view of connecting the 
sound, and, more or less, the sense or allusion, or obscure 
relationship, as well as a certain form or hieroglyphic, with 
an extensive range of words ; a few of which have occurred 
and are typographically indicated in this volume. 

This vowelic sound, variously terminated, I have fancied 
to have travelled from India to Egypt : and that it may, duly 
investigated, furnish some clue to the hieroglyphics of 
Egypt; whence, through Greece it has made its way to 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 449 

Europe to England ; leaving, like the meander ings of a 
snail, intermediate traces : those traces, in form and sound, 
having a cognate tendency, as well as uniformity of origin. 

I shall here scarcely hint at the suspected source of all 
the mysticism of this figure, as represented rudimentally 
and combinedly in line A of PI. V. in all its numbers, save 
perhaps 17 in other lines also of that Plate. Ignorant 
persons are prone to imagine profundities where obscurities 
only exist. This may be the case with me and my Plate, 
and its supposed sources and were I to expatiate on it as I 
once intended, I might, perhaps, add to the list of failures in 
those who, inverting the Baconian rule, substitute hypothesis 
for induction. 

Let it be understood that where not otherways expressed, 
PI. V. of this vol. is in reference and that upright capitals A. 
B. C., &c. as seen in the margin, refer to the lines of numbered 
subjects on their right ; and sloping capitals A. B.C., &c. to 
the separate subjects so marked at the bottom of the Plate. 

All forms must be composed of A 1. Do what you will 
you can produce only a straight line and a curved one. The 
address of the Hindu sect of Saiva worshippers of SIVA and 
PARVATI in ascribing all straight, erect, spiring, pyramidal, 
obeliscal forms to him E I to 6 G 1,2,3, &c. and all curves 
or concavities to her ( ) ^ A 2. D \7.fig. A several of 
F and others may account for the all-pervading nature of 
their symbols or types. A 2 is a mere modification of its 
precedent, a reversed duplicate of 1 approach them, 4 is 
produced, which is merely 3 |Q in another form. It is 
a Hindu sectarial symbol, as seen on the foreheads of several 
deities given in the Hin. Pan., and in PI. 2 of that work. 
All the other numbers of A save, perhaps, 17 and 19 are 
merely varied forms of 3 or 1. Though diverging into an 
infinity of meanings or allusions, they admit of reunion 
they mythologically resolve themselves into one the Sun 
typified by Q and theologically into " that Greater Light,' 7 
of whom this vast globe, and more vast sun, are infinitely 
inadequate symbols or manifestations. 

I shall merely hint that A I, 2, are the initials in modern 



450 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

and ancient Christianity of the Great Captain of our Salva- 
tion the Alpha and O'NLega of every thing the IAM the 
AVM the IACD as seen in E 5 and 11 and in all the 
numbers, elementally and in combination of that line ; and 
in 15, 16 of D. As something on this subject and sound has 
occurred in earlier pages 151. 441 I here drop them. But 
will repeat my belief that in India and Egypt, more relating 
to a common Faith may eventually be found now, if seen at 
all, seen through the darkened and darkening media of hiero- 
glyphical and mythological rubbish than has been hitherto 
suspected. Whether Europe derived certain mysterious and 
sacred things from India, or the converse, or both from a 
common source, I do not presume to say. I am disposed, 
with humble deference, to incline to the last conjecture ; of 
some sources common to all. 

The important initials adverted to A 1 are seen in Jig. C 
a subject introduced for a different purpose. The mysti- 
cal importance of initials is very extensively cognisable. 

In line A of PI. V. the reader will see sundry old and some 
new subjects acquaintances, perhaps, as regard astrology, 
astronomy, mythology, metaphysics, and religion. But as 
something has occurred in earlier pages on that line, I shall 
here be brief. What is said in pp. 289, some preceding and 
following, though there meant to be only introductory to my 
descriptive account of PI. V. must nearly suffice as to lines 
A and B ; although in reality I have written, and have to 
say, much thereon. But it may not be said here. 

A 16, a combination of 3 or 5, has been before noticed. 
It is a distinguishing mark of the Hindu Krishnaic sect of 
Gokalast'ha as seen in PI. 2 of the Hin. Pan. on an Abys- 
sinian obelisk at Axum, among Egyptian hieroglyphics, &c. 
A 17 will be recognised by westerns as our zodiacal sign 
Taurus, and as a letter of the Greek alphabet. It represents 
also the Egyptic Scarab ; the strange symbol of eternity 
with that strange race. See the contents of the Pyramid, or 
Linga, in the cubic pedestal of our Frontispiece. With that 
race it was Isis, or LUNA at new and full, or sexually, \sis 
and Qsiris; a conjunction, like SIVA and PARVATI of the 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 451 

sun and moon SOL and LUNA, or LUNUS and LUNA ; as has 
been before intimated, p. 344. In the mysterious com- 
pound *& as before given in p. 283, it is SOL in LUNA a 
variety of the often seen Hindu symbol 7 of line F. A 17 
is LUNA on SOL. 

There are few fables which have more employed the fan- 
ciful pens of mystics than that of the very ancient one of the 
sun crossing the ocean in a golden cup. This cup was lent 
to HERCULES for his voyage in the Mediterranean. The 
type above given would be called by a Brahman a pedma in 
an argha in a word, probably, pedmargha. It is seen sur- 
mounting F 15 which, and 14, have been before noticed in 
detail and combination, in pp. 280. 3, 4, preceding. See 
also p. 293. The " ancient patera with a knob in it," men- 
tioned in the next page by Dr. CLARKE, is equally myste- 
rious in the Hindu patra, as shown in F 17, 18 reduced 
from the Hin. Pan. PI. 86. Argonautic fables are mere 
crypts, in which are concealed historical or astronomical 
truths. Of these something has been said in pp. 277. 284. 
and others. Nos. 7, 8. 14 to 18 of F, have connected re- 
ference to such Hindihellenic fables. 

As well as the Bull, whose buttings at the mundane egg, 
with sundry corresponding chaotic, cryptic fancies, have so 
much occupied the pens and pages of early and late mysta- 
gogues, our zodiacal sign Taurus, A 17, is likewise the 
Sanskrit figure 4. Quaternions, next to triads, are held 
in most profundity by those who revel therein, whether of 
India, Egypt, Greece, or England. Our trine A an d quar- 
tile Q are traceable to the same sources as the mysterious 
thing so figured in our Frontispiece. Of triads and qua- 
ternions I meant to have said more, as has been hinted, but 
must abstain. 

A 18 a combination of 9, with a crescent, or 17 with a 
cross. It is the type of our planet MERCURY, as 9 is of 
VENUS. 19 and 20 are slight modifications why introduced 
I do not now offer an explanation. A 8 has been before 
touched on ; see p. 289. It is seen on Egyptian monuments, 



452 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

as well as A 12, 13. 22, and others of PI. V. which I also 
must pass over. 

VENUS, I have somewhere read, has as many as three hun- 
dred names, or forms. SIVA has a thousand. Considering 
the almost infinite variety of forms, names, and characters in 
which such deities are identical, it is difficult, if not impos- 
sible, and perhaps useless were it otherwise, to fix a limit 
to the legends and fables all probably containing some 
latent astronomical fact to which such variety has given 
rise, or whence it has proceeded, or both. A momentary re- 
ference to p. 297 preceding will serve to show some of the 
appellations of the multiform, myrionomous DIANA or LUNA, 
or VENUS, or, &c. &c. 

B 1 what is it? a modification or complication of A 1, 
2 ; still more complicated in A 20 and varied in C 9, sim- 
plified in C 10, modified in 11. (Please to keep Pl.V. 
opened, if you mean to follow me.) A 18, our type of MER- 
CURY, is in close connexion with these forms, which slide 
into the caduceus of that deity or THOTH, or PHTHA ex- 
pressed, as we have seen in p. 290, by <J>T C 15, and B 20 
solar symbols, ancient and existing, the first immediately 
compounded of | and O> like so many of A, and of other 
lines of the Plate before us: sol-lunar Sivaic |sis and 

OSIRIS, &c. 

B 2 is the trisula or trident of SIVA and of NEPTUNE. On 
this something has been before said " introductory" 
in pp. 285 and following; see also pp. 312, 13. A 20 is a 
combination of B 2 and C 15. The Greek V has been 
before, p. 299, likened to B 2. That mysterious letter is 
also, and more, like B 5. 9. 11. 14 ; and these are in imme- 
diate connexion with B 6, 7. 15; and altered in position, with 
16, 17 18, is but 17 conjoined back to back jANUS-like. 
B 19, the famous digamma, an.d its followers on that line, 
more simple and more complex, we pass having already 
bestowed some attention on them ; see pp. 293, 4. Repe- 
titions of B 15, 16, are seen in D 15 and E 13 varied in 
E 9, and of which E 8 and 10 are other slight variations. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 453' 

These latter are portions of the very mysterious compound 
IACD, so often seen on " Early Christian coins and gems," 
as is shown by the Rev. Dr. WALSH in his curious little 
book with that title ; and as seen in sundry forms in lines D 
and E of the Plate before us. Thus are these all these? 
things, brought into immediate tridental, trisulic, trinitarian, 
or triune relationship, if not identity extensively spread, as 
they are, over India, Egypt, Europe, England. B 3, 4. 20 to 
23 varieties, but in their allusions extremely ramified have 
been by ancient and modern mythologists extensively dis- 
cussed, and deemed vast profundities, of which a glimmering 
may be discerned in pp. 290. 3, 4 preceding. Fig. C, intro- 
duced for a different purpose, exhibits the simple and com- 
pound forms of B 20. 23. and of the many others connected 
with them. 

If we combine in our eye how easily it is done A 20, 
or 19, or 16, or, indeed, almost any No. of that line very 
slightly modified, with B 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 we become entangled 
with B6, 7 tridental, trisulic, as before. These last-men- 
tioned are merely the mysterious Hebrew tf, supposed and 
shown by some western writers to be archetypal : Trinita- 
rian. Among them, my old and learned friend, the author of 
Indian Antiquities, stands prominent. But, although within 
ray easy reach, I have not for many years consulted his lu- 
cubrations thereon, nor any other ; desiring rather to outwork 
the explanations of my uncouth Plate in my own way, and 
having little space for the speculations of others. 

We sometimes see, among Trinitarian emblems, three nails 
joined at their points sometimes five are so seen. The Itf, 
though joined differently, has been supposed to foreshadow 
the nails used at the Crucifixion. Sometimes the triune com- 
bination is in the form of N perhaps D 1 may have a like re- 
ference ; or C 16, or B 15, 16, 17, and the other things already 
blended in significance with them including E 8 and 10. 

On a bronze medal of the large size given by Dr. WALSH, 
in his work above mentioned No. 1 is a bust of our SA- 
VIOUR corresponding with the description in the letter of 



454 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

LENTULUS to TIBERIUS. Behind the head is what Dr. W. 
deems to be Aleph, which is also a triune mystery. But to 
me it appears more like the nail-headed N above given not 
K in any usual form. In front, almost touching the nose, is 
HCT). " the Jewish name of JESUS" p. 12. Now though 
three nails are usually taken as the number used at the cru- 
cifixion one through each hand, and one through the over- 
lapped feet and the mystical $} may not inaptly represent 
them ; may not the five similar heads of the mystical letters 
in the above holy Name have similar reference to the " five 
nails " of other writers and actors ? whence, haply, the 
*' five wounds," as well as the impious assumptions of S. S. 
FKANCIS and DOMINIC have taken their origin. These have 
been adverted to in an earlier page. But probably such 
impieties were the invention of their own zealous sectarists, 
rather than the actual assumptions of those celebrated per- 
sonages. Of fancies on mystical numbers there is no end. 
Papists still dwell on " the five afflicting mysteries," " the 
five joyful mysteries of the Virgin," " the five glorious 
mysteries," as well as on "the five wounds of CHRIST." 

Ancient medalists take great liberties with the forms of the 
Hebrew letters. Writers probably did the same, as is now 
done by the Arabians and others who use letters of equiva- 
lent powers. The ^1 as above written requires a very tri- 
fling alteration to convert it into a form mystical in another 
sense. If ">^ were admissible, and it is nearly as mystical as 
lyf), it would have the additional merit of being alike, back- 
ward and forward ; a conceit of sufficient triviality, viewed 
as we now and here view such things ; but which we have 
seen has been and is, elsewhere, thought of very differently. 
If to the Jive were subjoined the character B 20 one of the 
most mystical in the whole range of mystery being, among 
other things, the THOTH or TAT already mentioned the 
Jive would assume the same form as B 7 does in reference 
to the three, or ]} its immediate precedent B 6. And what 
of that quintuple form? It is precisely the five-branched 
candlestick of the Ark of the Covenant that endless 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 455 

source of archetypal mystery ; no where perhaps to be 
now seen, of undoubted or very good authority as to ac- 
curacy of representation, except on the Arch of TITUS at 
Rome. 

My Plate V. has been so long filled up that I could not in- 
troduce either the outline of that candlestick, or of the three 
or five nails joined at their points, which, had I space, I 
should have been disposed to do. The three as if three of 
A 6 were so joined are not unfrequently still seen as a 
Trinitarian emblem. The five are also, I think, still seen in 
sacred places; but I have not noted where. Both are he- 
raldic distinctions. 

B 8 is a Hindu argha, as having a containing form and 
property like 17, 18, of F, taken from PL 86 of the Hin. 
Pan., where they are given on a large scale from originals 
out of temples : " boat-shaped vessels " Argonautic as 
described, and commented on at some length, and more ap- 
propriately in that work. In earlier pages of this volume is 
some mention of them. The next No., 19, of F, represents 
an article which I very recently saw nailed externally under 
the threshold of a mean house in an obscure street in Wtst- 
minster. On examination it proved to be a worn horse, or 
donkey, shoe ; reminding me of a similar charm that, in my 
younger day, I had not very unfrequently seen and heard 
of in Suffolk. I have myself been one of a gang of urchins 
who nailed a donkey shoe in a similar position, under the 
threshold of a poor old woman who had the reputation of 
being suspected of sorcery. We fancied it would avert the 
exercise of her craft, by confining her all night within doors ; 
as witches cannot cross iron. For the same sapient reason 
demonologists furnish them with broomsticks for vans or 
vehicles. I know not now where, save in Westminster, to 
look for an anti-fiendish-horse-shoe; and there it is placed 
probably to keep sorcery out. 

In Suffolk witchcraft long lingered nor have we, indeed, 
wholly forgotten these poetical fancies. Witches, still more 
wizards, are nearly out of date ; but the relics of ghosts and 



456 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

fairies still occasionally haunt us. The latter we call Phari- 
sees.* See Suffolk words. 

1 I can well recollect when that word occurred in the 
Scripture readings at church, &c., always connecting it some- 
how or other with the gambollers on the green ; and supposed 
the " Pharisee rings" (annular fungi) the results or scenes 
of such frolics. And I have little doubt that to this day 
children, and possibly some of those of " larger growth/' 
do still so associate them on similar occasions. I will relate 
an anecdote of recent occurrence : a gentleman-farmer, in the 
neighbourhood of Woodbridge, had a calf to sell, and hap- 
pened to be by when his bailiff and a butcher were about to 
bargain for it. The calf was produced, and was apparently 
very hot: " Oh I" said the butcher, " the Pharisees have been 
here ; and, 'stru's you are alive, have been riding that there 
poor calf all night." My friend had not been so much among 
rustics as I have, and knew not the import of the word ; at 
first confounding it with that of Scripture : but, listening, the 
butcher very gravely instructed him how to avert such conse- 
quences in future: which was, to get a stone with a hole in it, 
and hang it up in the " calves' crib," just high enough not to 
touch the calves' backs when standing up: " for," added the 
compassionate man of knife and steel, " it will brush the 
Pharisees off the poor beasts when they attempt to gollop 'em 
round." This was a master-butcher a shrewd intelligent 
man, in 1832. It accounted to me for the suspension of a 
stone, weighing perhaps a pound, which I had many years 
observed in my farm stable, just higher than the horses' 
backs. And although my men more than half deny it, I can 
discern that they have heard of the Pharisaic freaks, and 
more than half believe in them. I deem it to be a link in 
that very extensive superstitious chain which, on the topic of 
clefts, or perforations, in stones, trees, &c., connects India 
and England, unaccountably, but strikingly: on which I 
have much to say, in addition to what may have occurred in 
this volume, as pointed to in the Index under Cleft. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 457 

B 8 as well as an argha, as already observed and as 
similar to F 17, 19, is also an inverted O'Mega. The follow- 
ing numbers, in line B to 14, partake of the same relation- 
ships ; and so do the preceding 2, 5, 6, 7. These are tridental 
or trisulic; and are seen in mystical allusions on both Hindu 
and Grecian fanes. 15 to 18 of the same line are also cognate, 
differing in position ; and are seen on early Christian coins 
and gems, and on Egyptian monuments. They farther con- 
nect themselves with 15, 16 of D, and with 8 to 13 of E ; 
and less directly with others of PL V, that I shall not now 
point at. But they vary so little in form, or in their varia- 
tions slide so easily into each other, that, admitting the mys- 
ticism of one, a mythic relationship must, apparently, exist 
between them all. What then is the body of the central 
Sislrum ? Is it sufficiently of a like form to be brought into 
the common family? or, if the handle be added, will its con- 
nexion extend to its neighbours, 9 to 16 of G ? And with its 
" rattles/' as they are called, and its cat, what an ocean an 
argha of mystery is the Sistrum ! We may not stop to ex- 
amine, if in fable as well as form it be any way related to 
some of the articles in line A, such as 22. 12, &c. 

In the immediate Hindu trisula, B 9, 10, 11, Dr. CLARKE 
saw the elegant \Qnic volute, on which he pleasingly descants ; 
and in which he found so much mystery as well as beauty. 
Combine two arghas, B 8, or O'M*>g-.y, or the astronomical 
dragon's head and tail (RAHU and KETU of the Hindus) and 
you have B 13 with the erect attribute of SIVA, 14 with 
which so many trisulic subjects of this manifold, but all-con- 
nected, Plate V. have been, if not identified, brought into re- 
lationship, more or less remote. 

We have dwelt too long on line B, and will only add tha 
12 a section of 14 is the form of the crook an old and 
existing nomadic, or pastoral implement ; arid of yore con- 
nected not only with APOLLO, KRISHNA, and the Sun, but, 
varying in name and form, crook, crux, cross, crozier, is seen 
nearer home our own episcopal staff and emblem : allusive to 
its origin in the " Great Shepherd" that ** Greater Light." 
B 14 is the fulmen of JUPITER, and the Vajra of his brother 
2 Q 



458 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

INDRA, who is also named VAJRA-PANI " grasper of the 
swift blue-bolt." 

No farther noticing the prolific items of line B, except as 
in relationship to others ; the tre croci of C 1, I have to ob- 
serve, have been before mentioned, p. 166. They probably 
have some reference to the three crosses of Calvary ; and so 
may various combinations of a triune cross, such as C 2, 3, 
4, 5, 7, 8, 21. And with B 18, 21, 22, 23 ; fig. C, and other 
subjects of PI. V, in which the single T tau, B 20, or the 
three taus combined, 21 to 23, are variously seen ; all, haply, 
modifications of that mystical form, foreshadowed from very 
early days ; seen miraculously by CONSTANTINE ; a meridian 
sun surmounted by a cross of fire and in a form like A 8 
or C 21, adopted by him as the sign of his faith and hope. 
It differs but little from the globe and cross of our corona- 
tion A 8. A change in position, not of elementals, produces 
A 12 and 21 seen again in fig. D struck long before the 
time of CONSTANTINE and, in different degrees of relation- 
ship, in many of the subjects of the Plate before us. It is the 
expressive emblem which surmounts the papal tiara, the 
crown assumed by NAPOLEON, and that of our own and 
other royal families of Europe. 

C 16, 17, 18, 20, are mysterious things in the eye of the 
Jaina and Buddha l races of India. I had intended to en- 
deavour to correct them with sundry items of that and other 
lines ; but shall here refrain from exhibiting the results of 
such intention. C 19 is from an ancient gnostic gem as 
are 7 and 8, and others of line C, given in Dr. WALSH'S 
book. 

So are all of line I), with the exception, I think, of 4 (the 
Theban and Ramaic plow before spoken of) 13, 14, and 17. 



1 In Indian legends there are two BUDDHAS, which disser- 
tators would do well to consider distinctly and separately 
one altogether astronomical, the other historical : their names 
are written and pronounced differently BUDHA and BUD- 
DHAH. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 459 

The supposed history of some of them 9, 10, for instance 
by whom adopted, and why, might be related. But most of 
them all perhaps are buried in hieroglyphic mystery. D 2 
exhibits the elements of B 15, and many others similar; of 
A 6, and many others of that form, in a combination suffi- 
ciently obscure. D 3 is combined of A 14, 15, and C 16. 
I will just glance at one line of elucidation that I may not 
now pursue, touching such complications as D 3. Its lower 
limb, A 14, I have surmised may depict the issue of a river 
say the Nile out of a lake say Dembea. In two meander- 
ings or turns it is joined by another river C 16, or D 11, 
and at length joins the sea, or indented bay A 14, 15. 
Such delineations, in the absence of alphabetic writing, have 
been found and fancied, in the hieroglyphics of Mexico and 
Egijpt. D 6 is a triplicity of A 5, 6, &c. &c. D 7, of the 
same, combined with C 19. D 8, a dual combination of the 
earliest elements of PL V. in the apparent form of crossed 
keys: if A 12, 13, 21, &c., have been truly called keys. 
(See pp. 291, 2.) D 9 is a trinitarian mystery, thrice or 
ofterier repeated three arrow-heads, on three staves, thrice 
crossed. 10 (not very accurately engraved) is of a like 
Gnostic origin and nature supposed to be an anagram of eld 
and rho ]P the initials of the name of CHRIST. D 11 is 
compounded of 3, 12, and C 16. Of D 13, 14, mention has 
been before made, pp. 301. 3: also of 15, 16, which will 
occur again in connexion with line E. D 17 is the imme- 
diate and direct type, symbol, hieroglyphic, or whatever it 
may be best denominated of PARVATI ; seen again in line F, 
and in jig. A, in varied combinations. 

Line E is wholly of one subject elementals in its early 
numbers, carried on to their compound completion. The 
same are 15, 16 of D, which have before been connected, 
more or less, with other subjects of PL V, as well in this 
description of them, as in earlier pages. In 151, and in some 
recent pages, almost as much has been said on O'M E 11, or 
AVM the fount, as I surmise, of the issues Ogliam, 1AM 
IAW E 5, 6, lACD E 8, &c., as I find it expedient 
to say. E 7 and 9 mark the mystery of three in one a tri- 



460 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

literal word the last letter has three pyramids, or lingas. 
E 10 is modified from a component of 8, and is then trisulic, 
in like manner that B 7 is, in reference to its next preceding 
neighbour. Most of these varieties of |ACD including the 
various positions of the final, and the JQ, Q'~M.ega in D 16, 
are found with others on the Gnostic coins engraved in Dr. 
WALSH'S work. 

In E 9 we see an anagram of TA t ne initial answering 
to both limbs of the final, and producing TAT or THOTH. 
Some oriental languages have a letter equivalent to our th, 
and the Greek tlieta. 

Something on this triune, toghraic, or backward and for- 
ward fancy, has occurred earlier ; and we must now be brief 
thereon. A great many of the numbers of PI. V. might be 
shown to exhibit this characteristic, or property. In this 
class, as well as the words just given, may be reckoned 
QHQ flajflATITA and others. Witli some organs, some 
of these words would be shibboleth and the simpler sounds, 
initial and final, would be substituted. TAT is a very 
profound mystery with Brahmans as the like sound, repre- 
sented by T (3 or 20 of line B) or Taut or Thoth, a name 
of MERCURY, was among several early people the Phoe- 
nicians and GreeJis, and others. We shall not again dwell on, 
but merely allude to, the psychological profundities con- 
nected with that symbol, either alone or combined ; or con- 
nected with the non-beginning non-ending circle 12 or 21, 
and other numbers of lines A and B, and other items of PI. 
V. There seems no end, no bottom, to their extent and 
fancied depth. 

Alphabetic mysticisms were of old much sought and vene- 
rated. The initial of all alphabets, it has been said, is A. 
Jews, Gentiles, Christians, are found to have had these 
" thick fancies." " Among vowels/' says KRISHNA in the 
Gita, " I AM A." Hence TAT possessing all the ele- 
ments and properties and combinations of toghraic triunity 
like AVM a triliteral monosyllable, &c. &c., may, without 
having in reality much, if any meaning, in any language, 
have been thus mystically contemplated. " I AM," says 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 461 

KRISHNA, " the monosyllable among words." These may 
furnish wherewithal for mystae to chew a lengthened cud of 
cogitation. Whether initial, medial, or final, such contem- 
platists could find mental food ; in the position of letters, 
especially if they could be tortured into triunity. " Of 
things transient," saith KRISHNA, " I AM the beginning, the 
middle, and the end." As there may be no farther occasion 
to quote the self-exalting assertions of KRISHNA, I wil 
here add one or two more. " Among computations I AM 
KAL " (or Time) ; " among floods I AM the ocean ; among 
rivers the Ganga. I AM all-grasping death and I AM the 
resurrection." 

The importance and luxury of shade in intertropical re- 
gions has been before noticed. The forms of B 3 or 20 are 
the most usual for the implements which bestow shade, by 
arresting the solar ray. Most of the numbers of that line 
are complications of those simple forms. None in the far 
east but kings, or their royal race, or those to whom the 
envied distinction is especially conceded, could, in days of 
yore, arrest the solar ray, by using shade-bestowers, or sun- 
stoppers, of a particular form B 3. 20. Such forms are 
symbols of something royal as well as solar: in as far as 
royalty and the sun's golden splendour are extensively as_ 
sociated if not " from Indus to the Pole," from the Brah- 
maputra to the Po. 

Some races of Raja, and of Brahman, are still deemed of 
solar, some of lunar, and some, I believe, of sol-lunar pa- 
rentage Surya-vansa and Chandra-vansa as the kings and 
priests were likewise deemed in the happier days of Mexico 
and Peru : of which slight mention has been made in 
p. 424. 

The luxurious implement assumes in India the form also of 
C 15. It is not then held over the head of the honored per- 
son except, indeed, the sun be vertical, or nearly so ; and 
then somewhat inconveniently but is slantingly interposed 
between the glorious orb and the assumed glorious head. 
The straight limb must be supposed to be elongated down- 
wards, to seven or eight feet. It is sometimes gaudily 



462 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

painted and varnished ; sometimes of silver or gold. The 
circle is about two feet in diameter; of velvet, or silk, em- 
broidered ; with loose flowing garniture all round, usually 
of silk, gathered, petticoat-fashion. These two forms C 15, 
and B 20, <j>1" we have before seen, in immediate and oc- 
cult combination, in a way that till now I little thought of 
thus reintroducing pp. 290. 2 as PHTHA, or " MERCURY, 
the conductor of souls/' from the realms of day to those of 
shade ; where the tridented RHADAMANTHUS (YAMA with 
Brahmans, also tridentiferous?) with his three-headed dog 
Cerberus (Serbura and Trisiras, the three-headed, with Brah- 
mans) receives them into those unsunned dominions. 

The emblem of royalty, and nobility, and splendour, and 
of royal favour, and by construction the bestower of shade 
among the greatest of tropical luxuries B 3 or 20 is often 
seen on Persepolitan remains ; and, perhaps less frequently, 
among the purer hieroglyphics of Egypt a relic of royalty, 
probably, in both. In the other form, C 15, it is also seen 
in Egyptic remains, as well as in the form of the Hindu and 
Abyssinian symbol A 16. As an aftabghir, the usual name in 
Persia and India, or sun-arrest ei the upright limb is not in 
fact seen as piercing the circle, as in C 15, but only length- 
ened below, and short above it (more like A 16) the pole 
being there covered by the drapery. What would a mystical 
Hindu see in the symbol C 15? Probably he would, con- 
necting it with several in line A, see the symbol of PARVATI 
pierced by the solar SIVA by a perpendicular or equinoctial 
ray or if solstitial, or extra-tropical, he might fancy such 
union more fitly symbolized by A 7. All originating- in, or 
divaricating from, what has been fancied a primal vowelic 
sound and symbol |O expanding into an almost infinite 
variety of lO'"^ mysticisms in line A ; which in combi- 
nation with KL or 1C (A 1, 2, &c.) represent SIVA and 
his active energy PARVATI, in a great variety of sounds, 
senses, meanings, histories, allusions, &c.; touching which, 
comparatively little has been said, though I may fear too 
much. 

" May your shadow be extended" is still an Eastern adu- 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 463 

lation ; i. e. may you be exalted ; that, by inference, all the 
wdrld may there find shelter and protection. " May your 
shadow be enlarged." Orientals have a distaste for lean- 
ness : and among some, absolute obesity seems desirable. 
Where kings and great men annually, or occasionally, were 
weighed as they used to be more commonly than in these 
days against gold, silver, clothes, grain, &c. (equipoising 
nine several articles was very generous ; three, liberal and 
fortune-promising) to be given in charity, there was sense 
and benevolence in the wish for such increase, and may have 
given rise to it. The more fat the more good. Thus bloated 
monsters may have been flattered by the gaping courtiers ; 
and by such adulation reconciled to their encumbrance. 

Hoping soon to close our superficial notice of the lines 
preceding F of PI. V., let us once more look at A 16 a 
Krishnaic or solar symbol and as being also on the obelisk 
at Axum, and found spread over many Egyptian antiquities, 
with its relatives in the same line 12 and other Nilic, Isiac, 
Sivaic, or \Qnic, closely-connected subjects. As a modifi- 
fication of C 15 itself a modification of A 12, 13, 14 we 
have already seen it ; and in another, perhaps a fanciful, line 
of relationship, I find, among scattered notes, that subjoined 
written as a hint for enquiry, which it has not been found 
expedient to pursue. It is on a phrase already given in 
p. 146. 1 

1 " BACCHUS amat Colles." Colles Chalice Kali ? The 
s and the ce may be called mere western terminations. Cha- 
lice , a cup a patra, or argha such as are sacred to, or 
borne by KALF. Such cups, formed out of the cones of fir 
or cedar, and other coniferce, are Bacchic ; and Sivaic, as be- 
ing Kalic. SIVA in some other points, as well as in his 
name BAG^ISA, corresponds with BACCHUS. Have the tigers, 
the common attribute of both these drinking deities, any re- 
ference to their names ? in India and neighbouring regions, 
bag or baug is extensively the tiger : the tiger and lion 
have several names in common. The Bacchic thyrsi are 
cone-crowned wands. BACCHUS is the Sun so is SIVA. 



464 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

As well as the heretofore supposed unmeaning konxompax, 
of which something has been said, the almost equally un- 
meaning word ABPACAH is found in situations of mys- 
tery. This word is seen on several Gnostic coins, in com- 
mon with |ACD> i n several of the various forms of PI. V. 
and might, haply, be also, like the other, traced to a mean- 
ing in Sanskrit. The last given triliteral word is by some 
supposed a corruption merely of the tetragrammatic HIPP 
IHVH without points or JEHOVAH, as best expressed in 
our letters. But the letters being so different in Hebrew, 
such forced substitution of a triad for a quaternion, can 

Such symbols are solar (A 16. C 15) : and Sivaic spiracu- 
lar, obeliscal, erect. The top of the pole or wand of the flat 
aftabgir, or parasol, above mentioned, by which it is held 
and elevated, is commonly surmounted by what resembles a 
pine-apple, or a pine-cone ; but I never, I think, heard it 
called by the name of the fruit. It is commonly called Kul- 
lis. I recollect no other name. This I have heard and used 
very often. It is, I believe, a Hindi word. The Kullis re- 
sembles very closely the crown-cone of the Bacchic thyrsus. 
I am not aware of any farther connexion between the word 
Kullis (as I find the word written by me and I never saw it 
otherways written) and SIVA, than Kailas ; a summit of the 
mythological mountain Meru, which is the terrestrial para- 
dise of SIVA. Such hill, or mount, being conical, may be 
connected with the more familiar Bacchic and Sivaic symbols 
before us. Both deities are equally mountain-loving. The 
cone is especially sacred to BACCHUS. Kullis might as well 
be written according to the accepted, and my usual, style of 
orthography, Kalis of which Kailas would be a derivative 
but I have not chosen to alter it to suit my speculation. 
This may suffice, on the hills which BACCHUS and BAGISA 
love. A Fragment, on the mysterious (the poetical, or 
mythological, not the mathematical) cone, must be omitted. 
It is, however, in form and fable, so prevalent, or intrusive, 
as to have frequently come under incidental notice in earlier 
pages. See Index. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 465 

scarcely be admitted, unless mere sound was all-preva- 
lent. As Dr. WALSH suggests, surely ACD was intended for 
the Alpha and Omega of Revelations more especially as it 
is not unfrequently seen Ail- See ^ nes ^> E. With the 
prefixture | (but sometimes it is a postfixture, sometimes a 
medial) the reverend and learned gentleman deems the tri- 
une word to mean JESUS the Redeemer the first and last ; 
supporting such supposition by this passage " The ini- 
tiated replies," (I omit the previous matters) " I have 
been confirmed, and I redeem my soul from this JEon, and 
from all that shall proceed from it, in the name of | A(D." 
P. 42. 

Dr. WALSH p. 71 remarks, that much remains yet to be 
discovered in the interpretation of those singular remains 
the subjects of his curious little volume. " The very es- 
sence of the gem was its mysticism, and its efficacy was sup- 
posed to be lost when its meaning was generally known. 
The greater number of the words were fabricated by them- 
selves, and had no meaning in any language except that 
mysterious one which they themselves annexed to them. It 
has been suggested, that many are Hebrew and Oriental 
words corrupted and disguised in Greek characters ; and 
that many more are the names of the 365 angels who pre- 
sided over the world, and who were invoked by the amu- 
let." 

The preceding paragraphs are retained though much 
more thereon is not for the purpose of hinting at the pro- 
bability that other of the " barbarous" and "unmeaning" 
words which have found their way into the mysticisms of 
western people, may be traced to their sources in the lan- 
guages of the farther East. For if it be true that Europeans 
have yet learned but one of many Brahmanal languages 
(rather, perhaps, dialects) it is not easy to fancy what may 
not be in time developed. It will be found, probably, that, 
as in the Greek, particular dialects were adopted, almost of 
necessity, for particular or different purposes ; in the dra- 
ma, ihe Attic ; the Ionic, in elegiac poetry; for pastorals, 
the Doric : so, in Sanskrit, the dramatic dialect is as inap- 



466 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 



plicable to the historic or the epic, as would be the Iliad in 
the Doric, or PINDAR in the Attic, form. 

Now, Courteous Reader, if thou beest, however courteous, 
a plain matter-of-fact man a utilitarian who, after the 
manner of Jeremy-Benthamism or Harriet-Martineauism, ask 
;< Where's the good ?" whose character or properties may 
be thus expressed, 2x24, and no more if such thou 
beest, I fear that for the last half score, if not many more, 
pages, I may have been a sorry companion to thee as- 
suming that thou hast indeed so endured my company and 
may, for some following, but I hope fewer, pages, continue 
to be so. But if, on the other hand, thou hast read or, 
embued with a portion of poetic feeling, may suitably read 
the mystical effusions of Orientals including herein, though 
of various degrees of merit, the sublime Song of the Son of 
SIRACH,; the Odes of HAFIZ, among so many Mahommedan 
Sufis; the Gita, and the Gita Govinda, and other Vedanta 
works of the Hindus colaborateurs of our own BERKELEY, 
albeit unknown to his episcopalian mind, fraught with idea- 
logy if thou canst complacently peruse such writers, where 
so much more is meant than can reach any save the mind's 
eye and ear thou must, haply, tolerate even these few 
poor pages of lucubration ; extracted disjointed shall I 
say ? from a great mass. Then thou mayst pore over my 
Plate* V. and, if in extended comparison with the hiero- 
glyphics of Egyptians, Hindus, and Christians, and their 
manifest and occult allusions, be surprised at their simila- 
rity, and bewildered in thy speculations. A Sanskrit and 
classical scholar (it is unnecessary in me again to disclaim 
all pretension to that class) pursuing such speculations, 
might more and more develope unexpected, and not unwel- 
come, results. 

Deeming line E to have been sufficiently noticed for our 
present purposes, we proceed to the next F. Some of its 
numbers have also come incidentally under our eye I hope 
to travel rapidly over that line. No. 1 is the simple, almost 
universal, character expressing eternity without beginning 
or end. It cannot be wondered at that all mystics, however 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 467 

widely spread, concur in their notions of this expressive 
unity. An Ophite sect saw the like in the conceit of a snake 
with its tail in its mouth : and hence, fortified by an erro- 
neous view of certain passages in Genesis, has spread, almost 
all the world over, such a series of mythological mysteria, 
as is scarcely predicable of any other personification. As 
usual, truth and fable are here almost inseparably inter- 
mingled. From the allusion just made, to the extensive 
poetics of the Hindu Naga, Sesha, and interminable serpen- 
tarii taken up by the Egyptians, as is seen ever-recurring 
on their lithic obscurities adopted by the Greeks in their 
proneness to borrow and embellish, it mingles with the reve- 
ries of astrologers, and with the constellations of their suc- 
cessors. C 6, 7, 8, 12 are the elements and expansions of 
this type. The last is from a Gnostic subject a serpent 
with a crowned head. The two next are modifications of it. 
Of C 15 something has been before said and it is not con- 
venient now to recur to it farther than to hint at the fables 
connected with Oph the Ophites Ophi-ucus, &c. and their 
probable connexion with ,Q<|> O<!> with 9, 11, 13, 14 of 
B, 16 of D, as well as with the early numbers of the line F 
now more immediately before us. 

No. 2 of that line is more especially a Hindu attribute 
seen also on Egyptic remains. Independently of its cir- 
cular form, its mystical duality of light and darkness or its 
triunity and concentricity it represents a missile called 
chakra ; a discus seen very commonly in one of the four 
hands of VISHN'U. It is whirled on his forefinger, and has 
been said to be a symbol of centrifugality. Fire is fabled to 
radiate from its periphery, destroying worlds by its poten- 
tiality. Such a thing, usually of polished metal, nine inches 
or a foot in diameter, is still sometimes seen on the persons 
of itinerant saints of that sect, with a sharp circular edge : 
and I lately read of such a missile being still in hostile use 
among some races in Central India. In the HP. I have 
perhaps mistakenly surmised it to be but little formidable, 
hurled from a mortal finger. 
The concentric triunity 3, and its bi-section 4 of F, I pass : 



468 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

5, 6 are also lunar phases, or perhaps dual or trine mat- 
ters ; in immediate relationship, however, with the pro- 
foundly mystical D 17 in its elemental form and with the 
varieties 8 to 12 of F and fig. A, in its combinations, or 
union. The other numbers of line F have been already 
noticed as far as I can now afford in pp. 280 to 85 and 
in some more recent passages in this Description of our 
Plates. 

Line G like lines A and E begins with elements and 
ends in mystical combinations. The early numbers of G 
1 to 8 connect themselves with the early elemental forms 
pyramidal, conical, deltaic, lingaic, &c. of E of which 
something probably sufficient has been said. Among 
them we see the circle comprehended in the triangle, and 
the converse 6, 7, 8 and again, below in fig. B the junc- 
tion of triangles G 4 or lingi, or deltce, or of 'Fire and 
Water, or of SIVA and VISHNU, or of VULCAN and NEP- 
TUNE, &c. &c. G 5 is their more intimate union or junction 
astral perhaps as earlier hinted to which fig. C and F 
may also bear allusions. Of such mysticalities there is in- 
deed no end a mode of phraseology frequently applicable 
to the subjects of our Plate V. Those of line G connect 
themselves, or are readily connectable, with the higher, as 
well as, more evidently, with the low numbers of E but how 
we may not here attempt to show. Glimmerings of such 
connexion may have been discerned from earlier notices, as 
well as from the forms themselves. G 5 is like that polygon 
on some occasions called pentalpha. 

The other numbers of G, on the right of the Sistrum, are 
more or less of the same impress with those on the left 
being conical, or pyramidal, &c. and some of them, more- 
over, combine the \Qnic mysticisms of line A, and some of 
D. No. 15 of G should have been reversed, to bring it, and 
its neighbours, into more immediate relationship with 2 and 
3 and 5 of H. How far the forms 9 to the end of G more 
or less sistrum-ic may be congeners to that central subject, 
in legend or otherwise, as they are to the eye, I am not able 
to say. Line G comprises Hindu, Egyptian, and Gnostic 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 469 

subjects. I find it expedient to say nothing at present on 
the Sistrum. Mine is taken from one in the British Mu- 
seum. 

On line H much, indeed, may be said ; but I hope I shall 
not be seduced into any thing very lengthy. It is desirable 
to me not to seem prone to intermix matters really sacred in 
the estimation of many of the good and wise, with those 
which, if they excite the curiosity the not illaudable curio- 
sity let us hope of many likewise, cannot still be seen or 
discussed with the like respect. This feeling moved me 
when I was writing about the elements of A 21, &c. and 
occurs again touching line H wherein we shall again see an 
intermixture of Paganism and Christianity. 

The cursory observer might take 1 of H to be a repetition 
of what is seen in the cubic pedestal of SRI in our Frontis- 
piece ; or nearly of 4 of H. But not so. 1 of H is not 
Hindu, but Christian a perversion or corruption, no 
doubt. It is taken from p. 86 of HONE'S Mysteries a cu- 
rious book whence also is taken this extract: "But 
whatever }^0lp 3Trintt0 was lemenyd on the Pagent, it is 
impossible to suppose," &c. " There is, however, a figure 
which may have been on their Pagent. It frequently oc- 
curs. 1 ' They in their churches and masse bookes doe 
paint the TRINITIE with three faces : for our mother the 
holie Church did learne that at Rome, where they were wont 
to paint or carve JANUS with two faces. And then further, 
it is written in 1 JOHN v. 7. " that there are three in heaven 
which beare witnesse and these three are one" then, of 
necessitie they must be painted with three heades or three 
faces, upon one necke.' " 2 



1 " In Enchirid. Eccl. Sarum Paris, 1528, 24, I. xiiii. 
in various other editions ; and in the Horee B. V. MARI&, 
continually : besides in MS. missals, LYNDEWOOD'S Pro- 
vinciale, &c." 

2 " Beehive of the Romishe Church. Lond. 1579, 8, 
p. 191." 

2R 



470 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

" I insert " continues Mr. H. " an engraving of this 
Trinity, in all respects the same as a smaller, an initial in 
the Salisbury missal of 1534." p. 85. It occupies the next 
page. My H 1 is taken from it the aureolum or nimbus 
being omitted. The triune bust appears over 2 of H a 
hand, with the thumb pointing upward, rests on each of the 
upper circles of 2. Under it Mr. H. adds: " The triangle 
in this cut, * a Trinity argent on a shield azure,' was the 
arms of Trinity Priory, Ipswich, and is figured in Mr. TAY- 
LOR'S Index Monasticus (Diocese Norwich) 1821, p. 96. 
May not the triune head have been originally suggested by 
the three-headed Saxon deity named TRIGLA? There is a 
wood-cut of a triune-headed LUCIFER in DANTE Venice, 
1491, fol. copied by the Rev. T. F. DIBDIN in his JEde* 
Ahhorpiante, ii. 116." 

The above subject from the Salisbury missal has the ap- 
pearance of the cover of a book such as are seen in old 
libraries of wood covered with leather : sometimes, as at 
Holkham, covered, partially, with a thin coating of silver or 
gold, with gems imbedded. It has three niches, formed of 
smaller, over the figure ; and the top is composed of three 
pinnacles, each surmounted by a cross, formed of three tri- 
angles joined at their apices or if there be a fourth or 
what is called a Maltese cross or a C pater, or C fiche, the 
lower lirnb forms the top of the pinnacle a duplicature of 
G 4. Embellishments similar to other subjects of PI. V. 
are seen or may be fancied, probably accidental in Mr. 
HONE'S cut from the Salisbury missal B 3, D 5, F 10, 11, 
among them. 

Thus we have the Saxon TRIGLA, the Papal " lemnyng on 
their Pagent" the LUCIFER of DANTE, and the Trimurti, as 
seen in our Frontispiece and in H 4, converging from a wide 
extent into a similarity of conceit. The latter H 4 is taken 
'from the only Hindu subject that I recollect to have seen of 
three heads on one body not a bust merely, but a whole 
length. This subject a heavy stone was dug out, under 
my eye, of the same ruins as its fellow-bust lymned in our 
Frontispiece : and it also ornaments my bust-crowned pyra- 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 471 

mid ; being embedded in its sunny side. It is a sedent 
figure, with a rosary in one of its four hands, and a globular 
pot in the palm of another ; having two of the fingers point- 
ing downwards, in a singular, and no doubt significant, posi- 
tion, as is shown in PL 82 of the HP. The front face only 
is bearded. The three faces of H 1 are all bearded. The 
three of the Frontispiece are all imberbis ; as are those of the 
Elephantine Colossus. Globular pots or vases are very com- 
monly seen in the hands of Egyptian idols. 

Another triune head is before me an impression of a cu- 
rious copper seal, of the size of a half-crown, bearing this 
legend in plain Roman or English letters: " SIGILLUM* 
OFFICII * LIBERTAT * ELIENS +." This seal was found dug 
or plowed up, I believe nearly a century ago, at Ren- 
dlesham, near Woodbridge, ; and has almost ever since served, 
as it now serves, for the seal of office of the coroner of the 
liberty of St. ETHELRED a jurisdiction formerly, it is said, 
as extensive as the present episcopal see of Ely. The li- 
berty now comprises Woodbridge and several circumjacent 
miles. 

This seal is, I believe, inedited. If it had occurred to me 
in time, I would have made room for it in one of my Plates. 

The saint, if supposed to be he, has a radiated glory; and 
the appearance of expanded wings over his shoulders, but 
not joining them. Two fingers and the thumb of the right 
hand point upwards, and the left holds a globe (not unlike 
the globular pot in the unseen hand of H 4) surmounted by a 
cross, in the fashion of A 8. All the chins are bearded the 
front one furcated. The bust only of the saint is on the seal. 
His super-tunica divides at the beard, in the form of H 5, 
bearing three crosses on its perpendicular limb. Heralds call 
H 5 a cross pall. 

This must suffice of the copious subjects of H 1. 4. E, F, 
and /, of the same PI. V. have three heads on one neck. Of 
them a word presently. We come, in course, to H 2 and 3. 
The first is seen in Mr. HONE'S cut, under, as has been de- 
scribed, H 1, from the Salisbury missal ; and is given in TAY- 
LOR'S Ind. Mon. as the seal of Trinity Priory, Ipswich. 



472 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

That establishment, ecclesiastically and architecturally, is no 
more. On its site stands the noble mansion called Christ 
Church, the seat of the Rev. WILLIAM FONNEKEAU, in the 
parish of St. MARGARET, north of the town. 

GIPPS describes the arms of the Priory, like TAYLOR az : 

a Trinity ar: by Trinity he means the external lines 
without the inscription of 2, 3. EDMONSTONE gives the 
representation and legend exactly like TAYLOR. 

In the parish-church of Preston, near Lavenham in Suffolk, 
where was a very fine church, now no more a Trinitarian 
emblem, outline and legend, like TAYLOR'S, is still seen in 
stained glass. The prior of the Holy Trinity, Ipswich, had a 
manor at Preston, which may account for his arms being 
found there. 

But they are seen elsewhere extensively in Suffolk more 
so, probably, than were his property and power. In the fine 
church of Woodbridge the subject is brightly stained in glass 

ar: field azure as represented in outline in H 3. It is 
high up the east window, and near it are the figures forming 
1680 but not in that series. 

As the subjects now before us are in miniature, and not, 
perhaps, very clear to ordinary eyes, I will give the reading 
of the inscription in the Woodbridge Trinity filling up the 
abbreviations : 



gate: evq 

fanctug in quo trmnia 
pec quern 



In the centre circle $tu$ 3&eu$not, however, very clear 
_ and the last name is repeated at length in each of the 
limbs leading from the central to the external circles. These 
last contain the names of the Three Persons as in H 2, but 
arranged differently. The inscriptions otherwise are also very 
different. 

I have seen no other such subject in colours or stained 
glass. But the outline, or " emblem," without inscription, of 
H 3, is widely spread in Suffolk. My learned and respected 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 473 

friend, D. E. DAVY,' Esq. tells me that the emblem, without 
legend, is in glass in Rendlesham church, and in several of 
the clustering windows of the fine church of Long Melford. 
The emblem, cut in stone, he has noticed on the font in the 
beautiful church at Framlingham, and on the spandrils of the 
arched porches, or steeples, at Marlesford, and St. Nicholas, 
Ipswich. Coddenham had it on its church-porch, but it is de- 
faced. It is also in the porches of Dallingko and Shottisham, 
near Woodbridge. (Mem. Since my speculation on thef 
common termination of ham to so many of our Suffolk towns 
and villages was printed, I have somewhere seen it said to 
be equivalent to manor.) 

On the few remains of our once numerous sepulchral and 
other brasses, another representation of the Trinity is still 
seen but only in one or two instances. " It shows/' as 
Mr. DAVY informs me, " the FATHER sitting in a chair with 
the Son on his knees, and the Holy Spirit, as a Dove, on his 
breast." 8 This is on a mural brass in Orford church. 

I have observed the Trinitarian emblem in outline, similar 
to H 3, in good preservation, on a spandril of the porch of 



1 Whose " Collections" for a History of Suffolk are of 
great extent. When may the public hope to be benefited by 
them ? 

2 At the present day pious persons dislike to see awful 
forms irreverently mixed in common situations. Our ances- 
tors had, and indeed the church of Rome now seems to have, 
no such propriety of feeling. I shall merely note one in- 
stance of the exceptionable nature of such things. It is in an 
impression of a priory common seal in Norfolk. " Large, 
oval, of black wax. Under an arch the Virgin and Child 
seated treading on a dragon. On each side a monk, praying, 

with hands erect. Over this a representation of the Trinity : 

the FATHER in the form of an old man, seated, with arms ex- 
tended, supports the cross on which is JESUS ; and a Dove is 
hovering about the ear of the former" TAYLOR, Lid. Mo*. 



474 DESCRIPTION Of PLATE V. 

Orforcl church and again on its stone font. Parts of this 
church are very ancient. In the other spandril of the arch 
are a spear and sponge-staff, crossed, with a scourge and 
nails. In a like position on the rather curious porch of 
Snape church, near Aldborough, is the T. emblem, and the 
spear, &c. including here a pair of pincers. 

I have been farther told of the T. emblem at Freston 
church, near Saxmundkam, and at Brandestone. In DAVY 
and COLTMAN'S antiquities I notice it on the spandril over 
the door of Beccles church (all the named churches are in 
Suffolk) and on the south porch of St. NICHOLAS at Lynn 
in Norfolk, and on the Erpingham gateway leading to the 
cathedral at Norwich. 

The T. subject, or emblem, as shown in H 2, 3, is not con- 
fined to East Anglia. I have, however, noticed or known of 
only one beyond that limit. This is at the fine cathedral at 
Peterborough; on the deanery gate set up by ROBERT KIR- 
TON, or KIRKTUN, a monk of that abbey, about 1508. A 
church on a tun, and other ornaments, mark his name and 
influence. Among such carved ornaments, or devices, ap- 
pears that in question, in very old style and letters ; but 
exactly, in regard to the legend and its arrangement, the 
same as H 2 though differing in its abbreviations. It was 
kindly furnished to me by a learned and much-respected 
friend living near that cathedral : and had not my PI. V. 
been already too full, I should have been induced to copy it. 

There is no end of Trinitarian and Triune emblems. 
Many of them, in our eyes, worse than whimsical or ridicu- 
lous : and how they could ever have been looked on otherwise, 
seems strange. On early Christian coins and gems, 
Dr. WALSH has exhibited many composed of animals, or 
words, or letters, or lines. Line G 10 to 16 are some such 
as are E, F, I though not all thence taken. On one gem 
engraved by Dr. W. is zfig. compounded of a cock's head, 
human body, and hands holding a scourge and a shield. The 
legs of this triform monpter are writhing serpents, having 
between them the oft-recurring lACU- On the reverse a 
sort of ABRACADABRA. On another similar gem also 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 475 

in Lord STRANGFORD'S collection is a fig. nearly similar, 
holding a scourge and serpent, and having, suspended as it 
were, between its diverging snaky legs, a subject similar to 
G 16, which, like G 14, 15, is compounded of A 7, triflingly 
filled up : little else than triplicates of A 5. 

The last-mentioned gem bears also the not infrequent word 
Soumarta: " supposed to be the name of one of 365 angels in 
Gnostic mythology." W. p. 53. I should like to know 
where to find the names of the others. Soumarta is Sanskrit. 
Another eagle-headed man holds in each hand 13 of G a 
tri-union of mystically combined triangles. This is on a 
basalt. 

On another small ruby blood-stone is a nearly similar com* 
pound of cock, man, serpent ; and, on the reverse, a finely- 
formed-standing-full-length'-mide female, and the tnghraic 
word ATITA, before mentioned supposed to be of Isis. The 
trisyllabic word, as well as the compounded monster may be 
supposed of Trinitarian allusion. The letters are three 
each composed, in a mystical eye, of three members. The 
medial I stands for unity which, as well as the backward 
and forward sameness, is mythic. 

Isi is a name of a Hindu goddess. In one case it would, I 
think, be Isis. I know of no authority for reading isi or 
isisi as the name of the Egyptic deity ; nor ITATI for ATITA 
but I am disposed to think such words may be found un- 
meaning perhaps but, if existing, of the mystical tendencies 
already alluded to. 

It is noticed in the Hin. Pan., that some sects of Hindus 
who would perhaps be stigmatized as Nastika make offerings 
and pay seeming adoration to naked women and idols, as 
personating deities. These sects are named Salita and Goka- 
lasta. I have metallic images to which such adoration may 
probably have been offered be it Isi ac, Atitaic, |O w *c, 
Sakta ic, Nastika ic or what? 

Dr. WALSH'S plate, marked No. 10, described at p. 60, is a 
three-legged MERCURY, one leg unwinged : the only three- 
legged figure he had seen. This was probably a Gnostic 



476 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

mytlios of a debasing kind an intermingling of heathen my- 
thology with a religious tenet one (unwinged) in three 
(feet). And whence the notion of MERCURY tripedal? Was 
it from the three-legged AGNI, the ign-eous deity of the 
Hindus? of whom his two fiery faces, biforked tongue, 
seven hands, three legs, and other expressive attributes, se- 
veral representations are given in the Hin. Pan. and of 
whom, and of a sacred triad of fires, to which his three legs 
bear reference, a word is said in pp. 336. 53, 4, 9. preceding. 
The pedal wings of the equivocal deity MERCURY being 
classically termed Talaria, and being so connected with many 
Argonautic fables may, considering the many Hindi fables 
hinging on the name TALA, afford scope for identifying spe- 
culations : in which I shall not now indulge. 

No other three-legged deity occurs to me. The Manx 
arms if such terms may be allowed are three thighs and 
three legs on three feet standing on one foot H 6. What 
connexion this may have with any of the already noticed 
triune subjects, or triple-triplicities, I know not. This 
subject would have been more like its neighbours on the 
same line 2, 3, and 5 if the supporting leg had been more 
perpendicular. Much mythological mystification has been 
supposed and I think not altogether groundlessly con- 
necting the Isle of Man and the East. Three toes on one 
foot (DODSLEY'S Collection of Old Plays, I. 88.) three 
candles on one stand, and other triunipodic things might be 
mentioned ; and I have seen a Hindu subject I think from 
a very elaborately ornamented temple in the Carnatic 
having three three-headed bodies on one leg. 

Of line H, No. 5 remains to be noticed. This is, I pre- 
sume, also a Trinitarian emblem, being similar to the interior 
of 2, 3 of 3 especially. In the original or rather the cut 
from which I have taken 2 it is more like 3 than in my 
plate : the circles are complete in both. As well as being of 
the same form as the ornamented front, or pallium, of episcopal 
robes, diverging over the shoulders, H 5 is part of several of 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 477 

our English and Irish episcopal and archiepiscopal armorial 
bearings ; and, as has been said, is called cross pall, by he- 
ralds. 

The four croisette looking subjects in some of the arms 
are heraldically described as crosses patfe, or pat&e ficM. 
Some have only three, some five. Why, I know not. They 
resemble the cross called tau by heralds also St. AN- 
THONY'S cross : he bears it on his habit; being the Greek 
and Hebrew T and J"V Some of the Masorak and Talmudists 
have supposed the latter to be a token of security or life, pre- 
figured in the denunciations of EZEKIEL ix. 4. 6, where he is 
commanded to set a mark on the foreheads of those who re- 
pented and who were thereby saved. The Greek letter is 
supposed to have been that which, in later days, distinguished 
the names of the living, after a battle, &c. from the dead, 
whose names were marked with a 0. This letter, it has been 
before observed, indicated death. So tau was a symbol of 
life ; and any thing bearing the form of T, or B 20, Sec. had a 
like reference. Marking foreheads with such symbols is and 
has been a usage of much extent. In Revelations, and other 
parts of our Scriptures, it is frequently mentioned. 

Finding that I must omit certain notes that I intended to 
append, I will here add a word on p. 439 where I have 
mentioned kind presents of books, and being a reviewer, pe- 
riodicalist, &c. of long standing. Let it not for a moment be 
understood that I ever so received a book in view to such cri- 
tique. Not one did I ever so receive : nor was I ever, but 
once, asked by a friend to review his work ; and then I de- 
clined it. That author is long since dead. Nor so often as 
I have been reviewed did I ever know, or enquire, who 
were my critical friends or foes: and only once, to the best 
of my recollection, did I ever know. This was in the case 
of a lady of high repute in the literary and social and moral 

world who informed me that she reviewed my in the 

. This led although her article was not uniformly 

commendatory to an acquaintance, or correspondence, or 
friendship, of an interesting, and to me very pleasant and 
profitable, description. 



478 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

On a more recent page, 454, I wish here to note, that in 
reference to the nameW\, which occurs there more than once, 
I have some douht : not as to the non-pointing- of the medial, 
but to the initial and final. Referring from the learned Di- 
vine's page to his Plate, I observe the name is more like 
H2P 

Of all the subjects of PI. V. I have not, that I am aware 
of, taken any directly from any Egyptian remains; and 
only one, A 12, indirectly. But many of them are found 
among the hieroglyphics of that strange race. Of such I may 
currently note a few- that are accidentally before me. No 
doubt many others would occur if sought. Line A 5, 6, 8, 
12 to 17, 22. B 16, 17. D 13, 17. (and in reference to the fre- 
quency of this last, and of another in immediate mystical 
connexion with it, still more obtrusive in Egyptian monu- 
ments, and seldom offensive in those of India see pp. 328, 
329 the superabundance of comment by ancient and modern 
-authors, from PLUTARCH, PAUSANIAS, and LUCRETIUS, to this 
day, may be noticed in passing: such reveries have arisen 
from contemplating and symbolizing the active and passive 
elements of nature, or production) E 3, 4. F 1, 2, 3,5. G 10. 
Others decidedly among Hindu sectarial, significant distinc- 
tions, I do not notice, as not being immediately under consi- 
deration nor, for the same reason, that some are seen on 
Jewish shekels, or coins, supposed to be very ancient. 

This must suffice but a small portion, however, of what 
has been scribbled as to lines A to H of PI. V. The figures 
below, A to /, remain to be noticed. A a double cone in 
double ovals, appears also in PI. IV. and has been men- 
tioned in p. 79. A lengthened dissertation has been pre- 
pared on this mysterious figure in its mystical, not mathe- 
matical, relations. But a comparatively short accpunt is 
nearly all that will be here given, from a note in my C. P. B. 
made many years ago. 

Turning over some of the volumes of Archceologia, my 
eye was arrested by^g\ 9 of PL XXXII. of Vol. xvi. I 
was very much struck with the unexpected appearance of 
such a figure ; and marvelled not a little to see it among a 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 479 

series of diagrams illustrative of Gothic architecture. I be- 
held a most mysterious Hindu hieroglyphic, comprehend- 
ing another equally mysterious and in their combination 
vastly profound : in short the |O m an ^ Linga the symbols 
conjoined of PARVATI and SIVA and my curiosity was 
highly excited to learn what it could mean. Testing it by 
compasses, I found the common apex of a double cone the 
centre of four concentric circles, segments of which, by their 
intersection, produced the mysterious form so familiar to me, 
and to all who dabble in Hindu mystagogy. My surprise 
was not lessened, when, turning to the Essay, I read as fol- 
lows : 

" There is reason to believe that fig. 9 of PL XXXTI. 
formed by two equal circles cutting each other in their centres, 
was held in particular veneration by Christians from very 
early times. It appears to have had a mysterious meaning, 
which I do not pretend to explain ; but I believe a great deal 
might be pointed out, as to its influence upon the forms of all 
sorts of things, which were intended for sacred uses. Possi- 
bly it might have some reference to the symbolical represen- 
tation of CHRIST, under the figure of a Fish, the IX0Y2 
which contained the initials of 'Iijo-oCs Xpurrbs ebs Tibs SwHjp. 
And this is the more probable, because we are told that it 
was called Vesica Piscis." (DuRKRi Inst. Geam. lib. ii. p. 56. 
He uses it as a name well known, and familiar as that of cir- 
cle, triangle, &c. " Designa circino invariato tres piscium 
vesicas.") " But however this may be," continues the Rev. 
and learned antiquary, Mr. KERRICH, "and whatever ideas 
of sanctity might be attached to the thing itself, we may 
remark that in the l painting as well as sculpture of the lower 
ages, we find it almost Constantly used to circumscribe the 

1 See an illumination in K. EDGAR'S book of grants to 
Winchester Cathedral engraved by STRUTT, in his Roy. and 
Eccl. Antiq. 

2 Of this a striking proof is given in the xxivth vol. of 
ArchtEol., where in a series of Plates from an illuminated 
MS. of the 10th century " A Dissertation on St. ^Ethel- 



480 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

figure of our SAVIOUR, wherever he is represented as judging 
the world, and in his glorified state ; particularly over the 
doors of Norman and Saxon churches. Episcopal and con- 
ventual seals, and those of religious societies, were 'univer- 
sally of this form, and continue to be made so to the present 
day." 

To the passage quoted, and referring to the symbolical 
representation of a Fish, this is added " The early Chris- 
tians called themselves Pisciculi, fishes 2 not only because 
the initials of our SAVIOUR'S name and titles in Greek 'lyvovs" 
(&c. as before given) " put together make up IX0T2 but 
because the Christian life took its original from the waters of 
baptism, by which men were regenerate and born again into 
CHRIST'S religion by water/' See BINGHAM'S Ant. of the 
Chr. Ch. i. 2. Arch&ol. xvi. 313. In the article last referred 
to, the subject is again discussed, and described under the 
name of " The Mysterious Figure." The outer and inner 
double ovals of A in our Plate V. compose the " mysterious 



wold's Benedictional" it appears, as nearly as maybe, in 
the form of the external or internal of A or D 17 doubled, 
eight times and nearly as often in another papal article in 
the same volume and not infrequently associated in a man- 
ner (as mentioned in the text) that to eyes and feelings not 
unreasonably fastidious, may now be deemed reprehensible. 
Had these curious plates no explanatory writing, I should at 
the first sight have sought their origin in India rather than in 
Christendom. The position of fingers and thumbs, very 
often whimsically seen in that series of Scripture plates, is 
also striking, and no doubt significant and equally so in 
either region. 

1 Generally, rather. 

2 " But what is most remarkable, some of the Fathers of 
the Church called our SAVIOUR IX0Y2, Piscis TERTULL. de 
Bapt. p. 124. the letters of which word are severally the ini- 
tials of 5 Ir?<row," &c. as before. Gent. Mag. January, 1753. 
Selec. n. 41. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 481 

figure," the " Vesica Piscis" of the Rev. and learned An- 
tiquary. The inner lines of A, and the cones, are only 
dotted for which, probably, the early Christians may have 
fancied some reasons and so may, perhaps, early and ex- 
isting Hindus. 

A reader inquisitive or curious in such matters, may com- 
pare PI. 2. of the Hin. Pan. and PI. V. of this book, with 
the " mysterious figure" of the early Christians, and marvel 
how it came to be so considered so extensively. He will see 
it in its simplest form in No. 34 of the said PI. 2. (D 17 of 
PI. V.) and in a duplicated form in 35 the precise and 
exact *' mysterious figure." And he will farther see it, in 
mystical combinations, in 36, 37, 59 to 63, 66 perhaps to 70, 
and 77 to 83, of that PL 2. which was put together by me 
before I had seen or heard of the " mysterious figure" of the 
early Christians. The Hindu "mysterious figure" is de- 
scribed and briefly discussed in p. 399 to 409 of the Hin. 
Pan. Plate V., before us, exhibits it combinedly in F 5 to 
12 except No 7 as well as \nfig. A. It would hence ap- 
pear that it was and is equally common among Hindus, as it 
was among the earlier of our Faith. 

The Cone, or Liiiga of A, springing from its base the 
IO " l a Hindu would recognise as the famed mount MERU 
the subject of his profound contemplation and reverence on 
which almost as much nonsense, as it may appear, has been 
written, as upon any other given figure or subject including 
its base, or matrix, the JO"* itself. 

Before we finally and willingly quit A, I will revert for a 
moment to PL IV., where it is again seen in juxtaposition 
with its brother the " early Christian mysterious figure." 
I reintroduce it in consequence of TAYLOR'S Index Monasticus 
having come under my notice since my lucubrations thereon 
were penned for the press. I there observe that the seal, the 
central subject of PL IV., has been before described, and 
perhaps engraved for in p. 36. of that curious and valuable 
folio, this occurs : " Seal of the brotherhood of St. LAZARUS 
of Jerusalem, in England. An inedited seal of the hospital 
of Burton Lazars in Leicestershire represents a bishop with 

2 S 



482 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

his crozier in his left 1 hand, and his right raised, having 
two fingers erect and two depressed, giving- the benediction. 
The legend is"- (as I have given it in p. 79.) Arch&ol. 
xvni. 425. 

"An impression of this seal" Mr. TAYLOR adds "is 
now in my possession." 

I write remote from Antiquaries and Libraries. Many 
years ago I sent an impression of the seal in question to my 
late worthy and learned friend, the Rev. STEPHEN WESTON 
F.R.S. A.S. &c. and conclude that it has been engraved 
in the above vol. of Archceol., of which I was not before 
aware. My volumes of that valuable collection commence 
with my Fellowship at xix. in which vol. the Rev. Mr. 
KERRICH resumes the subject of the Vesica Piscis, and 
handles it in a very scientific manner. 



1 Effigies of Bishops on seals, paintings, &c. are distin- 
guished by having their pastoral staffs in their left hands. 
Abbots have their croziers in their right ; less curled, and of 
more simple form than those of their superiors. Abbots have 
moreover the horns or slits of their mitres in front : Bishops 
the broad sides. Royal seals, and those of cities, corpora- 
tions, and other civil concerns, were of a round form those 
of Bishops, Abbots, Priors, and superiors of religious houses, 
were usually oval or elliptical as are the various official 
seals of Deans, Archdeacons, and other spiritual persons of 
the present day including those of the Bishop and many 
others, in the diocese of Norwich. Seals of spirituals were 
of course kept very carefully, that they should not be impro- 
perly used ; and it was, as some say, usual to destroy epis- 
copal and abbatial seal and matrice on the death of the 
individuals. Other authorities differ ; and with good show of 
reason, so many being still in existence. See TAYLOR, Jnd. 
Monas. xxi. 28. I may note that the dexter or sinister 
position of the crozier, as seen in engravings, is not decisive, 
as to the episcopality or abbatiality of the holder engra- 
vers often reversing the position of human figures. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 483 

Tlie importance of the position of fingers and thumb seems 
nearly equal in the contemplation of Christian and Hindu 
mystics if we may judge from the nearly equal frequency 
in which such significancy is exhibited. Two or three point- 
ing upward, sometimes downward, is seen frequently in the 
figures of. the Hindu Pantheon, and in the personal delinea- 
tions of Christianity. Both are, no doubt, mysterious and 
significant ; but I have not the means of fathoming such points 
in either. We have just read of " two fingers erect and two 
depressed" of a Bishop "giving the benediction;" and 
recently of something very much alike of a Hindu three- 
headed subject H 4. With the Greeks and Romans the 
thumb turned downwards indicated death upwards life, in 
their barbarous aretice ; and a 0, as is mentioned in p. 299, 
implied a death. " At Rame, when a gladiator fought well 
the people saved him ; if otherwise, or as they happened 
to be inclined, they turned down their thumbs, and he was 
slain." Childe Har. Can. 4. note 93. With the ancient and 
modern Jews, the thumb of a corpse is turned inwards to the 
hand, when under preparation for interment. I know not how 
far, if at all, the more modern or more ancient digitators have 
intermingled their notions on these matters or how far they 
may have been borrowed or received from one another. Nei- 
ther will I inquire if the fatal Greek letter have any reference 
to its cognate outline, duplicated in A of our PI. V. The arms 
of the Bishop of Norwich has a hand in the dexter corner, 
pointing with two fingers and a thumb at a crozier between 
two crowns. Quitting this subject, we proceed to B of 
Pi. V. 

This is the central portion of a curiously elaborate article 
given entire in No. 89 of PI. 2. of the Hin. Pan. It con- 
nects itself with many of that PI., and with 1 to 8 of line G 
but how, may not here be endeavoured to be shown. Its neigh- 
bour A is also cognate with B and with almost every thing 
mysterious. 

Some slight mention has been occasionally made of the 
elements and symbols of fire and water, their mystical June- 



484 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

tion, &c., as is shown in G 1 to 5, and other numbers of 
PL V. Such mention is pointed to in the Index, under Junc- 
tions. Willingly waving farther notice, we reach C which shall 
detain us but a short time. It is from a coin, smaller than 
our engraving, in the Brit. Mus. On the reverse is the head, 
body, and forelegs of a dog or wolf; as the subject H, below 
it, has of a bull. The article which these subjects were 
intended to illustrate is not matured. The three taus not 
quite joined as in B 22, 23 the letters \Q A 1, 2, have 
been before noticed ; and the central subject, as not inaptly 
representing whatever is meant by D 13, so often on Egyp- 
tian remains. The letters rho and upsilon, if such they be 
we pass ; merely noticing that the last is in form like H 5. 
The two lingas below, surmounted by two stars, have been 
supposed to be the caps and stars of CASTOR and POLLUX. 
But if the probably worn out central lines of those stars 
were prolonged, they would assume the significant form of 
G 5, and, like the round-topped "conical stone" imme- 
diately beneath them, mentioned in p. 329, become di- 
rectly Sivaic. I do not mean that this is to be considered at 
all as a Hindu coin or medal but as showing the spread of 
corresponding mysticisms of India, Egypt, and Greece. C is 
probably a Christian coin. 

D is from PELLERIN, Res. sur Its Arts, lib. I. c. 3. It 
was found at Cyprus, and is supposed to be Phoenician, and, 
as has been asserted, "certainly anterior to the Macedonian 
conquest. The rosary is like those still used in the Romish 
churches the heads of which were anciently used to reckon 
time. Placed in a circle marked its progressive continuity, 
while their separation from each other marked the divisions, 
by which it is made to return on itself, and thus produce 
years, months, and days/' These are among the remarks of 
a commentator on this medal, to whom I shall make no 
reference. His engraving has twelve beads, or circles or 
globes not accurately copied in mine. In p. 304, prece- 
ding, mention is made of this subject D of PI. V. and of 
another very like it (query? if not the very same) and the 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 485 

extensive as well as ancient use of rosaries has been else- 
where glanced at. The letters on fig. D we do not stop to 
mention. On the reverse is a wolf or a dog. 

E is from a beautiful gem in the Brit. Mus., among the 
TOWNLE\ collection, rather smaller than my engraving. 
This triune bust has been reasonably supposed to represent 
AMMON (or PAN) and MINERVA. The connecting elephant's 
head marks it of Oriental reference ; and indicates perhaps 
that the ** half-reasoning" power ascribed to that noble ani- 
mal is of very ancient as well as of extensive prevalence. 1 
This gem is supposed to have been engraved at Alexandria, 
under one of the PTOLEMIES, on whose medals the heads are 
separately seen. It may be deemed a fine execution of a 
clumsy personation ; not dissimilar to H 1, 4 and other 
such subjects, sufficiently discussed. 

Skipping for a moment the three central figures, we note 
in the last /the same idea varied both faces being bearded, 
and a branch superadded for the reason of which we will 
not now seek. It is of a gem of white cornelian, of smaller 
size than my engraving, in Dr. WALSH'S collection ; of Gnos- 
tic origin probably. The learned gentleman conceives it to 
refer to a cure of Elephantiasis : and, if I differ from such 
opinion, it is with due respect. I have been unscrupulously 
and unauthorizedly, but I hope not unpardonably, free with 
that reverend author's very curious little book. 

The fig. E has been many years before me I but few. 
It is probable that neither was before the inventor of the mo- 
dern medal G on which we see a similar elephant's head. 
But it has no reference whatever to the origin or end of 
For I. 

1 " Half-reasoning." There is a something in the elephant, 
independently, I think, of its bulk, which distinguishes it 
from other quadrupeds. No person or persons would com- 
mit any act of gross indelicacy or indecency in the presence 
of an elephant, more than in the presence of the wholly 
" reasoning." The same feeling would not prevail touching 
the presence of a stupid rhinoceros, almost as bulky. . 



486 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V< 

It is the obverse of a medal given to the students in the 
E. I. College at Haileybury for distinguished acquirement in 
Sanskrit and other Oriental lore. It is rather curious that in 
such distant countries and ages three such elephant-headed 
subjects should have been so similarly, engraved. That im- 
mediately before us represents SAKASWATI, spouse, or 
active energy, of BRAHMA the goddess of harmony, arrange- 
ment, and generally of the creative arts. She is writing with 
a stylus on a leaf next to sand-writing, the earliest mode, 
probably, that was invented. 1 She is the protectress of 
writing and authorship all implements appertaining thereto 
being dedicated and sacred to her. 

Before her is a lotus the allusions to which all-pervading 
"gem of beauty" in connexion with almost every Hindu 
goddess, and with almost every mysterious subject in India 
and Egypt, are endless. Behind her, resting on a cubi-form 
altar, is a Vina, on which she is often seen playing. My old 
friend A. W. DEVIS who was more imbued with the po- 
etry of Ind than any artist who has hitherto painted has 
so represented her in a fine subject, prefixed to a pretty 
pocket edition of Sir W. JONES' poems. His beautiful 
" Ode to SARASWATJ" gave the idea to the spirited artist: 

" Young Passions at the sound 
In shadowy forms arose- 
O'er hearts, yet uncreated, sure to reign." 

His vignette of BHAVANI, seated on an expanded lotos, is 
also a grand conception : 



1 In very old illuminations of papal missals, legends, psalters, 
& c . for, although such things are commonly spoken of under 
the common name first given, they are in strictness distinct 
things, prepared for, and used on different occasions so are 
the MSS. called antiphonar, gradual, troperium, ordinal, 
manual in some of these a saint, LUKE perhaps, or JOHN, is 
depicted writing with a style : an eagle, sometimes an angel, 
holding the inkhorn. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 487 

" Mother of gods, rich nature's queen, 

Thy genial fire emblazed the burning scene." 

Ode to BHAVAM. 

** The poetry of Ind." In Oriental grouping and scenery, 
DANIEL still stands unrivalled. 1 

This interesting goddess " Sweet grace of BRAHMA'S 
bed" " whose sigh is music, and each tear a pearl " occu- 
pies many of the plates and pages of my H. Pan. In my 
collection of Hindimythi I have her in a hundred forms ; and 
should be well pleased to have little else to do than to concoct 
and put forth a pretty little volume of half the size of this, of 
SARASWATIANA but it may not be. 

Her figure on the round medal is larger than in my Plate ; 
and I wish my figure had not been placed in a cartouche. I 
was lately pleasingly engaged in having this medal and some 
others, with their reverses, copied and engraved on a broad 
sheet, for a much respected old friend, recently deceased. 
She was justly proud of being the mother of sons who had, at 
Haileybury and Calcutta colleges, won no fewer than twelve 
of these, or similar, splendid gold medals, for distinguished 
acquirement in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Bengallee Ma- 
thematics, Classics, Political Economy, &c. They are the 
gifted sons of my very old and respected friend Mr. JOHN 
MORRIS, of the E. I. Direction. She, who would naturally 
have been the most deeply gratified by the impressions from 
the beautiful plate, did not, alas ! live to witness its com- 
pletion. 

Of F, I shall say but little. It is from a gem of the same 
shape, and about half the size, in the TOWNLEY collection. 
A learned commentator has described it as the " head of 
PAN and of a ram on the body of a cock, over whose head is 

1 SARASWATI'S Vina is brought before us when we find 
that the Finnish ORPHEUS is named VIENA-MUNDA. In the 
Edda he performs, like KRISHNA, SARASWATI, and NAREDA 
in the Purana, many musical miracles. Vina-mnnda are 
Sanskrit words, or one compound, applicable to a musical 
deity. 






488 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE V. 

the asterisk of the sun, and below it the head of an aquatic- 
fowl attached to the same body. The cock is the symbol of 
the sun, probably from proclaiming his approach in the morn- 
ing ; and the aquatic fowl is the emblem of water : so that 
this composition, apparently so whimsical, represents the 
universe between the two great prolific elements the one 
the active, the other the passive, cause of all things." 1 

If we dwell on this it would lead us too deeply into the 
actives and passives of Hindus, and the Vulcanics and Neptu- 
nics of Europe, and their corresponding fancies in Egypt, 
according to PAUSANIAS and others. But, desirous to avoid 
submersion in the one, and burning our fingers with the 
other, we pass on to the last unnoticed subject H of PI. V. 
Medals, bearing combinations of man and bull, are common. 
This is from one in the Brit. Mus. smaller than my en- 
graving; with an equestrian armed figure, probably MARS, 
on the reverse. I shall offer no observations on this subject. 
The characters may be partly Greek or they may be fancied 
to resemble some of those above them in lines E and G 
that tridentated, like several in B and E the upper one 
like F 19 or 17. Such resemblances were unheeded when, 
some years ago, I selected fig. H for another purpose, not 
now before us. 

We have now ran through PI. V. and although with a ra- 
pidity scarcely admitting the tithe of what might be said on 
the strange variety (yet in reality almost unity) of its sub- 
jects and allusions, still to some, probably, at tiresome length. 



1 Showing the subject F to a less recondite friend, be 
shocked me by saying that it was like a homely thing that he 
had often seen in gingerbread at Bow, Horn, and Bartlemy 
fairs ! So near are the sublime and the ridiculous. It is 
probably a clumsy Gnostical triad or quaternion : or it may 
refer to some ancient zodiac of which the frequent recur- 
rence of ram, bull, goat, woman, crab, fish, bow, lion, &c. 
on Egyptic and other antiquities, singly or combined, afford 
some confirmation. 












7J>/i 'i^3*C^awO^N^ r> -#5?i 
>>. fc== : A e'"io4^ 

^;.. ^ 










DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VI. 489 

It may, but most likely never will, furnish matter for a far- 
ther lecture. The labour I dare not say profitable labour 
of an industrious life, would not exhaust it. 

Here, too, I may, as well as any where else, observe that 
I had intended to append a few pages of notes to these Frag- 
ments. Such intention of hanging a few notes on them has 
occasionally appeared in earlier pages. But, however de- 
sirable it is to me to indulge in such an advantage, I must, I 
see, forego it. Farther indulgence in such discursive scope 
would (as honest TERRY, the early East Indian traveller, said 
of his publication) make my volume kt look more like a bundle 
than a book." I therefore must reluctantly omit perhaps 
half a hundred pages of notes and illustration, which I was 
prepared to inflict on the enduring reader. 

In a former page, 62, I have mentioned that I possess a 
beautiful copy of the Koranin the form of a roll, or puotee, or 
puti (the two spellings are meant to produce the same sound) 
as such rolls are called in India, by both Hindus and 
Mahommedans. Such things are not uncommon in England. 
There are several in the libraries of the East India House, 
and of the Royal Asiatic Society, of the Koran, and of Hindu 
works. Of the latter I have two, curiously illuminated with 
various drawings. Such objects are of high price in India 
higher, probably by half, than they would bring in Eng- 
land. I once had it in contemplation to make out an ana- 
lysis of the Koran, intending to omit a great portion of its 
more uninteresting matters, repetitions, &c. and to comprise 
its essentials within the compass of a few sheets. I made 
some progress in it ; and had PI. VI. engraved as a speci- 
men of my puti: of which it is as nearly a fac-simile as to 
size, outline, filling in, &c., as the correct eye and steady 
hand of an excellent engraver can make it. Having the 
plate, and having before referred to it, I give it as of a 
pretty and curious subject albeit my intended analysis can- 
not be now forthcoming. 

The paper is very fine in length 14| feet in breadth, 
outside to outside, 3j inches of a brownish colour besprent 
with gold, in dust, spots, flowers, and in various forms. 



490 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VI. 

The exterior straight lines, and the double exterior of the 
large letters, as well as the flowers, are of gold. The large 
letters are those composing the sentence so often in the 
mouths of Mahommedans, commonly called the Eismillah 
they are given in p. 28. The sentence as there given and 
translated in p. 29, commences the .Koran, -and all its chap- 
ters, except the ninth and usually every hook, of pious or 
serious pretensions. There are fifteen other such separa- 
tions, as it were, of the currency of the text, or writing by 
these large letters, all varying, beautifully turned, some 
with deep red writing intermixed. The body of the text or 
writing seldom runs straight from side to side ; but sloping, 
and in almost every other mode, forming a great variety 
of whimsical, though graceful forms. It would be creditable 
to any nobleman, or gentleman, or society, having funds, 
to have such a roll engraved and worked, in exact simili- 
tude. I would, if I had the means. But I have perhaps 
done my share ; having risked the engraving of some hun- 
dreds, if not thousands, of oriental subjects, of various de- 
scriptions. 

Within the gilt outline of the large letters is the text 
written across them, in very short lines. I do not suppose 
that my puti contains the whole of the Koran. It begins 
with the first chapter, as given in No. 7 of Plate III., and 
translated in p. 29 : but I have not tested it farther by 
collation. I have never, indeed, till the day on which I 
write this account, (Feb. 1834) unrolled it wholly, though 
I have possessed it many years ; and was not before fully 
aware of its varied beauties. It is a very beautiful MS. 
The paper is in sheets or strips, about two feet long so 
neatly joined as to be scarcely perceptible, even at the back. 
In front the joinings are not easily detected. 

Neatly rolled up, it is not thicker than one's thumb. It 
requires, as I have just experienced, considerable care, deli- 
cacy of touch, and patience, to re-roll it into its former neat- 
ness and dimensions. With the reasonable exertion of such 
portion of those qualifications as I possess, I have not suc- 
ceeded in such endeavour. The case made to contain it 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VII. 491 

will not and I must, at a more convenient season, unroll 
and try again. 

In this account of PI. VI. I have hinted at the "half-price" 
estimation in which such Eastern MSS. are held in England. 
A like sentiment has occurred before. And I seek this occa- 
sion to say that I should wanting money more than MSS. 
or curiosities, gladly dispose of my Collection at half what 
it has cost me. Of MSS. indeed, I have very few. But 
in mythological subjects my Collection is, perhaps, unique : 
especially in figures and groups, in metals copper, brass, 
zinc, silver. Of these I have several hundreds mostly out 
of temples. I have had opportunities of possessing myself of 
such things in the sad times of wars, plunder, famine. Some 
of these are fine specimens of metallurgic skill. In view to 
the eventual publication of my Hindu Pantheon, I availed 
myself for many years of every (on my part honest) oppor- 
tunity of accumulating mythological materials. Many were 
engraved for that work, as well from drawings and paintings 
as from metallic subjects. Of such drawings, coloured and 
plain, I have also several hundreds, together with a few 
curious and ancient coins. Among the coins, a fine set of 
the Zodiac rupees. Likewise a few cut stones : my finest 
specimen of which is engraved No. 7 of PI. III. of this 

book. 



My Collection would form a good foundation for any gen- 
tleman or society desirous of forming an Oriental muste. It 
would probably suit as well as for any a foreign, public 
or private, institution or gentleman : and would be no small 
addition to any collection, public or private, any where. 

But, resuming the description of the Plates of this volume, 
we reach the Vllth and last. It is of the Shield mentioned 
in p. 62 ; on the whole the most elaborated article of the 
kind that I ever saw. It is of rhinoceros' hide semi-trans- 
parent eighteen inches in diameter. Its whole concavity 
is covered with flowers, not ungracefully formed, and turned 
erst while gilt but it is probably very old ; and although 
its gildings, &c. are worn, it is in good, serviceable con- 
dition. 



492 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VII. 

In the internal centre is a velvet cushion, five inches 
square, for a rest to the knuckles, when the hand grasps 
two stout leathers fastened to four stout iron rings one at 
each corner of the cushion. These rings move in strong iron 
eyes or sockets, which go through the shield, and on the 
other, or convex, side, end in as many stout bosses as seen 
in the Plate radiated, of a neat pattern and about an inch 
in diameter, and raised nearly as much. The observer will 
perceive that these four bosses, four figures meant to repre- 
sent tigers, composed mostly of letters, and a central sub- 
ject, with the interstices filled in with flowers, and a flowered 
border, occupy the entire of the external or outside sur- 
face. The centre, or umbo, where " frightful gorgoii 
frowned" on the shield of THESEUS and MINERVA, is a 
toghraic anagram of the names of ALLAH and the " holy 
family," already given in p. 25. It is on the shield some- 
thing like an ugly human face more so from the gilding 
and effect than in the plate ; and the names are thereon more 
easily read. It may not be termed Gorgonic. But although 
the Mahommedan artist may never have heard of the He- 
siodic shield of HERCULES, or the Virgilian shield of ENEAS, 
or of the Homeric shield of ACHILLES those exquisite 
forgings on the Parnassean anvil by* " VULCAN'S glorious 
craft;" yet the recurrence of such seeming similarity is not 
unpleasing. We must not, however, too hastily conclude 
that the poetic creations alluded to have been altogether un- 
known to more eastern artists : since we have lately read 
of a close translation of VIRGIL in, I think, a Jaina lan- 
guage, in a Jaina library in Tibet. 

If the curious reader will begin at the lowest foot of a 
tiger, proceed along the belly to the back, the hind legs, the 
thigh, rump, and tail, he may, not without difficulty, make 
out the following words ; comprising what is usually called 
" Nadi ALI " or the " Praise of A LI," the same that is con- 
tained in the gem No. 10 of PL III. described in p. 446 
though on account of the extreme minuteness of the cutting, 
not engraved in my Plate. 



Or: Frag: 




PutlUlu? d by S 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VII. 493 



C * .^0. ; ^,\auo Ub *)l> 



" Invoke ALI, the displayer of miracles : thou wilt find him 
a help to thee in troubles. 

" Every care, and every grief is removed by thy prophetic 
influence, O MOHAMMED ! and by thy princely rule, O ALI ! 
O ALI !" 

This was obligingly extracted and translated for me by 
my learned friend Mr. Mitchell, of the Royal Asiatic So- 
ciety. It is a very favorite text with warriors as the name 
of ALI deservedly is. I know not whence it is taken. 

Rhinoceros' hide is the most esteemed substance for 
shields in India ; being deemed the toughest and most im- 
penetrable. No sword or spear could, I should think, pierce 
mine : nor would a musket-ball, unless discharged direct 
and close, nor, perhaps, even then. 

I must not omit to note that the execution of these de- 
vices on the shield must have been a work of much time 
and some ingenuity : for the whole are raised or embossed, 
by the cutting or scooping away out of the thickness of the 
hide all the interstitial parts, leaving the letters, words, 
characters, and flowers, in relief, all of which are gilt, or 
painted green and varnished. Nor will I grudge space to 
note another seeming similarity in the exterior ornamentings 
of this very widely used species of armour. In a recent 
page we have seen that in Arabia, Persia, and India, Bag, 
or Bang, is a tiger; it is also the lion. In a very curious 
article in vol. xxiv of Arcliaologia, a description of a Scan- 
dinavian shield of about A. D. 99$ is quoted from a Saga; 
'* Next came KARI with a shield bearing the figure of a 

2T 



494 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VII. 

lion." And in a note we read that " In the Scalda, or col- 
lection of Eddaic epithets attached to the Edda of SNORRE, 
we are told that it was usual to paint the exterior circle of 
the ancient shields, which was called Bang ; and hence 
shields were also poetically termed Bang." p. 267, 8. This 
very elaborate article is by F. MADDEN, Esq. F. R.S. on 
Chess and Chess-men. 

It remains that I state how I became possessed of this cu- 
rious shield. 

I have noticed, p. 76 how Poona was, when I was last 
a resident there, beleaguered with armies ; not hostile, so far 
as^not being actually combatant may be said to denote the 
absence of hostility but short of that, containing all the 
moral elements of combustion. It was the habit of DOWLUT 
RAO SINDEA, the then youthful head of the most powerful 
of those armies, to go out hunting two or three times a week. 
On such occasions he would be attended, or escorted, by 
perhaps six or eight thousand or more of his cavalry, and by 
infantry and guns. In those treacherous times all ready 
for, and of course all suspecting, treachery those move- 
ments of MARAJ (Maha raja) as his courtiers and others 
called him, were viewed with certain feelings of jealousy and 
fear by the leaders of the other armies ; who, on those morn- 
ings, if not on others, would be under arms very early. 
Such is, however, a pretty universal custom all over India. 
Every soldier of the immense armies of the East India Com- 
pany are, or used to be, under arms every morning at day- 
break except perhaps on Sunday in peaceable garrisons. 
On the occasions to which I allude, SINDEA would be on 
the move about five o'clock. 

At the time of which I am about to speak, there were 
violent feuds in the family and army of HOLKAR fomented 
by SINDEA ; in counteraction of which the deep diplomacy 
of NANA FURNAVEESE the TALLEYRAND of India prime 
minister to the weak Pesliwa BAAJY RAO, backed by our 
policy and friendly offers of mediation, did not prevail. At 
length two or three of the turbulent brothers of the HOLKAR 
family separated themselves in violent anger from the head ; 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VII. 



495 



and, taking with them all the soldiery and rabble who 
would follow them, crossed the river which separated the 
immense army of HOLKAR from the little abode and en- 
campment of the English embassy, and pitched immediately 
in our fronf and so near as scarcely to leave any inter- 
mediate space, even a roadway, between. On our friendly 
remonstrance, the outskirt of their encampment was re- 
moved a few yards, perhaps fifty, from the front of our little 
line. Our rear and flanks were covered by the two rivers ; 
between, and at the very junction of which was, and had 
long been, the position of the English embassy ; with a long 
range of open ground in front. 

The proximity of such vagabonds and ruffians as Mahratta 
armies were usually composed of, was any thing but agree- 
able to us. Our policy was a strict neutrality with fre- 
quent proffers to all parties to interpose in the way of friendly 
mediation whenever invited. t 

It was the party hostile to D. R. SINDEA, who had thu 
separated and placed themselves in almost open defiance of 
him, as well as of the head of the family expecting per- 
haps a greater adherence of followers, and hoping more aid 
from NANA FURNAVEESE and the Poona government, than 
they were then, however willing, able to bestow. 

The separatists, feeling their weakness, sent frequent 
messages and letters to Mr. UHTHOFF, then political re- 
sident at Poona, for advice and assistance : one was diffi- 
cult, the other impossible, to render. We therefore merely 
temporised ; recommending moderation, conciliation, &c. 
but could, of course, neither say or do any thing materially 
serviceable to men who had thus rashly placed themselves 
in so desperate a predicament. There may have been five 
or six thousand of them. 

There is no part of the world where armed followers, 
horse and foot, may be more readily got together than in 
India ; especially in or near the territory of the Main-atlas. 
Any leader, bearing a tolerable name for intrepidity and 
liberality, who can get together two or three elephants, as 
many guns, a hundred horse, and a few hundred foot, and 



496 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VII. 



promising plunder, would soon collect thousands, perhaps 
tens of thousands, of suitable followers. The HOLKAR fa- 
mily have been, almost every one, rather famed for boldness 
and liberality and probably the separatists might in a few 
weeks have become formidable in point of numbers, if un- 
molested. But two or three days decided that point. 

One morning in the year 1797, DOWLUT RAO was reported 
by the spies, employed on the part of all other leaders and 
powers (the English among them) to have gone out hunting, 
with a larger escort, and more infantry and guns, than usual ; 
and taken such and such a direction : an opposite one to the 
camp of the HOLKAR separatists, who were thereby lulled 
into a fancied security. 

About half past five of that morning our little party were 
alarmed by a violent cannonading in our front. The whis- 
tling of shot and an immediate succession of musketry, and 
turbulence of every description, soon taught us what had 
commenced to wit an attack by SINDEA on HOLKAR'S 
camp. 

Resistance on the part of HOLKAR would have been of 
little avail, even had they been prepared; but they were 
altogether inefficient, and were taken by surprise; and suf- 
fered immediate rout. After a few rounds of shot and some 
musketry, ' some thousands of cavalry rushed in, cut the 
tent-ropes of the fleeing rabble, horse, foot, and followers 
and in half an hour little semblance of a Camp remained. 

At the first shot our little party two companies of sepoys 
under my command as an " honorary escort" were extended 
along our front to keep out the fugitives judging that if 
any of them entered our lines, their assailants and pursuers 
could hardly be kept out. 

The readiest line of flight was past our front, over a ford 
on our left, by the piers of an unfinished bridge, into a 
suburb of the city, from which HOLKAR'S, as well as our 
encampment or residency, was divided by the river Moota. 
Had it been SINDEA'S object to have destroyed or captured 
the HOLKAR'S troops, a few guns and a small body of horse 
on the right bank or city side of the river could hare 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VII. 497 

effected it. But dispersion seemed his object: and this was 
most completely effected. 

The brothers and those immediately about their persons 
made a show of resistance one of them, I think, and a 
few of the adherents were killed: and two of the brothers 
escaped to Hydrabad. 

It was a brigade of infantry commanded by a Neapolitan 
named FILOSE, who made this attack. He told us after- 
wards that he had orders to be careful to direct his cannon- 
ade and fire so as not to endanger our line : and so well 
was this attended to, that although we seemed to be very 
dangerously in the range of the two positions, we had only 
two or three men wounded. For this due apologies were 
made; and information was of course given of SINDEA'S 
object in making the attack, that I have thus, from recol- 
lection, briefly described, as introductory to my acquire- 
ment of the Shield the subject of PI. VII : affording, as 
well, a trait characteristic of the doings of a strange race, 
among whom in camps and courts I passed some years of 
my early life. 

The poor fugitives, denied shelter in our line, flung away 
their arms, encumbrances, and property, in our front, and 
over the fences of our gardens. Among such articles was 
this Shield, which was never claimed ; and which, I almost 
forget how, became mine. I believe by the donation of a* 
small sum to a little fund, which the sale of the unclaimed 
property, and a contribution by ourselves, enabled us to dis- 
tribute among some of the wounded and most distressed of 
the sufferers, who fell within the scope of our assistance and 
observance. 



498 



FRAGMENTS FIFTH. 

CLEFTS FISSURES IN TREES, &C. 

LOOKING with some dismay at the top of the 
page, I see that I cannot have room for much of the 
chapter mentioned in pp. 245, 88. The heading 
of that portion of my intended Fragments is this 
" CLEFTS FISSURES, ligneous and lithic HOLY 
WELLS and WATERS HILLS HOLLOWS CA- 
VERNS &c, &c, LINGAIC and lONic types" of 
which I can now give, and that rather disjointedly, 
the> portion only connected with TREES. 

The sycamore at Matarea, in Egypt, is still shown, 
which miraculously opened IOi\i cally to receive and 
reproduce our persecuted Virgin. It probably has 
been struck by lightning, like the ruminal fig-tree, 
noticed in p. 256 preceding, and may bear a longitu- 
dinal cicatrice from a healed wound ; or, if hollow, 
exhibit a perforation of an lONic shape. If it 
heal, such is the form of the scar : unclosed, of the 
aperture. It is enough. In a few years, or centu- 
ries, suitable legends will not be wanting they 
have been found, almost every where, forthcoming ; 
and, it must be said, almost every where, curiously 
cognate in their occult allusions. 

I do not find that the sycamore was especially a 



CLEFTS FISSURES IN TREES. 499 

mystical tree among any ancient people. I cannot 
see any thing mystical, or peculiar, in or about it 
save perhaps that peculiarity of exhibiting a variety 
of dark spots on its foliage. Egyptian mummy- 
cases are said to be made of it. Whether this was 
from its supposed great durability, or from any su- 
perstitious feeling, who can say? If from the first, 
our notion on the point of ligneous duration does not, 
I think, accord with that of the ancient Egyptians. If 
the selection of the sycamore was from any super- 
stitious feeling, it may be connected with that ob- 
servable at Matarea. The mummy-case is receiving 
and reproducing and may, among an imaginative 
race, always seeking psychological allusions, have 
been forced into connexion with the mystery of 
regeneration, so extensively prevalent ; and may 
share with its "leathern inmate," the quaint, almost 
half-unintelligible, " imperishable type of evanes- 
cence" of the poet. " See farther," I find added to 
the preceding paragraph, " for sycamoric mysti- 
cisms." But I have sought no farther. The idea 
seems merely started, not pursued. 

But here may be traced another link connecting 
through distant countries the chain of mystery in 
this line of thought that is, of the mysticism of 
Clefts, or lONic forms, and transit, and trees. Those 
beautiful and interesting objects of producing and re- 
producing nature, connect themselves, in the mystic's 
contemplative eye, with all that is beautiful and 
interesting, and poetical and profound. They point up 
to the Heavens they strike down to Tartarus ; but 
are still of Earth : a Brahmanal triad, expressed by 



500 MYSTICISMS IN TREES 

the Sanskrit word bhurbhuvaswah heaven-earth-sky 
a vastly profound trisyllabic-monoverbal-mythos : 
holding, like the mighty AUM, or O'M, in 
mystic combination, the elementals of BRAHMA- 
VISHNU SIVA. 

As VIRGIL says of the Eleusinian, Druidic, Do- 
donaic oak, 

et quantum vertice ad auras 

^Etherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit. 

Mn. iv. 441. 

High as the head shoots towering to the skies 
So deep the root in hell's foundation lies. PITT. 

Rural, solitary, wanderings give rise to poetical 
and pious communings they are, or ought to be, 
nearly allied often, let us hope, identical in their 
origin and end. Of the poetical sort one may not 
now call it religious, whatever such may once have 
been I find the following lines connected, more or 
less, with our present subject. I know not their 
author, nor where I found them, 

Wither'd boughs grotesque, 

Stript of their leaves and twigs by hoary age, 
From depth of shaggy covert peeping forth 
In the low vale, or on deep mountain side 
And sometimes with stirring horns 
Of the live deer, or goats' depending beard 
These were the lurking satyrs : a wild brood 
Of gamesome deities or PAN himself 
The simple shepherd's awe-inspiring god. 

The commendable delicacy, generally speaking, of 
Mahommedans, and the prosaic nature of their reli- 
gion, forbid sexual allusions in their writings. And, 
without impugning their fastidiousness on that point 



AMONG MAHOMMEDANS, &C. 501 

not indeed always observable even in the Koran 
we find there, and in the Commentaries, a connexion 
of birth, and tree, not very unlike what has been 
told, or shadowed, respecting JUNO Samia, or LA- 
TON A, arid the Hindu SAMIA as noticed in 
pp. 359, 60. 

In the nineteenth Sura, or chapter, of the Koran, 
entitled " MARY," much concerning the miraculous 
conception occurs. Having praised St. JOHN, as 
" a devout person, and dutiful towards his parents ; 
not proud, or rebellious" and invoked a blessing on 
him in these words " Peace be on him the day 
whereon he was born, and the day whereon he shall 
die, and the day whereon he shall be raised to life "* 
the prophet continues " And remember the story 
of MARY when the pains of child-birth came upon 
her near the trunk of a palm-tree." " A withered 
trunk," adds a commentator, " without any head or 
verdure ; notwithstanding which, though in the 
winter season, it miraculously supplied her with 
fruits for her nourishment." tc And he who was be- 
neath her," continues the Koran, " called to her 
saying, shake the palm-tree, and it shall let fall ripe 
dates upon thee ready gathered." 

Commentators differ as to whether it was the infant 

* It is not so marked by commentators, but herein might 
have been discovered a mystical triad of days those of birth, 
death, and resurrection. ** The day whereon he shall die," 
would seem to indicate that St. JOHN was supposed to be 
then living but I do not recollect such a supposition among 
M.ahoin incdans touching JOHN, as coeval with the prophet: 
though of some other eminent persons very extended life is 
predicated. 



502 CLEFTS IN TREES. 

or the angel GABRIEL who so called to the mother. 
They say "the dry trunk revived,, and shot forth 
green leaves, and a head laden with ripe fruit." 

On these passages SALE remarks that the Ma- 
hommedan account of this delivery resembles that of 
LATONA, as described by CALLIMACHUS not only 
in reference to the sustaining palm, or olive, or laurel, 
but in the very early speaking of the infants. On 
another text in Sura 3,^ such very early speaking is 
made more parallel. It was to relieve the mother 
from injurious suspicions in the later instance that 
the preternatural speaking occurred : some say from 
the womb, as in the earlier ; others from the cradle. 
SALE reasonably supposes that the fabulous tradi- 
tions of the eastern Christians afforded the grounds of 
these texts and commentaries. KORAN i. 63. ii. 
130. 

We have shown that the mouths of caves, and fis- 
sures in rocks, or perforations, are fancied to be sym- 
bolised by the hieroglyphic of PARVATI, or KALI, 
or DEVI both from their form and darkness. So 
are the mouths of wells, and fissures or clefts in 
trees. A cleft or perforated rock at the extremity of 
a bold promontory in Bombay, called Malabar Point, 
is a celebrated IONI ; and passing through it is, and 

* Entitled " The family of IMRAN," the name giveji in 
the Koran to the father of the Virgin MARY. This is a very 
curious chapter betraying great ignorance of chronology on 
the part of the prophet, notwithstanding his translator's en- 
deavours to extricate him from such "intolerable anachro- 
nisms," as would, " if admitted, be sufficient of itself to de- 
stroy the pretended authority of the Book/' 



CLEFTS IN TREES. 503 

has been immemorially, a regenerating process. I 
have, on another occasion, noticed this at some 
length //. P. 395 and the Point is mentioned in 
p. 324 of this volume. 

Promontories are in themselves, from their figure, 
Linga ic, or SIVA ic, as they are deltae. They are aptly 
called "tongues of land," evidently from their shape. 
A very bold promontory of the caverned, and formerly 
holy, island of Sahette, projects itself into Bombay 
harbour, pointing towards the caverned and holy 
island, known to Europeans by the name of Ele- 
phanta. We call the promontory the " Neat's 
Tongue." I know not if we have taken it from the 
natives. It is probable. The human tongue, pro- 
jected or protruded, has, by western heathens, been 
fancied a Bacchic or Phallic type, and may be so in 
India : but I am not aware of it. Very ancient 
PANic gems and medals are still seen with the 
human tongue unseemingly protruded. This organ 
is of a conic, or Linga ic, shape ; and otherways 
reminds mystics of occult matters. 

Passing through a lithic perforation, or cleft, or 
fissure, is, as just noticed, in India, a purifying, or, 
as there described, a regenerating process : and so 
may, perhaps, be the more easy operation through a 
cleft tree ; but I do not recollect to have there 
heard of it. In England the supposed benefit of 
passing a child through a cloven tree is not a con- 
fined persuasion. It is not very uncommon in Suffolk 
but, in comparison with India, these differences 
are noticeable there the ceremony is spiritual- typi- 
cal of a new birth; regenerative : here, it is 7iow, 



504 CLEFTS IN TREES. 

exclusively corporeal curative only of rupture or 
rickets. In India it is, as far as I know, a lithic, 
here it is a ligneous, transit. But in other parts of 
England, as in India, lONi of stone have been de- 
scribed. That the superstition of both countries 
have a common source, I am able and willing to be- 
lieve. 

I have never seen the operation performed in 
England but will describe recent instances of its 
occurrence quoting first a passage or two from my 
notes on this curious subject, made many years ago. 

Passing a child through a cleft tree was formerly, 
in times of greater ignorance, probably a more com- 
mon usage than in these. I have never actually 
seen it done ; but I have in early life heard with 
wonderment of its performance ; and have known 
lads who have undergone the operation. I have not 
heard of its application to girls. Mem. to inquire 
into that point. The ceremony is thus described in 
CULLUM'S Hawstead. " There is no better place 
than this where I may mention a custom which I 
have twice seen practised in this garden 1 within a 
few years namely, that of drawing a child through 
a cleft tree. For this purpose a young ash was 
each time selected, and split longitudinally about 
five feet. The fissure was kept open by my gar- 
dener, while the friends of the child, having first 
stripped him naked, passed him thrice through it, 
always head foremost. As soon as the operation 
was performed, the wounded tree was bound up 
with pack-thread ; and, as the bark healed, the child 

1 At Hardwicke, near Bury St. Edmunds. 



CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 505 

was expected to recover. The first of these young 
patients was to be cured of the rickets, the second of 
a rupture. About the former I had no opportunity of 
making* any inquiry ; but I frequently saw the father 
of the latter, who assured me that his child, without 
any other assistance, gradually mended, and at 
length grew perfectly well." 

Dr. BORLASE, in his Antiquities of Cornwall, 
p. 172, mentions a custom practised in that part of 
the island analogous to that just mentioned. There is 
a stone, he says, in the parish ofMardon, 1 with a hole 
in it fourteen inches diameter, through which he was 
informed by an intelligent neighbour many persons 
had crept for pains in their backs and limbs ; and 
that fanciful parents, at certain times of the year, do 
customarily draw their children through, to cure 
them of the rickets. 

Dr. BORLASE adduces many more instances, as 
CULLUM informs us, of the supposed efficacy of 
passing through, or between, various substances ; 
but for them the reader is referred to the work itself. 
" Yet I cannot help remarking/' he continues, " how 
curious it is that the eastern and western extremities 
of the kingdom should coincide in this singular cus- 
tom, the spirit of which is certainly derived from the 
most remote antiquity ; and of which the historians 
of the interior parts have not, as far as I at present 
recollect, taken any notice. Men of education laugh, 

1 In India, one in search of etymologies might be disposed 
to see in the name of this village something like Maha-dun, 
or Great-hill: especially if situated on or near an eminence 
giving a colour to such a derivation. 
2 U 



506 CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 

and with reason, at such things ; but the common 
people, untutored by philosophy, transmit them from 
father to son, and show us how our ancestors thought 
and acted thousands of years ago." CULLUM'S 
Hist, and Antiq. of Plawstead, Suffolk forming 
xxin. of Bib. Top. Brit. 1784. 

I have not had an opportunity of examining Dr. 
BORLASE'S Cornwall. I shall expect, if he is cir- 
cumstantial, to find considerable similarity between 
the British and Indian superstitions in this particu- 
lar. Of those of India I will here observe that the 
lithic ION i at Malabar Point , Bombay, is used both 
by women and men as is at some length described 
in the HP. The famous Brahman R A GOB A, the 
father of the last of the Mahratta Peshwas, when at 
Bombay, passed through it frequently and it is 
said, that the great SIVAJI jeopardied his liberty 
and life for the advantages of such regeneration. 
The said RAGOBA sent two Brahman ambassadors 
to England. On their return they required purifi- 
cation from having passed through, and lived in, 
debasing countries. They were regenerated by a 
transit through a golden lONi, made expressly for 
the purpose and of course with other presents to 
an immense amount, given to the Brahmans. 

These ceremonies, differing more or less, are ex- 
tensively observable. They appear to have existed 
in Greece. It is related that those who had been 
thought dead, and, after the celebration of their 
funeral rites, unexpectedly recovered or those who, 
after a long absence in foreign countries, where they 
were thought to have died, returned safe home 



CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 507 

such persons at Athens were purified by being let 
through the lap of a woman's gown ; that so they 
might seem to be new-born, and were then admitted 
to certain holy rites that had been denied them pre- 
vious to this regeneration. POTTER'S Arch. Grec. 
b. ii. c. 3. This is more in accordance with the 
Hindu ceremonials and feelings than is here shown 
as may be seen in HP. 397. written without any 
knowledge of what POTTER had previously said. 

In a foregoing extract CULLUM thinks the eastern 
and western parts of England only, exhibit traces of 
the ancient superstition. But in BRAND'S Rep. 
Autiq. we are told that in Oxford it was still a usage 
in families of low-life, expecting a birth, to prepare 
a " groaning cheese." In this, at birth, a hole was 
cut, through which, on the christening day, the child 
was passed. The shape of the hole is not mentioned 
nor, I believe, many particulars of the ceremonies. 
It is added that " farther north, ' groaning cheeses' 
are also made and that the first slice has virtue 
similar to bride-cake, being cut into small pieces 
and given to maidens, to excite pleasant and expres- 
sive dreams- all these things having allusion to the 
mysterious operations of nature." p. 445. 

On this I will only remark, that the first slice of a 
cheese is likely to be of a Linga ic, or conical, or 
pyramidal, wedge, form and if so, in certain places, 
mystical and appropriate : and that although such 
forms may be still observed among us, as has been 
shown in some pages preceding, as remnants of mys- 
ticisms, they are no longer, among us, appropriate. 



508 CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 

In continuation of my notes on superstitious clefts, 
I farther extract these, made in 1827. The subject 
was recently recalled to my recollection by my bailiff 
when walking through a plantation in Wuodb ridge. 
I observed him rather minutely inspecting a young 
ashen tree ; and also looking, I saw it had a straight 
seam or scar, three feet or more in length. On my 
endeavouring to trace the cause, he told me that a 
child had been passed through the tree, split and 
opened for the purpose, to cure its bussen-belly. 1 
The tree is not now so thick as one's wrist, and was 
not, when the ceremony was performed, above an inch 
in diameter. The impression is, that as the tree 
heal of its wound, so will the child's ailment be 
removed. To facilitate the healing of the tree, the 
cleft is closed, and bandaged with thread or bass. 
Great confidence seems to be placed in the myste- 
rious efficacy of the process. The ash is said to be 
the tree always selected on these occasions perhaps 
because it is more easily cleft than most others, and 

1 " Biissen-lelly . Ruptured. I can recollect children in 
Suffolk drawn in a particular mode, and with certain ceremo- 
nies, through a clei't tree, as a cure for this malady. Cere- 
monies similar have been noticed among the Hindus. This 
superstition of forcing a passage through a fissure, or cleft 
orifice, is indeed of very extensive prevalence and in eyes 
and minds prone to mystery has been viewed in a very pro- 
found light. But this is not the place to dilate on a matter 
far from uninteresting." Suffolk Words. Woodbridge, 1823. 
No notice of this is taken by FORBY in his Vocabulary of 
East Anglia, nor by the reverend and learned editors of that 
valuable work. 



CLEFTS IN TREES, &'C. 509 

may more readily recover of such a wound. I have 
heard of a bramble being substituted, but not on 
ocular authority. 

There is no text in our Scripture on which, as con- 
cerning the ash, the Talmudists orTargumists could, 
in such proneness, build any thing mysterious. The 
ash is but once ISAJ. xliv. 14. mentioned in the 
Bible, and this in a plain non-mystical manner. 

It may be here observed that the ash was, of old, a 
venerated tree* HESIOD makes it the origin of his 
brazen-men. Among the mysteries of the Scandi- 
navians, as related in the Edda, the whole human 
race is of the same origin. From one species of ash 
the Calabrians Kula-bria ns, as I have been dis- 
posed to call them gather manna. It exudes in 
summer from incisions or perforations, which almost 
necessarily assume, when made and when healed, an 
JON! c form. Single, it may be fancied, when first 
made No. 17. 1. D. PI. V. compound or double, 
when healed the exterior of fig* A of the same 
plate, or of the lazar-house seal of PL IV. Another 
species of ash is poisonous: again, connecting it with 
SIVA ic, or KALA ic fable as before noticed. The 
mountain-ash, a tree differing generically, I believe, 
from the common ash, shares also in mysterious 
repute. In days of greater superstition than the 
present, it was used as a counterspell against witch- 
craft exactly how, or how extensively, I know not. 
If its name of mountain-ash have been given to it 
from its supposed love of elevated regions, it will 
become more and more connected with KALI, in her 
character of the "mountain-born' 7 the u mountain- 



510 CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 

loving DIANA :" who, in one of her characters, cor- 
responds with the obstetric Luc IN A. 

A scholar, duly imbued with mysticism, might, 
haply, trace and connect sundry poetical, and 
widely-spread superstitious allusions to the ash. 
One does not readily see why. Only one pecu- 
liarity in it occurs to me this is, that the wood of 
young ash is as tough, hard, and durable, as of old : 
of seven years as of seventy. This, with a certain 
class, might seem a type or symbol (I may not 
always duly discriminate between the proper mean- 
ings of these words) of youth and age. In com- 
mon with the sycamore, the ash bears, and is pro- 
pagated by, a key as we, and perhaps other races, 
call the seed. We have in an earlier page seen 
something of the mysticisms connected with that 
name and form. It might be insufferable to hint 
at the K</LA ic sound in the initial of Cla vis: and 
that possibly something astronomical may have 
been fancied in the configuration of the spots on the 
singularly disposed black peculiarity of the foliage 
of the sycamore : such leaves moreover in their ex- 
terior form being triunical, and bifurcated at their 
base. 

A longitudinal wound in the bark of a tree will 
primarily assume the SIVA ic form the erect, obe- 
liscal I like the tree itself, symbolic of the Litiga. 
Expanded, for a mysterious purpose and it is cu- 
rious what a number of such mysterious purposes 
seem to have occurred to prurient eyes it is lONi c. 
Duplicated^ when healing and healed, we find it 
still of like allusion. 



CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 511 

In rural wanderings I have been struck with the 
uniformities of the wounds in trees all, be they 
recent or healed, incisions or perforations, in sound 
or hollow trees, exhibiting that almost all-pervading 
form so mystical in the eye of a Saiva, or a Sakti, 
or a IO nijah ; and perhaps, of Brahmans gene- 
rally. PI. 2. of the Ilin. Pan. contains many such, 
as " sectarial marks or symbols." As such they 
are borne on the foreheads of Hindus of the present 
day, as they were of old ; and as they probably were 
also among the Egyptians : and, more of indivi- 
dual or official, than sectarial, distinction perhaps, 
among the Israelites. 

With Hindus, in a word, it is the form of nature's 
matrix ; with Plutonists, or Vulcanists, or Saivas, 
it is creation it is heat it is renovation it is fire 
it is regeneration it is all in all. So it is with 
Neptunists, the Faishnavas : then, of course, of 
aqueous, in lieu of igneous, reference. " What is 
the sea," they say " but the hollow of the hand 
the great argha of nature or matrice of production 
and re-production?" But a truce to these matters. 

In the seemingly whimsical operation of the cleft 
tree, now more immediately under our notice, the 
all-pervading form and feeling may be recognised. 
A child issuing head first (by some practitioners feet 
first) through such cleft or a man through a na- 
tural or artificial similar fissure or cleft in a rock 
or through a like form of metal down to the ridi- 
culous cut cheese of Oxford all seem to be indica- 
tions of obstetricity ; and would not fail of remind- 
ing a " twice-born" Brahman of a "second birth," or 



512 CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 

regeneration : of which mysterious matters his 
ceremonial and spiritual books abound. 

The " new-birth" of Christians let it not be 
deemed irreverent to mix such subjects is ex- 
pressly declared and universally understood, to be 
of Grace spiritual, though it produce visible fruits. 
Superstition, the offspring of ignorance and craft, 
may occasionally symbolise it into carnality. But 
such is the proneness of Brahmans to general 
sexualization that, although their esoteric dogma of 
regeneration is said to be sufficiently guarded on 
that point, it has notwithstanding, from such prone- 
ness, been degraded into doctrines and ritual cere- 
monies, that we may term mythological, or whimsi- 
cal, or ridiculous, or worse. 

The investiture of the " twice-born" a common 
periphrasis for a Brahman of a mystical triple cord 
or rather a thread diversely re- triplicated up to 
the number ninety-six, but how I have forgotten, if 
I ever knew is understood to be a purifying rite. 
This thread has several names. That which I have 
mostly heard it called by is zennaar. By western 
writers it has been common to call it the " sacer- 
dotal thread" or the " Brahminical 1 thread" 
meaning thereby, I imagine, to confine it to priests. 
But it is not confined to priests, nor to Brahmans. 
The two next classes wear it and are canonically 
and ceremonially 2 entitled. If the reader suppose 

1 " Brahminical" better Brahmanical : and Brahmans than 
Brahmen: and Brahman than Brahmin. 

2 " The three twice-born classes are the sacerdotal, the 
military, and the commercial : but the fourth, or servile, is 



CLEFTS IN TREES, &C. 513 

that Brahman and Priest are synonymous, he is in 
error. With Hindus all priests are Brahmans, as 
with the Hebrews all were and are Levites. The 
tribes of LEVI and of Brahman furnish the priest- 
hood but all Levites and Brahmans are not priests. 
Through this mystical zennaar,OTvinculum 9 the sanc- 
tified person is passed, with endless ceremonials 
some of which are noticed in- HP. 378, &c. The 
figurative language common in eastern idioms of 

O O o 

"twice-born," being "made whole," &c., is with us 
used spiritually. But it is by others misunderstood 
and hence those who are not "broken-hearted," 
not "broken in spirit" but, broken in body, seek 
to be " made whole" by a physical rite ; and pass 
regeneratively through a zennaar, or a tree, or a 
stone, of a peculiar form or figure. 

once-born : that is, has no second birth from the gayatri, and 
wears no thread : nor is there a fifth pure class. 

" Such is the advantageous privilege of those who have a 
double birth from their natural mothers, and from their spi- 
ritual mother especially of a Brahman. 

"The first birth is from a natural mother: the second, 
from the ligation of the zone ; the third, from the due per- 
formance of the sacrifice : such are the births of him who 
is usually called twice-born, according to a text in the 
Veda. 

" Among them, his divine birth is that which is distin- 
guished by the ligation of the zone and sacrificial cord ; and 
in that the gayatri is his mother, and the Acharya (spiritual 
preceptor) is his father/' Institutes of MENU. So that a 
third birth seems recognised in this venerated work. The 
third ia perhaps the sacrifice of cremation. As has been be- 
fore frequently observed, the Hindu, like other, rites, cere- 
monies, and conceits, abound in triads. 



514 WHITE BULL OF SIVA, &C. 

In p. 52 preceding, reference is made to a future 
one for a Killarnic legend, connected with a myste- 
rious cleft tree ; and with our present subject. It 
is this from CROKER'S entertaining *' Legends of 
the Lake." In that poetical region, as in poetical 
India, every hill, stream, tree, stone, seem to have 
their appropriate fable- and we accordingly find a 
cleft tree which would, as may be gathered from 
what we have said, in India be somehow or other 
viewed as a type of maternity or of the lONi. The 
mystical transit, we have seen, is sometimes purify- 
ing or good as to the past ; sometimes of prospective 
promise. Let us see what is said of the Irish cleft, 
by Mr. C. Croker. 

" It is called the eye of the needle."" Sure 
your honour will thread the eye of the needle every 
one that comes to Innitfallen threads the needle" 
said PLUNKET the cicerone of Killarney : 
" Pshaw !" said I ; "I shall never be able to squeeze 
myself through that hole I am too fat besides, 
what's the use of it?" " The use, Sir? why it will 
ensure your honour a long life, they say. And if 
your honour was a lady in a certain way, there 
would be no fear of you, after threading the needle." 
p. 70. 

In earlier pages 345, 6. 94 mention is made of 
white kine, sacred to SIVA, and otherways classical. 
His vehicle is a bull, called Nandi very frequently 
seen with the Linga and \Ofii. I have a score 
perhaps of metallic casts where the three are in 
union as may be seen in the plates of the HP. In 
pictures his bull is white. Nanduna and Nandiui 



WHITE BULL OF SIVA, &C. 515 

are Hindu mythological names the first of an all- 
producing garden the latter of an all-prolific cow. 
I know not if the Roman goddess NUN DIN A be 
closely congenerous with her near namesakes. She 
presided over many matters connected with the 
ninth children are born in the ninth month she 
presided over their purification on their ninth day 
the Nundina occurred every ninth day; on this 
day the Romans pared their nails, having, like Hin- 
dus, stated days for other important avocations 
(iiHgues MER CURIO bar bam JOVE CY PRIDE cri- 
nesj &c.) SIVA'S consort is also a ninth-day divi- 
nity the bright half of the month Aswini (the 
Twins) the first of the Hindu year is peculiarly 
dedicated to her under her name of DURGA. Her 
Nundin< are called Nararatricum, of similar ety- 
mology being the first nine days of that festival. 
The last three of the nine are the greater days the 
last of those three the greatest. On that day animals 
are immolated to her honor. Nine plants are also 
offered, with appropriate and varied ceremonies. 

But it is rather with the white bull of SIVA that 
we are at present concerned, as connected with si- 
milar animals and superstitious practices in Europe : 
on which subject I find this note ; " SIVA'S white 
bull." I have somewhere but at this moment do 
not know whether in print or not, recorded' some- 
thing of the sacred bulls usually called " Brahmany 
bulls," seen wandering loose in all the cities of 
India. They are, I think, mostly white bulls. White 
kine are very common in India. Gnzerat produces 
the finest race. I had in Bombay a pair of milk- 



516 WHITE BULL OF SUFFOLK. 

white bullocks that drew my children's gari a sort 
of carriage usually called hackry by the English, 
which cost me fifty pounds. Their short, thickset 
horns and hoofs, were jet black, from being kept 
oiled. They were much tattoed with the figures of 
tigers and flowers, and were noble stately animals. 
I should judge sixteen hands high. 

Superstitious and curious usages connected with 
the bull might be traced very extensively. The 
white bull of EUROPA, the constellation of Taurus, 
and many others that have reached western fabulists, 
have probably been derived from those of Egypt and 
India. In England some relic of bovine supersti- 
tion is now and then met with. Early Christians 
no doubt adopted, with modifications, many of the 
less objectionable customs of the Pagans and we 
find some connected with the bull, reminding us 
strongly of their supposed origin. 

In the " Gentleman's Magazine " for November, 
1783 Se/ec. i. 362 are some translations from a 
scarce book entitled, " Corolla Varia, by the Rev. 
W. HAWKINS, Schoolmaster, of Hadleigh, Suffolk" 
printed at Cambridge, 1634. The translations 
are of three authentic registers of the Monastery of 
St. Edmundsbury. One runs thus : " This Inden- 
ture certifies that Master JOHN SWASSHAM, sacrist, 
with the consent of the prior and convent, demise 

and let to , the manor called Habyrdou in Bury 

and the said , his executors, &c. shall find or 

cause to be found one white bull every year of his 
term, so often as it shall happen that any gentle- 
woman (mulierem generosum), or any other woman, 



WHITE BULL OF SUFFOLK, &.C. 517 

from devotion or vows by them made, shall visit the 
tomb of the glorious martyr St. EDMUND, to make 
the oblation of the said white bull, &,c. Dated the 
4th of June, in the second year of King Henry VII." 
(A. D. 1437.) The other indentures, nearly similar, 
are of the llth and 25th of Henry VIII. 

The following are from Mr. HAWKINS'S observa- 
tions thereon. He had probably never heard of 
SIVA'S white bull: 1 

" Whenever a married woman wished to be preg- 
nant, this white bull, who enjoyed full ease and 
plenty in the fields of Habyrdow, never meanly 
yoked to the plough, nor ever cruelly baited at the 
stake, was led in procession through the principal 
streets of the town to the principal gate of the mo- 
nastery, attended by all the monks singing, and a 
shouting, crowd ; the woman walking by him and 
stroking his milk-white sides and pendent dewlaps. 
The bull being then dismissed, the woman entered 
the church, and paid her vows at the altar of St. 

1 "To destroy, according to the Vedantis of India, the 
Sufis of Persia, and many philosophers of our European 
schools, is only to generate and reproduce in another form. 
Hence the god of destruction presides over generation: as a 
symbol of which he rides on a white bull." Sir W. JONES. 
While such things are under the pen, one can scarcely help 
adverting to the Taureau Blanc of a certain infidel writer of 
celebrity. It is more creditable to one's industry to have 
read such a book, than profitable to one's mind to retain it : 
and so many years have elapsed since I saw it that its 
tenor is more than half forgotten ; its details entirely. I 
believe the knowledge of the author, extended as it was, did 
not reach to the Naudi of SIVA. 
2x 



518 SUPERSTITION IN SUFFOLK, &C. 

EDMUND, kissing the stone, and entreating with 
tears the blessing of a child. This reminds one " 
continues Mr. H., although one may not readily see 
why " of the Luperci among the Romans, who 
ran naked about the streets, and with thongs of 
goatskin struck women with child in order to give 
easy labour." Virg. Mn. viii. G63. 

Of the above-named manor of Habyrdon are pro- 
bably those deeply-indented meadows now called 
Haberden, close to the town, on the right as you 
enter Bury from Ipswich : they still appertain to 
the feoffment of the guild derived, uninterruptedly 
perhaps, from the better days of the monastery 
which covered them. " Kissing the stone " of the 
above extract, reminds us of a similar Sivaic saluta- 
tion. There may have been some holy stone, in 
this very holy monastery. Was it pierced, or of a 
conical, or Lingaic shape ? On the fine frontal gate 
of the magnificent remains, the Linga is still seen 
among its architectural ornaments, in the pentalphic 
form 5 of line G of PI. V. Why, let me ask, was 
JUPITER genitor called Lapis ? 

May not Haberden be Abbey-den, or don, or dun? 
Visiting Tintern's fine relics, I enquired the name of 
the adjacent village, and was told Ilabbey. " A 
chiel was wi' me takin notes " and smiled at my 
intelligence for the aspiration had escaped me. I 
have a field in Suffolk called Hoverland from IIo- 
berland, or Plop-land; for such it has been. 

Being on the subject of Suffolk superstitions, I 
will add another extract from my notes though not 
all of it bearing on the immediate subject of this 
head of my Fragments. 



SORCERY IN SUFFOLK, &C. 519 

The desire of prying into futurity is most widely 
spread, and prevails confidently pretty exactly in 
the inverse ratio of intelligence. As well as the 
common resort to the Gypsies, who visit us fre- 
quently, we have scarcely u town in Suffolk of a 
thousand inhabitants without a fortune-teller ; who 
is, less and less, however, also consulted in the case 
of stolen goods, and on other occasions. Now, of 
course, it is only the superstitious and credulous 
vulgar who so resort; but they were not such, un- 
less indeed the ignorant may be always so denomi- 
nated, who formerly had faith in such things. 
Hundreds of instances might be given of such com- 
mon faith, and the practices resulting, among the 
Greeks, Romans, and, the unchanging, East Indians. 
The Greeks had, and perhaps have, their ^vreia ; 
the Romans their sortes, of a variety of kinds ; the 
Mahommedans of Persia and India, their fat; and 
the Hindus, their omens and prognostics equalling 
and rivalling them all. The Mahommedan fal, or 
omen, is usually sought by dropping the eye or 
finger on a passage in the Koran, which on the in- 
stant presents itself on being quickly opened, after 
certain prayers or ceremonies. HAFEZ is also thus 
honored perhaps as indeed I have seen and 
tried without either. Our Bible is likewise re- 
sorted to. 

Looking back many years, I can recollect being 
present in our kitchen when the servants sought 
their destinies from the Bible, in this manner. A 
key by right it ought to be the key of the church- 
door, and perhaps was was placed, I do not know 



520 



CLEFT TREES. 



how or where, in the Book ; and, on the recitation 
of certain texts, varied I believe to accord with the 
object, some manifestation is looked for what I 
have forgotten. On the occasion now in my recol- 
lection, one of the maids was the expectant; and 
she recited, thrice, this text: " By night on my 
bed I sought him whom my soul loveth : I sought 
him but I found him not." We may guess the 
nature of her prurient curiosity. I have given the 
text from long-slumbering recollection. Looking, I 
find it in SOLOMON'S Song, iii. 1., and that it is 
accurately given. " Weighing a witch against the 
church Bible " is still spoken of among us ; but no 
one now alive has, I should think, actually seen it 
done. I have also heard of tying the key of the 
church firmly between the leaves of the Book, which 
would turn in the hands of a felon or guilty person, 
in spite of the firm tying and his firm holding, on 
his recital of certain imprecatory texts. Supersti- 
tions connected with keys have been noticed else- 
where. I could furnish some materials for a chapter 
on Suffolk superstition and demonology ; but must 
confine myself to one more instance namely that 
more immediately before us, of drawing, as it is 
called, a ruptured child through a cleft tree from 
which subject we have strangely digressed, but have 
not altogether wandered. 

I have very recently February, 1834 seen the 
boy and his parents, who was draawn through my 
young ash at Woodbridge, as already mentioned. I 
often see the boy. He is about eight years old. 
His mother has assured me that it was a sad case 



CLEFT TREES. 521 

(' so painful, and so tedious was the child, that 
she got no rest night nor day " and that the child 
about six months old when draawn immediately, 
or very soon, became composed, decidedly mended, 
and gradually recovered as the tree did ; and has 
ever since remained well. His parents only were 
present at the operation. I have occasionally called 
to tell the mother of the well-doing of the tree 
evidently to her satisfaction (as well as to that 
of the sympathizing boy, who may now and then 
have been some pennies the richer for such my visi- 
tations). 

I have little doubt but I could find out half a 
score of persons who have been draawn in their in- 
fancy, and cured, in and about Woodhridge. At my 
last visit to the cured boy, his father, at my request, 
furnished me with the following memorandum in his 
<3wn writing : " In putting a child through a Tree 
first observe it must be early in the spring before 
the tree begin to vegitate 21y the tree must be 
split as near east and west as it can 31y it must 
be done just as the sun is rising 41y the child 
must be stript quite naked 5 it must be put 
through the tree feet foremost 6 it must be turned 
round with the sun and observe it must be put 
through the tree 3 times and next you must be 
careful to close the tree in a proper manner and 
bind it up close with some new bass or something 
to answer as well JAMES LORD was put through 
and was cured Mrs. SHIMMING of Pittistree had 
3 children born" (a word, perhaps ruptured, is 
omitted) " and Mr. WHITBREAD gave her a tree 



522 CLEFT TREES. 

for each of them and was all cured and there is a 
man now living in Woodbridge who when a child 
was cured in the same way." 

One more case has come under my immediate 
observance. This is of a remarkably fine lad who 
always works on my farm at Healings now about 
fifteen years old, who when about a year old was 
draawn through a young ash in the adjoining parish 
of Grundisburgh. A cure was not effected. The 
thing was not properly done, as is admitted. The 
tree died, and the lad wears a truss. 



After having been, from one cause or other, two 
years in the press, my poor Volume draws to a 
close. I finish this, its last page, on the 1st of 
March an auspicious day. One kind old friend, 
whose venerated 1 name . honors its first page, will 
know and feel why I call that day auspicious. 



INDEX. 

[The decimal and centesimal figures are not repeated where they can 
be spared. Thus in 245, 6, 8. 51, 4. 322, 3, 7. 84 a repetition of 
those omitted figures is to be understood ; the same as if given at 
length, 245. 246. 248. 251. 254. 322. 323. 327. 384.] 

Ahbaziicca 381. Abikarampa-Abikarama 385, C. Aboma 429. Abomy 
386. Abyssinia 65. 127, 8, 9. 434 to 8. 450. Accasey 38(5. Acca- 
tcay 430. Jrfamotra380. Adamur 436. Adioni 300. Adwkurra 386. 
Aiiiri 386. Adirondack 417. Adjomba 385. Adoom 386. Adongo 385. 
Adunwa 386. Adragoot 406. Africa 184, 5-Sanskritisms in 367 to 88. 
410. 28,9. AGANATH 277. Agama 409. Agbara 227. Aghadoe 50, 1, 
405. Aghavillen 407. AONI 180, 2. 336, 54. 476. j4oru 435. AGLIA 
413. Almnta 386. ^zt/oni 306. 4i al Ki/rsi'445, 6. Akatayki 386. 
Akhoor 363. Jfciw 386. _4/&ama4l7. Alacapa 420. Alcoran, see Ko- 
ran. A LI 25. 33. 492, 3. J/itof-4/iuia '297. Alkomari 335. Allahabad 
251. 410, 11. Alleghany 331. Alligator-feast 437. Alpha-omega 442. 
50. 64. Amazons 408, 17, 23. Amba-Ambalia-Amboly 245, 6. ^m/><>- 
lachia 333.46. Ambriz 385. America- fine old-perhaps Sanskrit-names, 
&c. in 330, 1,2. 410. 13. 16 to 20. 28 to 31-. how peopled 423, 4- 
rivers of 436. Amen, extensively devotional 151.409.41. Amhara 437. 
Amosima3$6. AMPAROOSSS. Ampoulle S. 133,7, 8. 142,3, 4, 8,9.416. 
Amulets 23, 6. 33. 85. 218, 19. 445. Anadown 406. Anamnboo 381, 5. 
Anacato4'2l. ANANGA282. Anbasit437. Ancomasa386. Andes 421,7. 
Androgynics 244,5. 344.408. Angola 380. ANIPURNA-ANNEPERENA ? 
337. Anijabirrim 385. Anjary 386. Jinn? 363. Anointings 133, 4, 5. 
144, 5,9. Ansa 386. Anialow 434. ANTHONY, S. 53,8. 156. 169, 70, 
1. 244. Anumarana 354. Anynbirrim 386. Apacca 386. APOLLO and 
Apollonics 177. 226. 47, 8, 9. 68. 318. 42"). 57. Appnmatok42Q. Apsnra 
54, 6, 7. 246. 329. 65. Arabia 10. 20, 7. 32, 4. 42. 214, 15. 88. Ar- 
cadia 433. Jiwa/ 363. Araicary 429. ^4r/a352. Ardnaree-Ardhanari 
344. 408. ^r^/m 262. 70, 7. 84. 307. 14. 58. 415. 33. 51, 5, 7. 63. 
Arghadeva 433. ARGHANATHA-Argonautics 277, 8. 84, 5. 305. 56. 62. 
445.55.76. Arika 420. Arkansa 417, 18. Arkite mysticisms 161. 
230. 360. 454, 5. Arracoria 266. jimurfjfc 430. J.rfa 306,7. 20. ARU- 
NA 57. Asankari 386. Ascra 263. Ascetics 53, 7. ASENAT'H, JOSEPH s 
wife 287. Asharnrnan 386. Aslianuma 384. Ashantee 385. Ash, mys- 
tical 504 to'll. Ashes, mystical 357. Ashdera 385. Askibhu 429. Asu- 
TARA-AsiiTAKOTH-AsiARTE 97,8.243.97,8. ASIA, wife of PHA- 
RAOH 26, 203. Asinura 381. Aspro 307. ^ssin-^lssinee 386. ASTRO- 
ARKI 298. Aswamed'ha 53. ^Kacamu 423, 5. Alagara 381. Atchafa- 
biya 430. Athabasca 331. ATITA 460. 75. Ittiea 276, 7. 312 to 17. 24. 
AUM or O'M extensively connected 151. 441,2.50,9.60,1.500. 
lustra/fa 330, 1, 2. Avatara 88. 104. 303, 4. 99. 403. Axnm 436. 50. 
63. Ayacvcho 425. Ayamara 422. AYESHA, wife of MAHOMED 204. 
Azabimah 385. 

Babbalia 380. BACCHUS 97-Sivaic 146. 309. 37. 463J 4-femah- 
344 Rama ic 424. Backward and forward, mystical 20. 62. 454.60. 75. 
Badagry 381, 6. Bady 377. Ragdilee 346, 7. BAG is A 309. 403. 



524 INDEX. 

Bagarimee-Bngamidri 385,6. Buhoree386. BahiaUS. 20, 6.304. Bai- 
lunda 384. Knjedio 381. Bajuda 42.). BAL-BALA-^a/sor(?-J3a/zdwn- 
1$A.i.K.RisH*iA-Batl<ig!iy-Bullenagar-BaUarourney-Balligliadereen-Bal- 
ligowley-Balligorey-Balnagare-Biillina-Ballinacally-Bnllinahinch-jBal- 
linenle-B(iHin<islne-Bally- Bully callan-Bullydowrey-Bally shannon 403 to 

6. Brt/i 379. Bitlkttli 272. Ball(tnbangam-Ballinguml>oon-BMimacue- 
BaUycar-B<illyl'uru4\2,13. BALTHAZAR 213, 15. Bambara-BambooSi 
386. fan 403, -1. ficrn/jr<i381. Bnnjara 348,9. Bancomulla 376. Buntoo- 
/coo386. Bard- fr/rda-Baf 400. Bar-Bum 387. fiurara437. Barrakonda 
371,4. Btirralmdi 385. Bmi 436. Burrow 251.410,11,12. firtr/a 
381. fiarfifot 430. Barttxim-Batmula 436. Baut>le, CHOMWELL'S 113. 
.BAUBO 338,9. Bayhee 385. Beads- Pagan-Papal-Mahomedan 65.304. 
484. Images, &c. 47 I. Bearded VENUS 344. Begdelee-Bagdilee? 346, 7. 
/feff/wrmt 380. Bejumbroo 436. Bejulapnt 384. fiefee381. Bermejo 
420. BERENICE 339. Be.rrnkoo-Bese.ree 386. Bethlehem 212. 14. Brtfc- 
*/jewA-/i287, 8. Bhaga-Baghi 365. BHAGISA 309. 463. Bliagenu 365. 
JBhagermi 384. BHAVAM 329. 4^6. Bhargo 381. B/mf 400. Bhoosa 
381. BnuDEvi298. Bhimgi 349. Bhumali 408. BHUMIUS 412. B/iw^i 
SSi.Blmrbhuviisirer 299. 441. 500. Bwpara386. Bible 173,4.519,20- 
andKr208,9. Bz7/n3HO,4. Bm^/a386. Birrim 385. Birrinsoo 386. 
HisHNA-BisHEN-BisnNu-VisHNU 378. BJack-Time-jfiftt/ 239, 40. 
Black stone 48, 9. Black waters 242, 7, 8, 9. 361. 76. 90, 1. 405. 18. 
36. BLOMIUS 412. Blue rivers 376. 405. 36. Blunders in sainting 226, 

7, 8. Bear, mythological 403. Bceotia 260. 309, 10. 15. 19. Bohman 
386. Bo/too 381. .B/gua381. Boya 436. Bolai/kee 385. Bombay 66. 
426, 7. 36. 43, 4. Boma 386. Bonnsoo 385. Boogowa 380. Bora 434. 
lioorgn 381. Borneo 330. 79. Boosumpra 386. Bosmanngher 413. 
Bouracourru 430. BRAHMA 132, 3 18. 486. Brnhmnn, generosity 10- 
secluded village 323. Brahmans, misliaps of 10. 51, 5. -cunning 180, 1. 
-gross fables of 96-and Padres, pretty much alike 175-the Magi? 214 
-proud of their cookery 406-alleged arrogance of 349, 50-never kings 
387-not always priests 512, 13-languages of, numerous 435. 65. 
BrahmaniMn in Africa 378. Brnhmas 386. Brahmaputra 262. JBriu 
400,1. Bu 433. Bucephalus 270, 1. 432, 3. BUD-BUDHA 387. 458. 
#wdru 403. Budwnr 387. Bull, mystical 484, 8. 514 to 18. Bumnlty 
408. JBur/y 381. BurderauraSSI. Burton Lazars 76 to 79. 447. 81. 
Busampra 385. 

Cachales 2f>7, 8. Cnchnrami 268. Cadodakqui 420. Ca/joos418. 
'/ or Kal- Col- Cul-CL-an extensive mot-see jKW-338. 90, 4, 6, 8, 9. 
CALA 394. see Krt^t. Calabar 387. Calabria 146. 54. 400. 509. C- 
Jtf&odrt 427. Culnder 395. C/rf///f403. Ca/am/i 425. Calama>-Cala- 
mata 241, 2, 3, 7. Calamus 319. Calandri 314. Calunna 385. Calathus 
338, 9. C/aM/-ea 257. 74. Calaverti 276. Culawapore 384. Ca/car40I. 
Calcutta-Calignt-Caliciit 374. 400. Caldew 390, 4. Caldewgate-Cal- 
dewgliat 389- Caldurita 346. Calebar 382, 4. 410. Caledon-Culedonia- 
Knlidun-Kalidunia 354. 94, 6, 8. 401. Calender 396. CAM 434. see 
KALI. Calian-Caliantari 249. Calicut-Calico-Kalikut 400. Crt/>>oa 
420. Calimansa 378. CaitiMCmttStO. Calisaya 422. Ca/tra317. 
Calivia 324. Calimita 247.34(5. Cahyer-Knliya! 245 to 8. 321. 
CALPHUR^NIUS 307,8. 54. 94, 6, 8. CALviN-ism 112. 231. 416. Ca/y- 
Jow 307, 8. 54. 94, 6, 8. Calynne 357. CALYPSO 365. Ca//an 409. 
Calitcolont 258. Callifutli 326. Callidia 242,3,5. 65. Callidromos 269. 



INDEX. 525 

CALLICHORUS 274. CALLICRATES 243. CALLJOPE--KALIYAPA ? 352 
to 5. CALLIPHAE 247. 346. Callirete 346. CALLIMACHUS 339, 40. 502. 
CALLIROE-KALIRUHI? 149, 50 to 53. 312. 52,3,4. Callitze 249. 
Callosities 51, 2. Calmar 433. CAMA-SCC KAMA. CAMALA-Cma/a- 
dauli-Camaladunum-Camaluta-Cnmnlauli-Camalduli 332, 4,6. 89. 90. 
Cambaya 384. Camerton 3 ( JO. Cameroon 382,3, 4.410. Camoodi 429. 
Cancharani 420. Ca/rf^na417. Candeti 307. Cawic<?407. Canna 386. 
Cape, the 120. 305. Capinpo 425. Carababa 310. Caraccas 427. Ca- 
rawja 426. Cari6 430. Caridnr-Caroni 429. Cartaback 430. CasAa 319. 
CaAmir262. CASPAR 213. 15. CASSANDRA 365. Cassara430. Cassina 
386. CssIO/;e-C.s,slO/)?i-K.fj/.a/)a 320. 35. Castali-Castalia-Casi- 
tali 243. 54, 5, 6. 309. Ceutri 256. 309. 19. Catsheena 381. Ca?/ca429. 
Caucasus 361, 2, 3. CAWEni-Cnveri-Caurius 391. 45. Caves-Chasms- 
Clefts-mystical 85, 6. 244, 5, 6. 54, 5. 307, 8,9. See Clefts. CayreeS&G. 
Celebes 379. Cemetery- Samiterra 359. 60. Cerbura-Cerburus-Serbura 
342, 3. 462. CERES-SRI ? rites extensive, &C.97, 8. 143. 274. 96, 7.315. 
24.39.440, 2. Ceridwen-Sridun ? 401, 2. Cerigo-Srigao?365.Cercishia 
-Cerysius 310. 19. C/icfw 417. Clmkra 467. Chaldea-Kaldeva ? 297. 
351. Chalcedon 272. C/t<i/ci260. 84. 307, 8. 15. Chamacasapa 427. C/w- 
wia&386. Chnmpaka 332. C/andfl389. Chandala 349. CHANDUA-CHAN- 

RI-CHANDRIDARA-CHANDRAGIRJ-CHANDRASEKRA335,6.44. 83. 95. 

CVuwdrmvinsrt424.61. Cfcanfc 267. Charity-Faith-Hope 230, 1,6. CAo- 
rootika 319. Chasms-Caves-Clefts, see Caves. CHAYA-C/iayawta 422, 3. 
Cheendul 385. Cheese, groaning 507, 11. Chekora 376. Chelicut 435, 7. 
Cherokee 417. Chicasaw 417. Chicowray 376. Chiliantari 249. CAim- 
boor-Chimborazo 427. Chiriguano 423. Chokisuka-Choquechaka 421. 
Chokis-Cholcos 356, 7. 60, 1. Chuquisaca 420, 1. Ct'erium345. Czsfa 
388. Cirata-Cirati 327. Cifua 424. Cludeus-Kaladeva ? 364. CLARKE, 
Dr. 98. 227 t<J 85, 7. 90 to 305. Claydon-Claypidon 398. Clefts-Fis- 
sures, &c. extensively mystical 52. 244, 5, 6. 54, 5, 6. 61. 74. 88. 311. 
13. 27. 62. 95. 412. 56. 98 to 522. CLBOpAT*A-.ffa#ya/xrfra 241. 433. 
CLio-tfa/IO? 241. Clitumnus-Kulitumna? 345, 6. 94. CLOSE, Gen. 
Sir B. 42, 5 to 8. CLOVis-miracles-mummery 134. 42, 4, 5. 50. CocAa- 
Aamfta420. CocMi-Cokli 324. ColOny 428. Col-Cal-Cvl-Kol-KH, &c. 
an extensive root 396, see Cai and JRT/. Color es 427. Colchester 390. 
Colchis-Colckicum 356, 7. 60, 1. Coleroon 383. 91. Coleraine 403. Cwi- 
IO/JZ 423. CoW-Co/o'M-CoLUMB,S. extensively connected 150, 1.396. 
Culiapisa 417. CoWe 386. Collections of Oriental materials 68, 9, 70. 
491. Co//na423. Colonsay 396. Colorado 427. Colossal statues 85, 6, 
9.90. Colyton389. Culyvn 342. ComNi>-ComtV38I . Comorin 389. Co- 
/noro 378. Con-Cond-Conda-Condnpilly-Condapoor-Condatchy-Conjeve- 
ram(Ken-Knnd) &c. 371 to 5. Conacovshi 429. Conally 380. Conca- 
vities, mystical 314. 449. Concakuri 378. Cone, an extensive mythos 
49. 79.97. 244,6.99.309.11. 29. 34,8. 59.96.421, 5,7.63, 4, 7,8, 
9. 81, 4. Coobly-Coodonin 38!. CoolOwy 410, 11,12. 28. Co/-y 384. 
Coomasie 386. Conmbn 377, 8. Cootomacasa 385. Coofry 384. Co^ui- 
bnktca 427. Coquimbo 426. Corazan 429. Cormuntee 385. Coronation- 
stone, cross, oil, &c. 48, 9. 50. 133 to 44. 50. 289. 458. Cororadikee 
431. COSMO S. 146, 7. 54. 225. Counda-Kounda-Conda, &c. 371 to 5. 
CROKER'S Killarney 50 to 3. 514. CROMWELL'S bauble 113. Crook- 



526 INDEX. 

Crozier-CVu.i: 457. Cromlech 48. Cross, an ancient revered symbol 289. 
92, 4. 304, 5. 458-beavenly of CONSTANTINE 143, 4. 458-true 74. 
144. 63, 8. 234-southern 304, 5. Croziers 457. 82. Crux, ansata 289 
to94-au.sfra/?s304, 5. Culloden 306. Cumana 429. Cund-Cond-Cunda 
&c. 371, 5. see Con. Cunhinga 385. CuracondaMl. Curie-Curry 405,0. 
Curtana 135. Cttsco 412. Cttu/>381. Cyta-SnA ? 360. 

Dacanie 381. Dadaieasi 385. DAGON 352. Dngheia 380. Dagumba 
386. Dagieamba 380. Da/437. DAKSHA365. DuM 386. DAMIAN S. 
146. 54. 225. Damisiama 386. Danaide 416. D<tnknra-Dankarmn 385. 
Daskiila-Thasculio ? 318. Dnworra 386. Dea-Deo-Deva, &c. 299. 344. 
DM Jrtini 98. Dirfa 386. D*Ar 319. 50. Degomba 385. Delaware 417. 
Dr2/jAi 242 to 5. 56. Demah 437. Demha 378. Deltce-Lingaic 444. 68. 
503. DEMOSTHENES 257.75. Dene-Denes 396, 8. Demonotogy 236 
455, 6. 519. 20. Dfogvi 380. Deokal-Dcucal-Devakal-Deucalion-Deu- 
calidonian,&tc. 344. 98. Devaloo 303. DEVI 276. Devicotta 374. DE- 
VAKALI-DEUCAM-DEUCALJON, &c. 344. 98. Digeria 319. DIANA- 
extensively identical, &c. 98.226. 97, 8. 319. 25. 40. 425. 52. Didcu- 
cftlo-Detadasc(tl<i?215. Digoo 380. Dinka-DinkaraZSG. DIONE 360. 
Dt'rfeu 384. D*M 269. 70. DN. see />wn. Doa6 351. Dobarwa 437. 
Doghondhngi 385. DOMINIC S. and his order 157, 8, 9. 69, 70. 454. 
Done-Doney-Downey (see Dun) 378. 91. 6. Doneraile 408. 12. Doom- 
ft 376. Dooroomu-Douwnra 385, 6. Dowergo 380. DOWLUT RAO 
SINDIA 6 to 19. I Ife, 9. 491 to 7. Down-Downpatrick 408. Dove-rega- 
lic 133. 50, l-ampullic 142,5, &c. 152. 180. 360. DroitwtekW&i 
Druidics 396. 409. Duaterra 431. Duakee 380. Dugwa 381. Dumpasi 

385. DucolltiJitila 430. Dun-or D-N-or Done-Dene- Doon-Donn exten- 
sively a hilly root 271,4.390, 1, 6, 7 to 408. 518. Dunbar-Dunrar- 
Dunvaraha 396. Duncame'&8\. Dundergutty 374. Dungari 141. 391, 
7.413. DUNCAN, Hon. Jon*, avaluable public servant, &c. 6, 7. 14.35, 
6, 8. 71. Dunchurch 398. Du*dag- Dundalk 408. Dundee 398. Dundoh 
408. Dunedin 408. Dunghiri 391, 8. Dnngate-Durtghat 400. Dungar- 
ton 408. Dunkery 413. Dunkirk 398. Dnmi408. Dunmow- Dun more 
$97 .Dunotter^QS. Dunsaliow 385. Dns/u'401. Dunsinane 408. Dwn- 
w/c/i 393. DURGA 243. 55. 319. 38.515. Durmapalam 407. Dwabin 

386. Divulagin 332. 

Eagle-coronation 148-extensivelymythological438. Eaiotra 381. as<- 
er-Eoster-Eustre ; astral, 97, 8. 297 -anciently solemnized 295, 7. Edessa 
325. Eelchoolee SSl.Egga 381. JE^j//)f,triadic and quaternion mythi of, 
131. 343-hieruj;lypliics of, 437. 40, 4, 5-never unmeaning 291. 300, 1- 
and /nc/ifi, legends, &c. of, common 244. 90 to 301. 43. 424. 40, 5. 57. 
78. Eildon 396. 401. Elephant 485, 6. Elephanta, cave, &c. 276. 408. 
40, 3, 4, 5. 7 1.503. Efrtww, rites, &c. of, 274,9.80.311,24.37,8,9. 439 
to 42. Elmina 386. Ellura 249. /?/, seal of, 471. Emerald-mystical, &c. 
59. 60. 72, 3, 4. Engarsnki 381. ng-ia 58. Enneacrunos 249. Entrochi 
267. Eor6-/CJ/431. Erring,, 385. EscurialltZ. Essequibo 410. 28,9. Es- 
SEYE, wife of NOAH 205. ETHELRED S. seal, &c. of 471. K-U-Eupho- 
nizes with IO 315. 53, 6. 60. Eubcra 356. Euripu* 315. EUROPA 297. 
353. Evil eye 73. 325, 6. Excludes in salvation 128.230, 1,2. 

Fahrtng 407. Faith 59-and Hope and Charity 183, 6, 7 to 92. 230, 
1, 2, 3. Fanaticism 100. 87. 90. 220, 1. Fasting extensively meritorious 
174.201,5. Fathers, the, 58.132.235,6. FATiMAH-daugliterof MAHO- 
MEu25,6.33. Fatt-Fatek-Fattehubad-FatUkghiri-FattehkondaW\,5. 



INDEX. 5*27 

Female flagellant 110, 11. Fetish-men 184, 5. Fingers-mystical po- 
sition of, T9. 447. 70, 1. 80, 3. Fire-the preat purifier 353, 4, 7. Fires, 
triad of, 353,9. 476. Fish-sacred 2U8. 351, 2-myticisnis 479. 80. Fis- 
sures-clefts, &c. mysterious 274. 412, 25. 98 to 522. See Clefts. Fitla- 
yeraboy-Vizeraboyl 378. Five-mystical 267. 453, 4, 5. Flagellants 53. 
105 to 11. Fohmani385. Fountains-mystical 131, 2. Forehead marks 
477. 511. FRANCIS S. and his order 92 to 0. 105, 7. 55 to 70. 223. 
454. Free-masonic mysteries 285. 93. Friars numerous, &c. 118. 57, 8. 
221. 23. Furies-triad of, 343. 

GABRiEL-Mahomedan 201, 5. Gadane3SO. G'jtftnui 386. Galacorto 
266. Gallipoli 271. Gal way 405. Gaora 386. Gaomuki 245. 61. 
332. Gamhadi 385. Gumbalurum-GambarvuSSO. Ganduki 88. GA- 
NESA-living incarnation of, 299. 375. Gnneskunda 371, 5. Ganga-\\\e 
Ganges 88. 315. 28. 32.76.95. Gangadhara 328. 95. Gangaran 376. 
Gange 385. Gangee 386. Ganges 332. 76, 8. 95. 410, 11, 12-geogra- 
phical and poetical source of 245. 51. Gangetic fables 261,2. 315, 16. 
82. 95.409 to 12. 30. Gangolri 245. Garu 363. Garangula 418. G- 
-ima435. Garoo386. Groor438. GARUDA 260. 437. G'iruitin<i416. 
Gat-Gate-Ghat-Ghaut 335.89. 400. GAURI 345. 91, 4. 404. Gayatri 
182.205.441,2, 3, 8.513. Gf//<ig-uro 436. Ghoondar-Ghoongo-Ghoor- 
ma-Ghoowary-GkungeroUain. 81. 210. Girkwa 380. Gfta441. 60, 1. 
Gnostics and Nnstikas 132,3. 448. 75, 6. GoiliegudtelM. Gokalasta 
475. Golconda-Kalkunda?Z7l. GolungoSSl. Gomati :56. GOMARI 435. 
GomphiZZO. GOMUT RAYA 86, 9. JO. Gonja 381. Goobirree-Goodo- 
beree 385. Googara 386. Gooiidamee 381. Goruru 435, 8. Goorojie- 
Goorowa385. GoorwasieS&G. Go<>ty%74. Gorgonirs361.492. Gowrie 
307.80. Goic/ei/404. GOVINDA 345. Graces, triad of, 343. Grusstas384. 
Greece-Rome-India-similar legend^, &c. in, 96. 120. 218.38.41. 64,6, 
7,9. 294 to 300. 37, 57. Guatvan429. Guiana 428, 9. Grematha 319. 
Greta 41}. Guarie'iSl. Gullibudda^. Gun^oSSl. Gungaddi 385. 
Gwrd</380. GurrumkondaMl. GerendJ/cz 381. Gypsies 141.347 to51. 
Habesh-Abyssinia 65. 1 28. 36 1 . 437. Hnckea 430. Hadji 322. HAFEZ 
11.128.207.466.519. HAFZA-MAHOMMED'S injured wife 204. Hai- 
ma/a433. Hair-votive 339. 40-reH, SIVA'S 307. 95. HALADHARA 362. 
tialaitel. Halalkhor 349. Haliacmmi 269. Halinrlus3lO. Halinga- 
taka 436. 1/am-a common termination 392, 3. 473. Hamazen-Ama,- 
zon? 423. 36, 7. Hannaqua. 429. HANUMAN 219. KARA 266. 72. 
HARAKALA-Heradfrt-HERCULi.s 269.72,6.307.46. Hausa 381. 
Hawai 432. Heaven-descended images, &c. 143. 155.313, 17. 75. 
405. Hebrew-easily miswritten 440. 7. 54. HECATE-extensively iden- 
tical 297, 8. Heckotoroo 432. Hejra 8. 15. 20, 2, 3, 4. 2l"l. 446. 
HELIN 166. 366.434. HELENA S. 77. 144. 63 to 8. Heliconics-Heli- 
konda 255.61 to 6. 310. Heliopoli* 208. Heraclea, see HARAKALA. 
HERCULES 451. see HARAKALA. Hermttthena%29. HERM|QNE353. 
HESIOIJ 263, 4. 80. 364, 5. 509. Hieralpha 30 1 , 2, 3. HILLS typical 244, 
5. 376. Himala-fit\e names &c. in, 332. Hind- Afi iconics 367 to 88. 
Hind-Egyptics 296. 347 to 51. 440, 1 to 8. 50, 2, 3, 7. 66, 7,8. 71,8. 
88. 5n.Hind-Dntidics396AOl.Hnid-HelU>nics<)6. 103.20.43.00.239 
to 367. 448. 50, 2, 3, 7. 62 to 8. Hnid-lnshia 50 to 3. 251. 402 to 16. 
28.514. Hindi-Papaics9l,2,6, 8. 143. 60.72 to 187. Hindu-isms 10, 
11, 14, 16. 54-uncliangeablentss of 171, 2-extensively traceable in 
America 416 to 30-ia Abyssinia, 434 to 8-in Africa, see Hind-Afri- 



528 INDEX. 

canics-in Caucasus 361, 2, 3-in Egypt, see Hind-Egypiics-\n England 
388 to 94. 455, 6-in Greece, see Hind-Hellenics-'m Java 379-in Ireland, 
see Hind- Irishia- Italy, see Hindi- Panics- Mexico 424-A T <??c Zealand 
431, 2-PfTM 420 to 7 -Sandwich islands 432, '^-Scotland 394 to 401- 
Sweden433-Tonga islands 433, 4. see Sanskrit. Hindis non persecu- 
ting 101-morality of 55. 185-good artists 90-venerate stones 49.51. 85- 
and relics 219-arid triads and quaternions 132-and oils and unctions 
146-and pilgrimages 336. See under f/?nrf.-HoBnouSE, gleaned 306 to 
27. HOLKAR 494 to 7. Holy houses 150. 7. 73-oils and unguents 133, 
4,7, 8.42 to 47-land 97-wells and fountains 78. 288. 333, 4. 498- 
family of MAHOMED 25. $2. 446-stones 51 8-see Stones. HOMER 190. 
280. 435. Honoruru 432. Hope-Faith-Charity 59. 230, 1 , 6. Housato- 
nzc&418. How<0M 430. f/40l. Huasco 425. Humuguaca 425. HUS- 
SEIN and HossEiN25.27.33. Hwholla-Hwolla385. HYDER 17.22.44. 
Hymettns 318. 33. 

I AM-I ACD extensively connected 151. 442. 50, 9. 60, 1, 4, 5. 74. 
7ftu301.38. 447. Ica/o384. ILA324.421. Ilamani 421,7. Ilcolmkil 
396. ILI 312. 24. 421. Iliad 43. 66. Ilium-Hi O'M? 327. Ilisus 311. 12. 
Imahan 420. Imbekee 385. IMRAN 203. 502. Inakonda 371. /nt/ia-and 
g-i//^-coincide in legends &c. 296-see Hind-Egyptics. INDRASS to 6. 
182. 458. Indulgences plenary 157. 74. 92. Ineffable name, &c. 205. 
441,2,3. Inkajee 385. Invention of the cross 225. IO an extensive 
mystery in form and sound-IO wz-IO nics-Q8. 147. 244, 5, 6, 9. 257, 
9. 60, 2. 74, 6, 9. 83, 4, 8. 99. 306, 7, 8. 15. 22, 5, 6, 7, 9. 33. 341. 
59. 60, 2, 4. 415. 21. 33. 47 to 52, 7. 62, 3, 8. 75, 8, 9. 80, 1. 498 to 
516. \Oanina 306. 20, 1. \Qcala-\OKala 421. 1O wa 229.360. 
lOm'a, seat of mysticisms 98. 278. lOni/Wi 327.511. \Qnkoping43Z. 
Jpsara- A psara ? 246. Ireland and. India, see Hind-Jrishia. ISA 146. 
182. 205. ISHA 205. hernia 146, 7. Isi 205. 358. 66. 475. Isiac ta- 
blet 130. IBIS 205. 89. 297, 8. 343. 440, 2. 50, 1, 2. 75. Itulaque 423. 
Italy 19. 130. 168. 253, 4. 

Jabowa 386. Jacoba 381 . JACOB'S pillow 49-ladder 156. Jagota 381. 
Jaguor 429. Jaganat'h 147. 284. Jaina 458. Jallacotta 376. Jambero 
376. Janeiro S. 125, 6. JANEKA-JANEKI- Janekakunda 372. JAMI 207. 
Jatamansi 332. Jaora 386. ./a/), see F/>. Ja?ra 377. Java 330. 79. 
./^wa 376. JEHOVAH 131. Jesuits 102. JEHANGEER 61. Jeogary 377. 
Jews 60. 85. 409. Jim 386. Jinbala 378. 386. Jing- 385. Jinnie 386. 
JOB'S wife 201, 2. JOHN S. 77. 417. 501. Joliba 376. Jonkakonda 
370, 2. JOSEPH and Ms wife 206, 7, 8. Judea 131. Judges of hell-triad 
of, 343. Jujui 425. Jumajum 436. Jumna 242, 8, 9. 378. Junctions- 
unions-reunions-extensively mystical 250, 1, 7. 85. 99. 360. 82. 403, 
8 to 12. 27 to 31. 49. JuNo-extensively identical 98. 297. 359, 60. 501- 
contends for Attica 279. 313. JuriTER-statue of serves for S. PETER 99. 
100, 2-profligate 54. 96-tempJes and fables of 334, 6, 7.43 to '6. 53. 
Jyallacoro 376. 

Kabarra 386. Kabi 381. Kaffondingie 381. Kagaria 381. Kakonda- 
Kakunda-KakundyZ77.8I,4. Kaka-Kake 318. 80. KakafungiZSl. 
Kaiama 386. Kailasa 255. 364. 464. Kailkunda 371. Kal, or 
K-L. Kol-Kil-oT Col. (see Co/.) an extensive root 238, 9. 40. 
&c. 65. 326, 7. 38. 55, 6, 7. 396, 8, 9. 402. 7. 61. Kala-oi Kal- 



INDEX. 529 

SivA-a mountain deity 144. 338-is Time-darkness-blackness, &c. 239, 
40. 263, 5. 99-the terrific 274-HERCULES? 276-a maniac 263. Kala- 
in Africa 380-in Scotland 394, 5-in Abyssinia 436-See Gala. Kalaboda- 
Kalahria- Calabria 401. 509. Kaladara 395. 407. Kalader 395. Kalade- 
va-Kaladeva-ghat-Caldewgate? 389. Kalagan 363. Kalaha 386. Kala- 
marka 427. Kalanadi 390. 405. 18. Kalantik 326, 7. Kalamouchi 420. 
Kalanaga 247, 8. Kaluo-Kalaochi 420. Kalapsara 365. Jfa/<m 272. 
Kalaurea 257. Kalava 405. Kalawar 387. Kalawawa 381. ICafat/ 385. 
KALDEVA-KaMeo-Dmifci DEucALiON-344, 351. Kaleeluwha 380. .Ka- 
leirama 419. KALi-consort of KALA241. 74. 358. 61-polyraorphic 
247. 66. 81-MiNEB.VA 251-LuciNA 510. Kali-cisms-extensively trace- 
able 241. 44. &c. 254, 5, 9. 60 to 65, 7, 9. 71, 4. 281. 306. 32, 7. 43. 
55, 6, 7. 61 to 5. 96. 407,8. 62. 509, 10. Kalapatra 241. 433. KALIDAS 
316. KALiDEvr296. Kalidunia-Kalidun-Caledon- Caledonia 308. 54. 
94, 5, 7. 400. Kalimarut 390. Kalimuki 339. 43. KaJmgi 259. Kal- 
IOe423. KALIOPE-CALLIOPE-KALIYAPA ? 352, 3, 4. KALIPUBKA- 
CALPHURMUS? 337. Kalira 358. 60. KALIRUHI-CALLIRHOE ? 249 to 
54. Kalirun-Coleroon 343, 8. 92. 405. Kalis 405. Mm 358. Kali- 
tumna-Clitumnus? 345. 94. Kaliva 317, 18. 43. Kalicia 318. 46. 
JCa/M/a 245, 7, 8. 67. 321.43. 54. Kalaypa-Caliope? 352, 3, 4. Kalkal- 
mani 413. KuMH 357. 99. Kallamak 420. Kallaghi 385. Kallidea 265, 
9. Kalomeros 308. KAMA-the Hindu CUPID 56. 390. 427-not named 
in the Veda 280-fables of 282, 3. 316.66. KAMALA-the Hindu VENUS 
336-and KAMARA-KAMARI-KAUMARI-KOMARI-KOUMARI names of 
PARVATI or KALI 258. 83. 310. 35. Kamalata 282. Kamaladun 390. 
Kamaldoli 336. 90. Kamalia 378. Kamara-sou 258. Kamdenu 397. 
Kamkhab 11. 12. lam0wrsaA;a417. Kanara 272. 363. Kanavari 310. 
KANDARPA 54, 6. 366. KANDU 51, 2, 6. jKandt/ 377. Kanhawa 331. 
iianji 386. Kankan 384. Karakala 363. Karaleejango 378. Karantik 
326,7. KarhalaSBS. KARI 493. tfarofc 436. fiarowa 380. Karshala 
385. KARTIKTA 253. 310. Kasi-Benares 254. 309. 17. 61. Kasibec 
362. Kastoria 325. KASYAPA-Cassiopeza? 355.427. Katanga 386. 
Katchaparamba'108. KatchwaA\7. KataniaSSl. KattagumSSQ. Ka- 
tunga-Katungwa 380, 1. KaucmSOl. Kaundouri 324. Kaveri 254. 
309. Kawaree 385. Kaweree 386. Kayuga 417. Kephas 229. Kerata- 
Keratea 317. 27. Kerbela 27. Kervishia 314. Kesa-Kesey-Kessy 382, 
3. ^sara268. Keys-mystical 229. 91,2, 3. 510. 19. 20. KHADIJAH- 
MAHOMED'S wife-faultless 26. Khdlif Muttuwukul 27 . Khowalia 26. 
Khunda-Kund 366. 70 to 75. 83. Khundara 381. jFCiama 381. !ft/-or 
Kal-QT K L-Col-Cal-Cul, &c. a primitive sound, &c. see JfaJ. Kilas- 
puglanara 406. Kilcolman 412, 13. Kildare 407. Kilcullen 406, 7. 
Kiicummin 406. Kilerohan- Kilkenny 251. 406, 7. 11. 12. Killala 406. 
/ft//arn<?i/-Hinduisms at 50,2, 3. 405 to 8. 514. Killiany 406. A"z//- 
wjoor 406. Killoscully 403. Kilnenver 396. Kiltala 413. JCiiree 407 
Kzngfea 381. Kinuam 406. ffiradz 385. Kirkh23. Kirisnani 378. 
Kirman 73. Kime 381. Kisama 385. Kishbee 384. KITFEE 208. 
Klysaura-Kalisura? 307. JtolOni 428. Koikarany 387. Kokibakiva 
427. Kofe/i 324. Kolar-Kolor 377. Komara 378. Komari 389. Koodon- 
gooreeZSG. Konda-Koond-Kund, &c. seeKhunda. KoolsoBSl. Konia- 
kary 377. Koolar%77. Koomada-KoomadoSSG. KoomakaryZ79. Kooma- 
(eaimalong 386. Koomba 385. Konxompax 440, 1, 2. 64. Koonkori 385, 
2 Y 



530 INDEX. 

6. Koonteela 376. Koontoorooa 386. Koorie 380. Koorabarri 378. 
Kootakonda 370, 3, 4. Kora 380. Korawfn385. Korankalla 377. A'o- 
ra/cara 431. Koroko 381. Kororadika 431. .Koran 10. 26. 31. 61, 2- 
fine copies of 42. 62-grounded on the Bible 201-corapared with it 208, 
9-spelling of 21 1 -sublimities of 446-specimen, &c. of 489, 90. 501, 2. 
19. Kot 436. Kota-Kotakunda 374. Kotchivan 363. Kote 437. Kotu- 
mala 264. Koumkalt: 258. Kouvara-Kuvera? 318. Krishna-iana 86, 7. 
8.96.132.77. 247,8,9.68.72.316.45. 60,6.82.95.404,5.11.41. 

67. 60, 1. Kristawaja 362. Kuka-Kukabonee 381. Kukli-Kokli 324. 
JfukeSSl. Ktt/i384. .KwZta 386. Kullalie 37 6. KullisW5. Kumara- 
Kumari-Kumaros275.316. Knmba378. Kumsallnhoo 386. Jff unarga 
270. Kund see Khunda. Kurrie 406. JCwfa374. ifwfyar 376. .Kirtrz 
381,4. KttS.*u374. KUVERA 181.318.91. 

Z,a6arri429. JLada 380. Laka-Lako 385, 6. LAKSHMI 336. 90. Z,a- 
fcMra265. Lalla Rookhl27,S. Lareeaja 420. iari 384. Z,amsa320, 5. 
iawrMS-Krishnaic 249. Laya 382. Layacosta 420. Lazar hoiises- 
LAZARUs,S.77, 8,9. 447. 81. Lm/"'( 49. Liakura25&. Limbo 177,8. 
iiwg-a-and Linga-ic rites-seen extensively 133, 5. 40, 6, 7. 85.245. 59. 
73. 83, 4, 5. 99. 301, 3, 6, 8. 14. 27, 8, 9. 33, 7. 41. 59. 82. 407. 33.44. 

68. 78. 80. 1, 4. 98 to 518. Lingi cotta 377. Lion, mythological 276,, 
463-on shields 493, 4. Lisdowney 391. Lochnngar 395, 6. Loggun 380. 
Lotos 281, 2, 3. 447,86. Ioro-Lady of 99. 144.56,7.93.211,12. 
416. LOT'S wife 200, 3. Lucerne 160. LuciFER-and St. FRANCIS, 157 
three-headed 470. LUCINA 325. Luconia 330. 79. Lugari265. LUNA- 
LUNUS 297, 8. 345. 450, i, 2. Lydon 400. 

Macoushi 430. Macronisi 366. Marffl^-^386. Madawaska 417 : 3/<i- 
riina 376. Madjie 381. Magera 403. Magery 405. Jl/og-z 212. 13. 14. 
MAHAKALA 307. Mo/tafcoo 363. Mahagheri4Q5. MahalabaSSG. Ma- 
hapralaya 3Q9. Mahasaroni 429. Mahee 386. Maheena 76. TWaAz'403. 
Mahina 308. MAHOMED 25, 6. 33. 60. 73. 203 to 11. Mahomedans 6. 
31,2. 60 to 64. 101. 51. 207,8, 10. 19. 330.406. 500. MAHOMET 210. 
Mahrattas 14. 40. 74, 5, 6. 348, 9.494 to 7. Mai/w 386. Mazwara425. 
jT/azna 308. Maipoori 429. Makala 307. Makana 437. Makara 366. 
MAKBIR, JOB'S wife 201. Makkery 380. Makoo 363. Ma?a 386. 71/a- 
//>ar 407. 28. 37-Hill and Point 323. 443, 4. 502. Malacasi 306. 20. 
JJ/uZaf rz 369. Malashivo 270. Maladun 390. MALCOLM, Sir J. 45. ^/rti- 
don 390. MAI.ET, Sir C. 68. Malee-Maloo 381. Malla-Mallacotta%77 . 
MallaiaSSB. Mallowa.385. MambariWti. Mana-Manati 429. Manda 
436. Mandara 380, 4. Mandingo 380. Man, isle of 227. 476. Jt/ani 
421.37. Manickoroo377. Martjali 376. Mankaran 385. Mantra 182. 
Manuscripts, Oriental 34. 42. 489, 90, 1. AfaowSSO. A/og-a417. 3/or 
436. Maranow417. Marabunta 430. Mararfie381. Maravi 385. Ma- 
raf/iow 327. MARCO POLO 71, 2. Mariancounda 371. Maroni 429. Mar- 
rozra 386. MARSDEN, Dr. W. 23.61. 71,2. MARY-Y.-MAHOMED'S 
character of 26. 203 (see Virgin )-of Ze 211,12.17.18. Masaroni- 
Mazaroni-Messuroni 410. 428. Mashina 386. Maskara 426. Massa- 
konda 379. Massawomakeh 417. Mataranga 345. Malarea 288. 498, 9. 
Matchaquadie-Matcha(juarodi%85,6. Mat ri 132. MaturaMl. Mau~ 
raconda 371,4. Morowda386. Mavromati 319. 26, 7. Mavronero247. 
Mahwallatel. MAWHEE-RANGA 431, 2. Maya 96. MayumbaSSG. 
Measee 386. Mecca 48, 9. 73. 212. 322. Mecrakira 317. M<#a 306, 
Meg<fa-Meg(trisW. Melalie 381. MELCIIOIR 213. 15. Melrose 401. 



INDEX* 531 

Memphis 276. MENA 308. MENAKA 51,4, 7, 8. 224. Mendeli 318. Men- 
do380. Afei*At314. MERCURY290,2.45l,2.60-three-legged475,6. 
Merly 380. Meru 56. 255. 320. 64. 464. 81. Mesurata 380. Metchi- 
gami 420. Meteora 320, 1. Mexico 286. 424. Mezzero 319. Miami 
417. Michigan 417. Milgotta 374. MINERVA 278. 312. 37. Miracles- 
by images-saints-relicS'pictures, &c. 99 to 103. 154, 5, 6. 217, 18, 19- 
non-eftective 151, 2-Hohenloeic 183-modern, puerile 193. 375. 416. 
Misrasaki 57. Mississippi 418. Missouri 417. Mzz'ora321. Mz'umSSl. 
Mocomoro 423. Mohawk- Mohican- Mohegan 417, 18. Mo/a 413. Mote 
335.44. Mo/<?e 380. Mona 380. Monagahala 418. Monana 380. Mont- 
MONICA S. MvxiKA-Muni-Munychea-Munichia 58, 59. 224. 314. 40. 
Monkery-Monks 118. 39. 54 to 60. 221 to 28. 321, 2, 3. Mantes Per- 
Vdi 334, 5.83. Moo/inda385. Moot/jam 385. MoodzeSSl. Moorberee 
431. MOORE, T. 121, 7. Moon male and female 335. 44-mountains of 
the 334, 5. 83-and sun, omni-mythic 205. 97,8. Mookanasa 386. Mora 
380, 4. Morambaji 331. Morakona 374. 437. Moray 398. 400. Mow- 
heebotakee-Mowheemoha32. Mown 377. Mousala 376. Moy-Mahi? 
Moycullen 403, 5. Mt/gYiunnSSl. Muggaby 380. Mulla-Mullingar&l3. 
Munga 380. Muni-Munichia, fyc. see Moni. Munich 59. Munnai 437. 
MUNRO, Sir T. 45. Musa/z'302. Muscat amiskakutch 17 . Musgow 380. 
Muses-triple triad of 343. 64. MuTTuwAKUL-jK/w/i/26. 27. 
fciri 425. Mycale 327. 

JVcra260. Wad-z ALT 446,7.92,3. Na^a260.363.46 
Nagchivan 363. Nails, mystical 453, 4. 515. Nandana-Nandi-Nandini 
514 to 17. Naniaba 420. Nansarina 380. A T a/Zes 146. 291. 317. 34. 
Narasingha 88. 104. Naragansett 417. Nasoury 420. Nastikas and 
Gnostics 133. 448. 74, 5, 6. Ata'fc 284. Nat'hdwara 177. Neelakala 
376. Nemansana 376. NEPiuNE-Neptunisms 169, 70, 1, 9. 224.60. 
79. 312. 43. 99. 425. 35. 52, 3. 68. 88. JVeir Zea/and-Sanskritisms in 
431,2. Mog-ara331.419. A7#<?r 376,7.81.436. JVifcz 381. A 7 z7a376. 
436. Nile 242. 405. 36. Nilakantha 357. Nilghiri 331. Nine-mysti- 
cal 320, 1.514, 15. NoAH-NoE-Nu-his wife, mother, &c. 200 to 205. 
303. Nore 251. 410, 11, 12. Nugger 396. Numbers, mystical 131, 
2. 300. 20, 1. 454, 5. 514, 15. Nbn 382. Nuns-nunneries }18 to 
26. 220, I. 305. Nyamo 377. 

O-our Lady of the 257. Oahu 432. Obelisk 85, 6-symbol of Sira, 
&c. 244. 63. 80 to 85. 449. 64. 510-at Heliopolis 280 to 90. Ogham- 
Oghum-extensively connected 151. 409. 59. Ohmbay 385. Ohio 417. 
Oil-holy-miraculous, &c. 133 to 47. Okandee385. Okota 385. Olym- 
pus 266. 364. O'M-O'm-^a, &c. 151. 285, 7. 352. 409. 41, 
2. 50, 7, 9. 60, 5, 500. Omah 430. Ornhah 380. ON 208-fine obe- 
lisk at 280 to 90. 382-extensivdy connected 352. Onandaga 417. 
Oneida 417. Ongoroo 380. Oondanee 385. Oran 425, 6, 7. Orien- 
tal-Fragments-these 34. 68-literature-indifFerence to, in England 32, 
4. 43, 5. 68-MSS-hovv estimated and purchased in England and the 
East 34. 42. 207. 489. 91-easily miswritten and misread 446, 7. 54. 
Orizaba 331. Oronoko 430. Gro;>o 319. Osagel7. OSIRIS 130. 
320.43.450,2. OswegoHQ. Ottawa-Ottawasa417,lS. Ourort<421. 
Outagani 420. OUSELEY, Rt. Hon. Sir Gore 9. 19. 445, 6-Sir Wm. 
his valuable Oriental Lib. 34. OUVAROFF, M. 439. 40. 

Packagama 418. Paco 429. Pagan and papal Rome 94, 8 to 103. 
12<i, 7. 54. 60. 72, 5. 82. 224 to 28. 294 to 300. 336, 7. Pa#ga 386. 



532 INDEX. 

Pahmee 386. Paidoney 391. Pairaba 417. Pall-coronation, &c. 134 
to 43. 476, 7. Panaja 261, 3. Panuava-or Pandus 275, 6. Pandionis- 
Pandaa-PANDu 318. 27. Paniasa 420. PAN ics 500, 3. Papacy 115. 
16. 46. 83. 90. 233, 5, 6-unchangeableness of 171. 296-copious saint- 
ship of 213-imposing ceremonies of 216. Papal-(see Pagan)-legen- 
dary fables 58. 91 to 104. 144 to 168. 230 to 37-and rites, similar 
to Indian 97 to 104.111.60.71 to 85. 224 to 28. 257. 294 to 300. 404, 
5. Papists-apology for 115. 16. 83. 90. 233, 5, 6. Para 427-a name 
of PARVATI 255. 65. 307. 429. Paracheloites 307. Paramata 331. 
Paramaribo 429. 30. Paramithi 306. Paramitkia 320. Parana 420, 7. 
Paranasa-Parnassus? 309. Parasa 385. PARASARPANA-PROSERPINE? 
315.38. Para-Prassi<??318. Parasopia 319. Parakomee 386. Par- 
ity-see PARVATI. Paria422. Pariah 318. 48. Parna-Parne- Par- 
ries 319. 27. Parnassus-a poetical and Kal-ic region 243. 53 to 56. 
64, 5, 6. 309. PARVATi-spouse of SivA-a mountain goddess 98. 146. 
242. 308. 10. 27. 335. 76. 83. 402. 49. 63-her mortal mother 308- 
corresponds with ASHTARA, &c. 97. 298-with DIANA 262. 5. 98. 325, 
9. 35-with MINERVA 262-HECATE 265. 98. 338-JuNO 265. 329. 60- 
PROSERPINE 338-VENus 329-LuNA 268-LuciNA 325, 9-is Kali 
241-quarrelsome 327. 53. 60-is Fire 242-Time 265-the Moon 335, 8- 
SATI or Suttee 353-is polyonomous and polymorphic 241. 65,6. 76. 
98. 376. 402. Patala-devi 298. 338. Patera-Patra 263. 76, 8. 94. 31 1 
12. 58. 433. 51. 63. Patisia 314. Payntree 385. Pedma 283. 451. 
Penddi-Pentilicus 259. 314. 18. Penekonda 371. Perw-Hinduisms iu 
420 to 27. Petala 307. PETER, S. 99, 100. 228 to 32. 93. PETEPHRE- 
POTIPHAR? 208. 87. PHARAOH 286, 7-his wife, faultless 26, 203. 
Pharmacusce 317. Pharisees-Fairies 456. PURE 131. 208. Phcenician 
deities, extensively identical 97. 297, 8. PHTIIA 290, 2. 452. 61. Pil- 
grimages 211, 12". 88. 336. Pinda 311. 12. 42. Pindus 320, 7. Pzpa 
429. PipaJa 384. Pirceus 340. Piscine mysteries 298. 351, 2. 479. 80. 
Platamonos 269. Pleiades 187, 8. 253. Plow-extensively venerated 
302,3,4.435.58. PLUTO 338. 43. Plutonics 285. 336, 8. 462. 511. 
Pocohontas 418. Poison-connected with SIVA 263, 4. 357.509. Poona 
76. 149. 387. 413. 94 to 7. Pootee or Puti 62. 489. Poori 375. Po- 
tapsco 417. POTIPHAR and his wife 201, 6, 7, 8. 87. Potowatomy 417. 
Potomac 418. Pownee 417. Powtowmack 331. 418. Pradakshna 311. 
PRAMNOKA, 51, 6. Prasice 318. Prasso 385. Prayaga 410. 11. 
PRICK, Major-an accomplished Persian Scholar 9-his curious seals of 
Tippoo, &c. 22-arranger of Tippoo's fine library 24. 41, 4-prize agent 
for the captors of Seringapatam 41. 74-his Retrosp. of Mahom. Hist. 
27. 31, 2. PRITHVI 400. Promontories-Lingaic 314. 65. 444. 502, 3. 
PROSERPINE 296, 7, 8. 315. 37, 8. Pucarawz423. Punderpoor 176. 
Pundi 381. Puno 420. Pura-Pur- Poor- Poori, &c. 375. Purana- 
Puranics 55, 6, 7. 252, 3, 6-enjoin austerities 57. 104-extensive source 
of fable 91. 186. 252, 3, 6, 7. 294 to 300-may not be read by all 173, 4. 
Purgatory a happy invention 178. 83. Pyramids-Sivaic-&c. 244. 284, 
5. 301. 444, 5. 60, 8. Pythonics-Indian ? 248. 433. Pywuree 430. 

Quaternions-extensively mystical 131,2. 451. 64. Queen of Heave n- 
extensively worshipped 297, 8. Qucrryman-Keramani 430. Quolla 
385, 6. Quorra 381, 2. Quos-Quom 128, 9. 

Raba 382. .Rudna-our Lady of 99. 161,2,3,9. 212.416. Rags- 
holy 51, 2, 3. 192. RAHiL-or RAIL-POTIPHAR'S wife 206. RAHMUT- 



INDEX. 533 

JOB'S wife 201. Rafca 380. RAMA-Ramaiana 86. 132. 267, 8. 302. 45. 
60. 424. 35. Ramayana, the 54. 434-may not be read by all 174, 8. 
Rami 359, 60. RANG \-Rangi-Ranghi-Ranghee-Rangehoo 345. 429. 
31,32. Ratah&Sl. RAVENASIS. RAWAN-RAWENA 434. Raywi424. 
Red-hair of Siva 308. 95. Red river 418. 36. Relics 160. 92. 217. 18. 
19. 22. 33. Retrospect of Mahommedan History 31. RHADA 316. 411. 
12. RkumanieMS. Rhamnus26Q. 319. Rhari 324. RHEMBA 57. 329. 
RHETI-IU India279. 82. 316. 46-in Greece 315, 16, 17. Ringana 406. 
Rings mystical 59. 137, 8-of HYDER, TIPPOO, &c. 21-coronation 137, 8- 
-emerald, adventures of, 73 to 6. Rickets-strange cure for 504, 5, 6, 8. 
21,2. Rio-early visit to 125. Rivers-retain their names 250. 329 to 
32-mystical junction, of 250, 1. 382, 4. 403, 9 to 12. 27 to 31. 44-ct 
America and Australia 330, 1, 2-named from colours 242, 7, 8. 390, 
1, 2, 4. 405. 18.36. RODWELL, Mr.-liberality of 439, 40. Rolls, 
or puti 62. 489. Rosaries-Mahomedan 65-papal 218-of great anti- 
quity 304. 484. Round towers in Ireland, &c. 406, 7, 8. Rupture- 
strange cure of 504, 5, 6, 8. 21, 2. 

Sabosera 376. Sacra 261, 3, 4. SAFSA, MAHOMMED'S angry wife 
204. Sagara, 261 to 4. Sages-the three 213, 15. Sagori 306. 20, 1. 
Suguoatria 418. Saharti 434. Saharat 436. iSaAu/narana-concrematiou 
354. Saiva-sect of 449. 511. Sakamandar-Scamander? 252, 3. Sakra 
261. 378. Sukta, sect 475. Salami* 317. 27. Salagram, a holy pebble 
86 to 9. 267. Salaga 385. Sulembria 320. SALE'S Koran 29, 30. 202, 
3,4,8,9.445,6.501,2. Sallagha 386. Salowa 434. Salsette 246. 
317, 18. 427. 36. SALT, Mr. 434 to 38. Salta 423. Salvador, S., early 
visit to 118 to 26. Samakara 376. Samakoo 377. Samashialee 385. 
Samba -Sambankala 376. Sambawa 383. Sambatikala 384. Sami 377. 
SAMI RAMI 359, 60. 76. SAiiiA-Samos 501. Samicouta 376. Sampaka 
377. Samudra 262. Sanasee 386. Sanctuary, extensively similar 175, 
6, 7. 223, 4. Sandero 381. Sandwich 293-Islands, Sanskritisms in. 
432, 3. Sangam, junction (which see) or mystical union 251,7. 315. 
427 to 31. Sanghee 381. Saniasi 320. Sanjeecotta 377. Sankara- 
Sankaree 376. tSunsfcn-Sanskritisms-Latin-Greek 229-in Persian 14. 
21 -very extensive 306, 7, 8. 30, 1, 2. 67. 88. 417-in Abyssinia 
434 t.) S-Africa 367 to 88-(see Hind- Africanics)- America 416 to 30- 
Australia M\-Caucasus 361, 2, ^-England 388 to 96-Greece 238 to 
367-(see Hind-Hellenics)- Ireland 50, 1, 2, 3. 251. 402 to 16, 20- 
(see Hind~Irishiu)-Jai'a $ZO-Mexico 424-^w Zealand 431, 2-Peru 
420 to 27-Sandwich islands 432, ^-Scotland 389. 94, 5, 6. 401-*S f u'<?d r i 
433-Tong-a islands 434. (see Hind.) Sappala ZS5-Saraka 3S5-Sara- 
.sou 386. SARASWATI 486, 7-a poetical river 251.410,11,12.30. 
Sarem 386. Saro/a 377. Sasa-Sasin-Saskatcheiven 417. 5us^ra 186. 
iSa^-or iSj(^e-cremation-purity 111. 251. 315. 53, 4. Satile. 377. 
Saubiree 385. Saukie 417. SAWDA-MAHOMMED'S angered wife 204. 
Sayah 380. Scandinavia- Sanskritisms in 433. Scamandar-Sakaman- 
dar? 250 to 3. Scardnmula 334. Schenectadi 420. Scimitari 319. 
Sciofo 417. Scotland, Sanskritisms in 389. 94, 5, 6 to 401. Scriptures 
-sin of reading 172, 3, 8. Scyllceum 257. Seah 437. Seals of E. I. 
letters 4 to 15-of Sir GORE OUSELEY, &c. 20, 1-of Mahomedans 60, 
1,3-of I). R. SINDEA 8 to 15-of HVDER, TIPPOO, &c. 20 to 25-of 
Burton Lazar-House 76 to 9. 481-of Ely 471-Trin. Priory, Ipswich 



534 INDEX. 

470, 1, 2-of Bishops, Abbots, &c. 482. Seashter 317. Secrecy of 
Scriptures 172, 3, 4. Seco-Secoba 376, 7. Seesekund 371. SEFORA, 
wife of MOSES 202. Sehmund 253. Sekra 261. Sekoree 385. Seme- 
gonda 378. Seneka 417. Seo~Siv-$ivA 436. Sepolia 314. Serbura- 
Cer bur a- Cerberus 342, 3, 462. Seraphic order 157, 9. Seratre 437. 
Seriphos 273, 4. SmpooSlO. Serimana 376. Seringapat am- curious 
seals, &c. taken there 22, 3, 4. 39, 40 to 44-critical conquest and re- 
miniscences of 35 to 48-etymology of 432. Sermons-may not be read 
by all 174, 5. Serpentarius 248. Serpentine worship very extensive 
312. 38. 467. 74, 5. Sesee 385. Sesha 467. Seskeriam 406. Settra 
Krou 382. Seu-Seo-Siv-SivA 436. Sevan 363. Seville 153. Sexual 
allegories, too common 205. 20, 1. 500. 12. Shade-goddess of 422- 
luxury of, &c. 461, 2, 3. Shaibee 385. SHAMKA-NOAH'S mother 303. 
Shamrock 283. Shary 380. Shavcenegan 418. Sheekan 385. Slieroor 
363. Shield 62-falls from heaven 143-curious, described 491, 2, 3, 7. 
Sh,iho~Sheo-Sei(-iVA 436. SHOAIB-NOAH'S father-in-law 202. Shrondo 
386. Shubenacadie 417 . Sluuwa 385. Shuli-see Suli. Shure 412. 
iSfcanca 421. Sz<% 143. 60. irfi 70, 1. 378. Sidatik-Sira-Sirutik 
378. Sidibishir 378. Sididoloo%79. Sidon 304. Simolar 425. Sindea- 
see DOWLUT RAO. Sinsacate 425. Singsing 418. ion 436. Sistrum 
457. 68, 9. SIT A 316.54. 60. 424. 34. Sitaphala 332. Sitamani-Sitti- 
mani 424. Sfaara 97. Sitaloola 379. SivA-the renovator 401, 2. 517- 
-K"a/ or Time, see JCa/ 239, 40-is wounded by and consumes KAMA 
316-is white 394-red-haired 308. 95-three-eyed 263, 4-connected with 
poison 263. 74. 357. 509-god of tears 263-is Death 299. 401-Fire 285. 
340, 1. 57-Bacchic 146. 463, 4-the Moon 383-the Sun 463-NEPTUNK 
274. 85. 313. 40,5.435.52, 3-JupiTER 318-Gangetic, &c. fables of 88. 
282.316.462-sect of, prevalent 449-rides a white bull 514 to 17. Siwah 
378. Skanda26S.Skemata260. SmasinKali 358, 9. Smyrna 152. Snakes 
-charmers-stones, &c. 80 to 95. 275. Sockwa-Sogama 380. Som 387. 
SoMA-the moon 335, 6. 78. 83, 7. Somabhava 383. Somalata 356. 
SoMMA-parent of Vesuvius 334, 5, 6. 83. Sooma 378. Soobacara 376. 
Soon 131. SooramiSSl. Sorat-Sorata 422. Souee 386. SOUMARTA 
475. Sowf/i ^mmt-a-visits to 118 to 26. 304, 5. Southern Cross 304, 5. 
SOUTHEY 97, 8. 118. 54 to 63. Sowhonde 386. Spoletto 346. Sradha 
obsequies 179. 278. 360. Siu-holy-ffce goddess 54, 243. 310-CERE8 ? 
273. 324. 39. 440, 5. 69. Sridnn 402. Srigao-Cerigo ? Srig-at-Ceri- 
gotto? Srimana- Serimana 365, 6. 76. Sri-Ranga 432. Stamati 319. 
Stan-Standa-Sthanu 276. Standia 269. 70. Statue-heaven descended 
143. 313. Stones-signet-talismanic-mystical, &c. 26. 59, 60. 226. 445, 
6, 7. 518-of Ceylon 71-colossal statues of 85. 60-anecdotes of 48. 50. 
9-knee-worn 50, 1-extensively venerated 48. 60. 85, 6. 226-cleft 456. 
98. 502, 3, 4, 11, 14. Sfone/ieng-e-Cyclopeari-Brahmanal-Druidic 276. 
391, 6. rirj-Amazons ? 423. Stygian rivers 242, 7, 8. 390. 418. 
Styria2\l. Styx 418. Subderat 436. Succondee 386. Sujfolk-sad\y 
visited by DOWSING 182-witches last condemned in 286-significant 
names of places in 392, 3. 473-superstitions and mysticisms in 455, 6. 
71 to 4. 503, 16 to 22, 9. Suicide-meritorious 104. 257. 74. 315-of 
DEMOSTHENES 257. 74. Suir-a. poetical Irish river 251. 410, 11, 12. 
Snkali 258. SUKRA 261. 335. 44. Swtt-Trisuli-the trident of SIVA 259. 
307-see Trident. Sulli 306, 7, 20. SURABHI 397. Sustrakundy 384. 



INDEX. 535 

Suttee-see Sati. SuRYA-the Sun 442. Suryavansa 424. 61. SWERDEVI 
298. Sycamore-mystical 288. 498, 9. Syra-Syros 273. Syracuse 419. 
Syrian deities 243. 

TAAUT-Taf-TAUT-TnoTii, or MERCURY 284.90,1,2,3.454.60. 
Tabajang 376. Tabbacotta 376. Tubu-Tupu-Tapurawan-Tuprobune 434. 
Tacoutallfi 376. TACITUS 329. 90. Taccorcnj 386. Tacwa 382. Tr 
381. Tatowa386. Takroor 381. Tu/a 420. 76. Ta/an'a 476. Tataso- 
Thalasal 318. Talandios 310. Talica-Tallika 377, 8. TJw/i 363. 
Talimang-oly 376. Talismanic stones 60. see Stones. Talkaveri 309. 
Talmudic sources of the Koran 209. Tam-Tama-Tamba-Tambacerry- 
Tambekhan-Tambakunda-Tambakura-Tambico-Tamracherry 371, 4, 6. 
84. Tamaroa 420. Tamaskwaia 417. Tambaoura 377. Tamisa 378. 
Tana 309. Tanagra 260. 309, 19. Tancrawally 376. Tandncunda 
371, 2, 3. Tapas-Tupaswi-Taposiris-Tappiasus 273. 308. 20. 434. Tap- 
pacooma 430. Tapurawan-Taprobane 434. Tara 431. TAROA 433. 
Tarabaleese 380. Tari/a 423. Tat 454. 60. see TAAUT. Tatta-Tutti- 
Tattikona 370, 1,4. Taw 458. 60. 77. 84. Taurus 450, 1. 516. TAY- 
i-o R'S Jne/. Monas. 470, 1, 2. Tc/ad 380. TECUMSAH 418. Tmi- 
Teencury-Tin 405, 6. Teekotta 374. T<?<>/>dc/to432. Tees 411. Teghery 
380, 4. Te/iama 437. Tefc&ir 62. Tellicherry 437-flagellants at, 105 to 
11. Temisa 378. Temiscaming 420. TEMPLE 420 to 5. Temples-pagan 
and papal-common 225 to 8. Tendiconda 370 to 3. Tequendama 418. 
Terane 378. Thnlasa-Talasa-Thascalio-Daskula? 318. Theban plow 
435. 58. Thebes-Thiva-SivA ? 267, 8, 9. 309. Thessalonia 268. Thief- 
bones of, honored 228. Thieves-names of the crucified 234. Thiva-see 
Thebes. THOTH 290, 2. 452. Three crosses 164, 6, 7. 458. Three-legged 
mystery 475, 6. Three-peaked mystery 396. 401. Three rivers, mysti- 
cal junction of, 251. 315. 16. 82. 409 to 12. 27 to 31. 44. Three sisters 
of Ireland 251. 409 to 12. 28. Thriasi-Triasi? 317. Thumbs and fin- 
gers, expressive position of, 79. 447.70, 1. 80.3. Tibet, literature in, 
492. Tiger-on shields 62. 492, 3, 4-on bullocks 6l6-mythological276. 
463, 4. Tighiri 384. Tikri 378. Tillaytoko 386.TiLOTAMA 58. Tilpho- 
sium 310. Tnnbuctoo 384. Time- KaJ-SivA 239. 40, &c. 265. 399. Tiw- 
Teen-Tincury 405, 6. Tinta 422. Tintaly 249. 336. TIPPOO 17-his 
signet ring-era-library-hostage son-army-fall, &c. 21 to 24. 39 to 46- 
cookery book 406. Tiquina 422. Titridshkali 362.' Titicaka 420. TITVS 
234. 455. Tivoli 419. TOD'S Rajaputana 177. Todonkaralee 385. 
Toghra-zn Arabic flourish 20. 62-mystical 454. 60. 92. Tolaparnpa 
425. Tomarws320. Tombea-Toombea 385, 6. Toombijeena 376. Ton- 
Town ?-Dun ? 391. Tonadronin 406. Tondi 373. Tonga-tabu 434. 
Tongue, mystical, 444. 503. Toom-Toomevara-Toombudra-Tunga 403. 
Tonga 434. Toorda 377. Tortoise-extensively mythological 275. 363. 
Toucan 429. Toicackhee 432. Towers, Irish round, 406, 7, 8. T R.-an 
extensive root 399. Tra/ti/gar432. Tre croci 1 66. 458. Tree-cleft-mysti- 
cal 288. 811. 456. 498 to 522. Trees-poetical aud mystical subjects 
359. 60. 498 to 520. Tri 399. Triads 131, 2. 251. 65. 81 to 4. 98, 9. 
343. 53. 59. 99. 441, 3. 4. 51 to 4. 64-of fires 353, 9-of rivers 
427,8,9.44. Triangular mysteries 468, 9.70, 5. Triasi-Thriasian ? 
317. 24. Trica 320. Tricala-Trtkala 265, 6. 72. 307. 20. 33. 99. Tri- 
corynthus 260. Trident or Trisula of SIVA and NEPTUNE 259. 60. 307. 
435.52,3,4,7.60,2. Tridouni 310. Triform, see Trimttrti. Trikaln, 
see Tricala. Trikala-devikumari 266. Trikuta 265. Trilokan 263. Tri- 



536 INDEX. 

mnla-Malalri ? 269. Trimontium 396. IVimurtf-Triform 232, 3. 98. 

444. 69. 70. Trinetra-Ti'inetri-Triopthalmos 263, 6. Trioni-Triunic 

283. Trinitarian emblems, &c. 453, 4, 5, 9. 69. 70 to 76, Tripa 307. 

Tripala-Tripoli? 378. Tri/wem 432. Trisiras 343. 462. Trisula, sec; 

Trident. TrwiiJi 307. Triunics 459. 60, 7, 9. 70 to 6. Trisyllables 441, 

2, 4. 60, 4. 75. Tritoli 334, 6. Triveni 251. 315. 409 to 12. 44. True. 

cross-found-tested, &c. 77. 144. 63, 4, 8. 234-undiminishable, &c. 

164, 7, 8-at Paris and F/>m 164, 5. Tudukacka 431. Tulasi-Tulsi- 

Toolsey 86, 7-Daphnaic 249. 332. Tulloherin 407. Tumucurang 429. 

Tumuli 393. Tunga-TungasakaWS. 22. Turreegunah 431. Tsawa 437. 

Tuscoorora 420. 

Uffculm 389. I7wia-0'M 352. Ummara 436. Unctions, holy, 145. 6. 

Vnjigah 417. Unions, mystical, 2S5. 307. 15. 16. See Junctions. 

O-Or/a352. URANIA 98. 297. Ursa major 253. 305. URVASI 57. 
Valachi 325. Fan 417. Fanjar?' 348, 9. Fara-Fara/m 374. -87. 403. 

VARUXA 182.313. 19. VASANTA 56. Vasu-Vesu- Vesuvius? 335,6. 83. 

Veda 441-may not be read by all 172, 3, 8-holiest text of 205. 427. 
41,2,8. Vedanta 517. Venezuela 427. VENus-symbolized by a cone 

97. 239-extensively identical 98. 244. 97, 8. 329. 52. 60. 451-genera- 
trix 244. 329-masculine 329. 35-bearded335. 44-PHospiiORus- VESTA, 
&c. 261, 2-Andrgoynous 329-Piscine 352-myrionomous 297. 452-Ca/- 
lipiya 334. Vesttvius-muuih of hell 225-ofFspring of SOMA 334. 5. 6, see 

Vasu. Vina 486, 7. Virgin, the, extensively worshipped 128.43.59. 
61. 325-statues of, fall from heaven 143. 55.247-her petticoat embroi- 
derers 153 -reprehensible rites to 155. 6,9. 61. 211. 12. 17. 18-Ma- 
hommedan opinion of 26. 203. 501, 2-her remains undiscovered 156- 
of Zell 211. 12-does not protect herself or friends 212. 17-portrait of 
by St. Luke 217-miraculously preserved 288-favorite mediatrix of wo- 
men 211. Virgins, the 11,000-165, 7. VISHNU 88. 132. 182-is JOVE 
260-water 285-triadic 343-the sun, time 377. 99. 401. VISWAMITRA, 
mishap, &c. of, 51 to 5. VOLTAIRE 223. Votiva tabellce 147. 154. 
160, 1. 217. 18. 59. 333. Vowels, non-importance and changeableness 
of, 240. 372. Vows, see Votiva. Vraona 319. Vrisaki 318. Vrisha- 
VRISSHADWAJA 378. VRITRAHAN 346. Vulcanisms 399. 468. 88. 511. 
Waboary 430. Wahukie 417. WAHELA, or WAILA, wife of NOAH 
and of LOT 200. TFAi431. Wainadga 437. WALKER, B.-Gen.ALEx. 
45. 68,9. Walsinghame, our Lady of, 212. WALSH, Dr. 162. 453.74, 
5. WALLABANARI 430. Walli-Wallia 376, 8. Wangara 370, 8. Wan- 
geroottl. Wapaghkenetta 417. War-Wara 387. 403.37. Warakie 
431. WARDEN, F.66, 8, 9. Warrie 381. Wnierford 413. Waters, holy, 
see Wells. Weighing-charitable 403. 63. Wells and fountains-exten- 
sively mystical 255, 6, 7. 74. 88. 333,4. 498. 502. Westminster, anti- 
fiend'jsm in 455. White bulls 514 to 18. White rivers 436. Wich- 
Wick-Vich 392, 3. Winebag* 417. Witchcraft in Suffolk 455. 6. 520. 
Witches, last condemnation of, 236. Wives-of MAHOMED-of Jos-of Jo- 
SKPH-of LoT-of NOAH-PHARA >H-MosES-of POTIPHAR 26. 201 to 8. 
WODEN 387. Wola-Wooln 385. TForarfa379. Woraf/430. TFou;u?381. 
Woodbridge 471, 2, 3. TFwd<>437. Wurrow-Wurwurrema 430. Wy- 
Wye- Wyecaddee- Wyemattee- Wytanghee- IVahi 431. Wyanduh 4 1 7. 

Yahodee 386. Yahndi 385. Yakindi 260. Yala 425. FaJara 376. 
YAMA 182. 338. 462. Faroe' 385. Yuminna 376,8. Yamuna, the Jum- 
na 377, 8-via lacte^ 242, 7, 8-mystical junction of with the Ganges, 



INDEX. 537 

&c. 251. 315. 16. 409 to 12. Yanimara 376. Yansi 386. Yaoorie 381. 
Yaraba-Yarba-Yariba 381,6. Yarrow 400. Fayj-silent meditation 355. 
66. 443. Yapura 429. Yeeha 435. Yellow river 436. Yocalla 421. Yoni 
(see lOxi.) 448. Yougihogeny 417. Ypres, true cross, &c. relics at, 
160, 5. Yumyum 385. Yusuf-Zuleika 206, 7, 8. 

Zagara 264. Zaramba 437. Zaria 381. Ze#2<?g- 381. ZEINA, MAHO- 
MED'S angered wife, 204. Zell, MARIA of, 211, 12, 17, IS. ZEUS 264. 
Zennaar-a mystical thread 512, 13. Zingari-gyipsies ? 347,8,9. Zo- 
diac 488-rupees 61. 491. ZuLEiKA-wife of PoxipH^n-extensively cele- 
brated 201, 6, 7, 8. 



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